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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(3): e1012130, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551978

RESUMO

Classical Swine Fever (CSF), caused by the Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), inflicts significant economic losses on the global pig industry. A key factor in the challenge of eradicating this virus is its ability to evade the host's innate immune response, leading to persistent infections. In our study, we elucidate the molecular mechanism through which CSFV exploits m6A modifications to circumvent host immune surveillance, thus facilitating its proliferation. We initially discovered that m6A modifications were elevated both in vivo and in vitro upon CSFV infection, particularly noting an increase in the expression of the methyltransferase METTL14. CSFV non-structural protein 5B was found to hijack HRD1, the E3 ubiquitin ligase for METTL14, preventing METTL14 degradation. MeRIP-seq analysis further revealed that METTL14 specifically targeted and methylated TLRs, notably TLR4. METTL14-mediated regulation of TLR4 degradation, facilitated by YTHDF2, led to the accelerated mRNA decay of TLR4. Consequently, TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling, a crucial component of the innate immune response, is suppressed by CSFV. Collectively, these data effectively highlight the viral evasion tactics, shedding light on potential antiviral strategies targeting METTL14 to curb CSFV infection.

2.
Heliyon ; 10(3): e25214, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38318035

RESUMO

African Swine Fever (ASF), caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), has inflicted significant economic losses on the pig industry in China. The key to mitigating its impact lies in accurate screening and strict biosecurity measures. In this regard, the development of colloidal gold immunochromatographic test strips (CGITS) has proven to be an effective method for detecting ASFV antibodies. These test strips are based on the ASFV p30 recombinant protein and corresponding monoclonal antibodies. The design of the test strip incorporates a high-concentration colloidal gold-labeled p30 recombinant protein as the detection sensor, utilizing Staphylococcal Protein A (SPA) as the test line (T line), and p30 monoclonal antibody as the control line (C line). The sensitivity and specificity of the test strip were evaluated after optimizing the labeling concentration, pH, and protein dosage. The research findings revealed that the optimal colloidal gold labeling concentration was 0.05 %, the optimal pH was 8.4, and the optimal protein dosage was 10 µg/mL. Under these conditions, the CGITS demonstrated a detection limit of 1:512 dilution of ASFV standard positive serum, without exhibiting cross-reactivity with antibodies against other viral pathogens. Furthermore, the test strips remained stable for up to 20 days when stored at 50 °C and 4 °C. Comparatively, the CGITS outperformed commercial ELISA kits, displaying a sensitivity of 90.9 % and a specificity of 96.2 %. Subsequently, 108 clinical sera were tested to assess its performance. The data showed that the coincidence rate between the CGITS and ELISA was 93.5 %. In conclusion, the rapid colloidal gold test strip provides an efficient and reliable screening tool for on-site clinical detection of ASF in China. Its accuracy, stability, and simplicity make it a valuable asset in combating the spread of ASF and limiting its impact on the pig industry.

3.
J Virol ; 97(5): e0036423, 2023 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37255314

RESUMO

Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a highly pathogenic RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family that can cause deadly classical swine fever (CSF) in pigs. However, the molecular details of virus replication in the host are still unclear. Our previous studies have reported that several Rab proteins mediate CSFV entry into host cells, but it is unknown whether CSFV hijacks other Rab proteins for effective viral infection. Here, we systematically studied the role of Rab14 protein in regulating lipid metabolism for promoting viral assembly. First, Rab14 knockdown and overexpression significantly affected CSFV replication, indicating the essential role of Rab14 in CSFV infection. Interestingly, Rab14 could significantly affect virus replication in the late stage of infection. Mechanistically, CSFV NS5A recruited Rab14 to the ER, followed by ceramide transportation to the Golgi apparatus, where sphingomyelin was synthesized. The experimental data of small molecule inhibitors, RNA interference, and replenishment assay showed that the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/AS160 signaling pathway regulated the function of Rab14 to affect the transport of ceramide. More importantly, sphingomyelin on the Golgi apparatus contributed to the assembly of viral particles. Blockage of the Rab14 regulatory pathway induced the reduction of the content of sphingomyelin on the Golgi apparatus, impairing the assembly of virus particles. Our study clarifies that Rab14 regulates lipid metabolism and promotes CSFV replication, which provides insight into a novel function of Rab14 in regulating vesicles to transport lipids to the viral assembly factory. IMPORTANCE The Rab protein family members participate in the viral replication of multiple viruses and play important roles in the virus infection cycle. Our previous research focused on Rab5/7/11, which regulated the trafficking of vesicles in the early stage of CSFV infection, especially in viral endocytosis. However, the role of other Rab proteins in CSFV replication is unclear and needs further clarification. Strikingly, we screened some Rabs and found the important role of Rab14 in CSFV infection. Virus infection mobilized Rab14 to regulate the vesicle to transport ceramide from the ER to the Golgi apparatus, further promoting the synthesis of sphingomyelin and facilitating virus assembly. The treatment of inhibitors showed that the lipid transport mediated by Rab14 was regulated by the PI3K/AKT/AS160 signaling pathway. Knockdown of Rab14 or the treatment with PI3K/AKT/AS160 inhibitors reduced the ceramide content in infected cells and hindered virus assembly. Our study is the first to explain that vesicular lipid transport regulated by Rab promotes CSFV assembly, which is conducive to the development of antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Ceramidas , Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP , Montagem de Vírus , Animais , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Peste Suína Clássica , Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica/genética , Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica/fisiologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Esfingomielinas/metabolismo , Suínos , Replicação Viral
4.
J Virol ; 97(1): e0192922, 2023 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602362

RESUMO

Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is an important and highly infectious pig disease worldwide. Kinesin-1, a molecular motor responsible for transporting cargo along the microtubule, has been demonstrated to be involved in the infections of diverse viruses. However, the role of kinesin-1 in the CSFV life cycle remains unknown. Here, we first found that Kif5B played a positive role in CSFV entry by knockdown or overexpression of Kif5B. Subsequently, we showed that Kif5B was associated with the endosomal and lysosomal trafficking of CSFV in the early stage of CSFV infection, which was reflected by the colocalization of Kif5B and Rab7, Rab11, or Lamp1. Interestingly, trichostatin A (TSA) treatment promoted CSFV proliferation, suggesting that microtubule acetylation facilitated CSFV endocytosis. The results of chemical inhibitors and RNA interference showed that Rac1 and Cdc42 induced microtubule acetylation after CSFV infection. Furthermore, confocal microscopy revealed that cooperation between Kif5B and dynein help CSFV particles move in both directions along microtubules. Collectively, our study shed light on the role of kinesin motor Kif5B in CSFV endocytic trafficking, indicating the dynein/kinesin-mediated bidirectional CSFV movement. The elucidation of this study provides the foundation for developing CSFV antiviral drugs. IMPORTANCE The minus end-directed cytoplasmic dynein and the plus end-directed kinesin-1 are the molecular motors that transport cargo on microtubules in intracellular trafficking, which plays a notable role in the life cycles of diverse viruses. Our previous studies have reported that the CSFV entry host cell is dependent on the microtubule-based motor dynein. However, little is known about the involvement of kinesin-1 in CSFV infection. Here, we revealed the critical role of kinesin-1 that regulated the viral endocytosis along acetylated microtubules induced by Cdc42 and Rac1 after CSFV entry. Mechanistically, once CSFV transported by dynein met an obstacle, it recruited kinesin-1 to move in reverse to the anchor position. This study extends the theoretical basis of intracellular transport of CSFV and provides a potential target for the control and treatment of CSFV infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica , Peste Suína Clássica , Cinesinas , Animais , Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica/fisiologia , Dineínas/metabolismo , Endocitose , Cinesinas/genética , Cinesinas/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/virologia , Suínos , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/farmacologia , Transporte Proteico
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