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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722770

RESUMO

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) cause biotoxicity and pose a potential ecological threat; however, their effects on plant metabolism and eco-corona evolution between NPs and organisms remain unclear. This study clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological and metabolic responses induced by three different ZnO NPs with different sizes and hydrophobicity in sprouts (Vigna radiata) and explored the critical regulation of eco-corona formation in root-nano systems. Results indicated that smaller-sized ZnO inhibited root elongation by up to 37.14% and triggered oxidative burst and apoptosis. Metabolomics confirmed that physiological maintenance after n-ZnO exposure was mainly attributed to the effective stabilization of nitrogen fixation and defense systems by biotransformation of the flavonoid pathway. Larger-sized or hydrophobic group-modified ZnO exhibited low toxicity in sprouts, with 0.89-fold upregulation of citrate in central carbon metabolism. This contributed to providing energy for resistance to NP stress through amino acid and carbon/nitrogen metabolism, accompanied by changes in membrane properties. Notably, smaller-sized and hydrophobic NPs intensely stimulated the release of root metabolites, forming corona complexes with exudates. The hydrogen-bonded wrapping mechanism in protein secondary structure and hydrophobic interactions of heterogeneous functional groups drove eco-corona formation, along with the corona evolution intensity of n-ZnO > s-ZnO > b-ZnO based on higher (α-helix + 3-turn helix)/ß-sheet ratios. This study provides crucial insight into metabolic and eco-corona evolution in bionano fates.

2.
Asian J Surg ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724352
3.
Clin Neuropharmacol ; 47(3): 87-96, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clinical manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency are varied and may result in missed or delayed diagnosis. This investigation explores the diverse clinical manifestations and demographic characteristics of vitamin B12 deficiency in neurology outpatients, aiming to enhance timely diagnosis and outcomes. METHODS: The severity of vitamin B12 deficiency was classified as absolute (≤150 pg/mL) or borderline deficiency (150-300 pg/mL). We conducted a retrospective analysis of 165 outpatients with vitamin B12 deficiency at the department of neurology between May 2020 and May 2021. RESULT: Absolute vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 23.0% of the patients. The most common age range was 50-60 years, the most common cause was vegetarianism, and the most common symptom was headache. Epileptiform symptoms were more likely to occur in younger patients (<20 years old) with vitamin B12 deficiency, whereas psychiatric symptoms were more likely to occur in older patients (>70 years old). Vegetarians, salivation, and nonmegaloblastic anemia were more obvious in patients with absolute vitamin B12 deficiency, whereas headaches often showed borderline B12 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical characteristics of vitamin B12 deficiency are complex and nonspecific. The diagnosis should be based on multiple factors.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12 , Humanos , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neurologia
4.
Am J Cancer Res ; 14(4): 1662-1674, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726278

RESUMO

The current Radiotherapy (RT) technology still inevitably irradiated normal brain tissue, causing implicit radiation-induced injury. This study investigates the precise localization and the corresponding radiation dosage of brain regions susceptible to damage in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients following RT. Utilizing the Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTs) package, a computed tomography (CT) brain template was created in the standard Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) space, based on 803 Chinese NPC patients (T0~T4) who underwent RT. With this template, all patients' CT and RTdose data were registered to the MNI space, and the RTdose distribution characteristics in normal brain tissues were compared for NPC patients treated with Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT), with patients' age and gender as covariates. Analysis of the average dosages indicated that certain areas within the Limbic, Temporal, and Posterior Lobes, the Brainstem, and the Cerebellum Posterior Lobe were exposed to doses exceeding 50 Gy. Inter-group analysis revealed that IMRT delivered higher doses than VMAT to brain regions anterior to the nasopharyngeal tumor, whereas VMAT affected the posterior regions more. Interestingly, VMAT showed a drawback in preserving the normal brain tissues for T4-stage patients. This revealed that the two treatment modalities have unique characteristics in preserving normal brain tissue, each with advantages. With better localization precision, the created CT brain template in MNI space may be beneficial for NPC patients' toxicity and dosimetric analyses.

5.
Food Chem ; 451: 139295, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729042

RESUMO

Information regarding protein expression and phosphorylation modifications in the bovine milk fat globule membrane is scarce, particularly throughout various lactation periods. This study employed a complete proteome and phosphoproteome between bovine colostrum and mature milk. A total of 11 proteins were seen in both protein expression and phosphorylation levels. There were 400 proteins identified in only protein expression, and 104 phosphoproteins identified in only phosphorylation levels. A total of 232 significant protein characteristics were identified within the proteome and significant phosphorylation sites within 86 phosphoproteins of the phosphoproteome. Biological activities and pathways primarily exhibited associations with the immune system. Simultaneously, a comprehensive analysis of proteins and phosphorylation sites using a multi-omics approach. Hence, the data we have obtained has the potential to expand our understanding of how the bovine milk fat globule membrane might be utilized as a beneficial component in dairy products.

6.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 206, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood groups and various health outcomes. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the robustness of these associations is still lacking. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane, and several regional databases from their inception until Feb 16, 2024, with the aim of identifying systematic reviews with meta-analyses of observational studies exploring associations between ABO and Rh blood groups and diverse health outcomes. For each association, we calculated the summary effect sizes, corresponding 95% confidence intervals, 95% prediction interval, heterogeneity, small-study effect, and evaluation of excess significance bias. The evidence was evaluated on a grading scale that ranged from convincing (Class I) to weak (Class IV). We assessed the certainty of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria (GRADE). We also evaluated the methodological quality of included studies using the A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR). AMSTAR contains 11 items, which were scored as high (8-11), moderate (4-7), and low (0-3) quality. We have gotten the registration for protocol on the PROSPERO database (CRD42023409547). RESULTS: The current umbrella review included 51 systematic reviews with meta-analysis articles with 270 associations. We re-calculated each association and found only one convincing evidence (Class I) for an association between blood group B and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk compared with the non-B blood group. It had a summary odds ratio of 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.40), was supported by 6870 cases with small heterogeneity (I2 = 13%) and 95% prediction intervals excluding the null value, and without hints of small-study effects (P for Egger's test > 0.10, but the largest study effect was not more conservative than the summary effect size) or excess of significance (P < 0.10, but the value of observed less than expected). And the article was demonstrated with high methodological quality using AMSTAR (score = 9). According to AMSTAR, 18, 32, and 11 studies were categorized as high, moderate, and low quality, respectively. Nine statistically significant associations reached moderate quality based on GRADE. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a potential relationship between ABO and Rh blood groups and adverse health outcomes. Particularly the association between blood group B and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Metanálise como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Humanos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto/métodos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos
7.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability to generate functional hepatocytes without relying on donor liver organs holds significant therapeutic promise in the fields of regenerative medicine and potential liver disease treatments. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) activator (CRISPRa) is a powerful tool that can conveniently and efficiently activate the expression of multiple endogenous genes simultaneously, providing a new strategy for cell fate determination. The main purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of applying CRISPRa for hepatocyte reprogramming and its application in the treatment of mouse liver fibrosis. METHOD: The differentiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into functional induced hepatocyte-like cells (iHeps) was achieved by utilizing the CRISPRa synergistic activation mediator (SAM) system, which drove the combined expression of three endogenous transcription factors-Gata4, Foxa3, and Hnf1a-or alternatively, the expression of two transcription factors, Gata4 and Foxa3. In vivo, we injected adeno-associated virus serotype 6 (AAV6) carrying the CRISPRa SAM system into liver fibrotic Col1a1-CreER; Cas9fl/fl mice, effectively activating the expression of endogenous Gata4 and Foxa3 in fibroblasts. The endogenous transcriptional activation of genes was confirmed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and RNA-seq, and the morphology and characteristics of the induced hepatocytes were observed through microscopy. The level of hepatocyte reprogramming in vivo is detected by immunofluorescence staining, while the improvement of liver fibrosis is evaluated through Sirius red staining, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunofluorescence staining, and blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT) examination. RESULTS: Activation of only two factors, Gata4 and Foxa3, via CRISPRa was sufficient to successfully induce the transformation of MEFs into iHeps. These iHeps could be expanded in vitro and displayed functional characteristics similar to those of mature hepatocytes, such as drug metabolism and glycogen storage. Additionally, AAV6-based delivery of the CRISPRa SAM system effectively induced the hepatic reprogramming from fibroblasts in mice with live fibrosis. After 8 weeks of induction, the reprogrammed hepatocytes comprised 0.87% of the total hepatocyte population in the mice, significantly reducing liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: CRISPRa-induced hepatocyte reprogramming may be a promising strategy for generating functional hepatocytes and treating liver fibrosis caused by hepatic diseases.

8.
Nano Lett ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721805

RESUMO

We report that constructed Au nanoclusters (NCs) can afford amazing white emission synergistically dictated by the Au(0)-dominated core-state fluorescence and Au(I)-governed surface-state phosphorescence, with record-high absolute quantum yields of 42.1% and 53.6% in the aqueous solution and powder state, respectively. Moreover, the dynamic color tuning is achieved in a wide warm-to-cold white-light range (with the correlated color temperature varied from 3426 to 24 973 K) by elaborately manipulating the ratio of Au(0) to Au(I) species and thus the electron transfer rate from staple motif to metal kernel. This study not only exemplifies the successful integration of multiple luminescent centers into metal NCs to accomplish efficient white-light emission but also inspires a feasible pathway toward customizing the optical properties of metal NCs by regulating electron transfer kinetics.

9.
J Inflamm Res ; 17: 3115-3127, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774445

RESUMO

Objective: Cellular pyroptosis is a pro-inflammatory mode of programmed cell death that has been identified in recent years, and studies have shown that the LncRNA SOX2OT regulates myocardial injury during sepsis, but the exact regulatory mechanism is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the role of SOX2OT in regulating cardiomyocyte injury during sepsis cardiomyopathy. Methods: Rat cardiomyocytes, C57BL/6 mice, and transgenic mice were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS+ knockout LncRNA SOX2OT, and LPS+ overexpression LncRNA SOX2OT. Inflammatory factor levels were detected by qPCR. Associated proteins and gene expression were detected by Western blotting and qPCR. Dual luciferase was used to detect the target genes of SOX2OT. Nrf2 and EZH2 knockdown and overexpression cell lines were established, and the expression of related genes was detected by qPCR. Results: Results In this study, we found that SOX2OT knockdown exacerbated LPS-induced levels of inflammatory factors and procalcitoninogen (PCT), and increased the expression of pyroptosis-related proteins and LDH. The results of dual luciferase reporter gene assay showed that EZH2 is the target gene of SOX2OT, and overexpression of SOX2OT decreased the expression of EZH2; we also found that knockdown of EZH2 in H9c2 cells decreased the expression of Nrf2, which was positively correlated with the expression level of NLRP3. Further in vivo results showed that overexpression of SOX2OT attenuated SIMD (sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction), as evidenced by improved myocardial structural integrity and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration. The expression of pyroptosis-related proteins and LDH was significantly increased in the mice in the LPS group; this effect was reversed by overexpression of SOX2OT, and potentiated by knockdown of SOX2OT. Conclusion: Our data reveal a novel mechanism by which SOX2OT inhibits cardiomyocyte sepsis through the EZH2/Nrf-2/NLRP3 pathway, thereby attenuating septic myocardial injury, which may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies.

10.
Cancer Res Commun ; 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695555

RESUMO

Mucosal melanoma exhibits limited responsiveness to anti-PD-1 therapy. However, a subgroup of mucosal melanomas, particularly those situated at specific anatomical sites like primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus (PMME), display remarkable sensitivity to anti-PD-1 treatment. The underlying mechanisms driving this superior response and the DNA methylation patterns in mucosal melanoma have not been thoroughly investigated. We collected tumor samples from 50 mucosal melanoma patients, including 31 PMME and 19 non-esophageal mucosal melanoma (NEMM). Targeted bisulfite sequencing was conducted to characterize the DNA methylation landscape of mucosal melanoma and explore the epigenetic profiling differences between PMME and NEMM. Bulk RNA sequencing and multiplex immunofluorescence staining were performed to confirm the impact of methylation on gene expression and immune microenvironment. Our analysis revealed distinct epigenetic signatures that distinguish mucosal melanomas of different origins. Notably, PMME exhibited distinct epigenetic profiling characterized by a global hypermethylation alteration compared to NEMM. The prognostic model based on the methylation scores of a 7-DMR panel could effectively predict the overall survival of PMME patients and potentially serve as a prognostic factor. PMME displayed a substantial enrichment of immune-activating cells in contrast to NEMM. Furthermore, we observed hypermethylation of the TERT promoter in PMME, which correlated with heightened CD8+ T cell infiltration, and patients with hypermethylated TERT were likely to have improved responses to immunotherapy. Our results indicated that PMME shows a distinct methylation landscape compared with NEMM, and the epigenetic status of TERT might be used to estimate prognosis and direct anti-PD-1 treatment for mucosal melanoma.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696081

RESUMO

Ischemic heart disease is caused by coronary artery occlusion. Despite the increasing number and success of interventions for restoring coronary artery perfusion, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inspired by the impact of I/R on the Cx43 trafficking to the intercalated discs (ICDs), we aim to explore the potential mechanisms underlying the downregulation of Cx43 in ICDs after myocardial I/R. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), Western blotting, and immunofluorescence experiments showed that Myocardial I/R activated the P38MAPK signaling pathway and promoted microtubule depolymerization. Inhibition of P38MAPK signaling pathway activation attenuated I/R-induced microtubule depolymerization. The ability of SB203580 to recover the distribution of Cx43 and electrophysiological parameters in I/R myocardium depended on microtubule stability. Our study suggests that microtubule depolymerization caused by the activation of the P38MAPK signaling pathway is an important mechanism underlying the downregulation of Cx43 in ICDs after myocardial I/R.

12.
Front Psychiatry ; 15: 1342521, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711877

RESUMO

The pervasive use of smartphones, while enhancing accessibility to information and communication, has raised concerns about its potential negative effects on physical and mental health, including the impairment of decision-making abilities. This study investigates the influence of smartphone addiction on decision-making in college students. A sample of 80 individuals aged 17 to 26 was selected and divided into two groups based on their Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version (SAS-SV) scores. Participants underwent the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to evaluate their decision-making in risky and uncertain conditions, while fNIRS recorded their prefrontal cortex activity. The study found that individuals prone to smartphone addiction tend to make riskier choices in risky situations. However, when faced with decisions based on ambiguity, the smartphone addiction group showed increased brain activity in the dlPFC (specifically in channels 4, 9, and 11) compared to when making risky decisions. Despite this increased brain activation, there was no observable difference in behavior between the addiction-prone and control groups in ambiguous scenarios. Notably, the left dlPFC (e.g., channel 4) exhibited significantly higher activation in the addiction group compared to the control group. Findings suggest that smartphone addiction can detrimentally influence decision-making, behaviorally and neurologically, particularly in uncertain contexts. This study supports the classification of smartphone addiction as a genuine addiction and underscores its significance in psychiatric research. In essence, our research underscores the adverse effects of excessive smartphone use on decision-making processes, reinforcing the necessity to treat smartphone addiction as a pressing public health issue.

13.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 18: 1439-1457, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707616

RESUMO

Background: Acteoside, an active ingredient found in various medicinal herbs, is effective in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease (DKD); however, the intrinsic pharmacological mechanism of action of acteoside in the treatment of DKD remains unclear. This study utilizes a combined approach of network pharmacology and experimental validation to investigate the potential molecular mechanism systematically. Methods: First, acteoside potential targets and DKD-associated targets were aggregated from public databases. Subsequently, utilizing protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, alongside GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses, we established target-pathway networks to identify core potential therapeutic targets and pathways. Further, molecular docking facilitated the confirmation of interactions between acteoside and central targets. Finally, the conjectured molecular mechanisms of acteoside against DKD were verified through experimentation on unilateral nephrectomy combined with streptozotocin (STZ) rat model. The underlying downstream mechanisms were further investigated. Results: Network pharmacology identified 129 potential intersected targets of acteoside for DKD treatment, including targets such as AKT1, TNF, Casp3, MMP9, SRC, IGF1, EGFR, HRAS, CASP8, and MAPK8. Enrichment analyses indicated the PI3K-Akt, MAPK, Metabolic, and Relaxin signaling pathways could be involved in this therapeutic context. Molecular docking revealed high-affinity binding of acteoside to PIK3R1, AKT1, and NF-κB1. In vivo studies validated the therapeutic efficacy of acteoside, demonstrating reduced blood glucose levels, improved serum Scr and BUN levels, decreased 24-hour urinary total protein (P<0.05), alongside mitigated podocyte injury (P<0.05) and ameliorated renal pathological lesions. Furthermore, this finding indicates that acteoside inhibits the expression of pyroptosis markers NLRP3, Caspase-1, IL-1ß, and IL-18 through the modulation of the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB pathway. Conclusion: Acteoside demonstrates renoprotective effects in DKD by regulating the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway and alleviating pyroptosis. This study explores the pharmacological mechanism underlying acteoside's efficacy in DKD treatment, providing a foundation for further basic and clinical research.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Glucosídeos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Farmacologia em Rede , Fenóis , Polifenóis , Estreptozocina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Animais , Ratos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the relationships between childhood adversities and the provision of informal care for older parents in later life in China. METHOD: The data came from four waves of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, N = 20,047). Using multilevel logistic regression models, we examined the relationships between adverse experiences in childhood and both the propensity and intensity of caregiving for older parents. Drawing on the regression results, we then estimated the total number of caregivers for older parents in China. RESULTS: Experiencing one additional childhood adversity was associated with a decrease of 8% in the odds of providing informal care (p<0.001). The association between childhood adversity and caregiving remained significant after socio-demographic factors and later life outcomes were controlled for. We estimated that 58.3 million middle-aged adults in China were providing care for parents in 2020. Had people experienced one fewer adversity in their childhood, there would have been 2.2 million more caregivers in 2020. Had they experienced two fewer adversities, there would have been 3.4 million more caregivers. DISCUSSION: The factors associated with informal caregiving can be traced back to early life experiences. To address the shortage of informal care supply, it is crucial to foster a caring culture from the very beginning of human development.

16.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 440, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) published the Integrated Care for Older People (ICOPE) framework to help healthcare providers cope with the population aging crisis. However, the relevant evidence on the demands of older people and the compensatory capacity of the environment is limited. This study reports for the first time the level of the ICOPE demand in Western China that includes the impact of geographic accessibility of medical resources (GAMR) on ICOPE demand and the potential mechanism of health status. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 1200 adults aged 60 years and older selected through multi-stage stratified cluster sampling to obtain relevant data, including ICOPE demand, health status, and GAMR. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to analyze the impact of GAMR on ICOPE demand among older people and those with different health statuses. RESULTS: Among the prospective research participants, 1043 were eligible for the study. The mean score of ICOPE demand among all participants was 3.68 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.78). After adjusting for covariates between high and low GAMR groups (1:1 match), ICOPE demand was significantly higher in the low GAMR group than in the high GAMR group (average treatment effect on the treated [ATT] = 0.270, p < 0.05). For both good and poor self-rated health status, the ICOPE demand of the low GAMR group was significantly higher than that in the high GAMR group (ATT = 0.345, p < 0.05; ATT = 0.190, p < 0.05). For chronic diseases, the ICOPE demand of older people with multimorbidity in the low GAMR group was significantly higher than that in the high GAMR group (ATT = 0.318, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The older population in Western China has a relatively high demand for ICOPE. Low GAMR is a key factor in ICOPE demand growth in this region. It accelerates demand release for both older people with multimorbidity and self-perceptions of health.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1376220, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562414

RESUMO

Background: Identification of patients at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can not only prevent complications and reduce suffering but also ease the health care burden. While routine physical examination can provide useful information for diagnosis, manual exploration of routine physical examination records is not feasible due to the high prevalence of T2DM. Objectives: We aim to build interpretable machine learning models for T2DM diagnosis and uncover important diagnostic indicators from physical examination, including age- and sex-related indicators. Methods: In this study, we present three weighted diversity density (WDD)-based algorithms for T2DM screening that use physical examination indicators, the algorithms are highly transparent and interpretable, two of which are missing value tolerant algorithms. Patients: Regarding the dataset, we collected 43 physical examination indicator data from 11,071 cases of T2DM patients and 126,622 healthy controls at the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University. After data processing, we used a data matrix containing 16004 EHRs and 43 clinical indicators for modelling. Results: The indicators were ranked according to their model weights, and the top 25% of indicators were found to be directly or indirectly related to T2DM. We further investigated the clinical characteristics of different age and sex groups, and found that the algorithms can detect relevant indicators specific to these groups. The algorithms performed well in T2DM screening, with the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) reaching 0.9185. Conclusion: This work utilized the interpretable WDD-based algorithms to construct T2DM diagnostic models based on physical examination indicators. By modeling data grouped by age and sex, we identified several predictive markers related to age and sex, uncovering characteristic differences among various groups of T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Algoritmos , Curva ROC , Biomarcadores
18.
Chem Sci ; 15(14): 5082-5112, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577377

RESUMO

As a burgeoning category of heterogeneous catalysts, atomic catalysts have been extensively researched in the field of electrocatalysis. To satisfy different electrocatalytic reactions, single-atom catalysts (SACs), diatomic catalysts (DACs) and triatomic catalysts (TACs) have been successfully designed and synthesized, in which microenvironment structure regulation is the core to achieve high-efficiency catalytic activity and selectivity. In this review, the effect of the geometric and electronic structure of metal active centers on catalytic performance is systematically introduced, including substrates, central metal atoms, and the coordination environment. Then theoretical understanding of atomic catalysts for electrocatalysis is innovatively discussed, including synergistic effects, defect coupled spin state change and crystal field distortion spin state change. In addition, we propose the challenges to optimize atomic catalysts for electrocatalysis applications, including controlled synthesis, increasing the density of active sites, enhancing intrinsic activity, and improving the stability. Moreover, the structure-function relationships of atomic catalysts in the CO2 reduction reaction, nitrogen reduction reaction, oxygen reduction reaction, hydrogen evolution reaction, and oxygen evolution reaction are highlighted. To facilitate the development of high-performance atomic catalysts, several technical challenges and research orientations are put forward.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593248

RESUMO

Although conductive hydrogel-based flexible electronic devices have superb flexibility and high conductivities, they tend to malfunction in dry or frigid areas. Herein, an ultralow-temperature tolerant, antidrying, and conductive composite hydrogel is designed for electronic skin applications on the basis of the synergy of double-cross-linked polymer networks, Hofmeister effect, and electrostatic interaction and fabricated by in situ free radical polymerization of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid and acrylic acid in the presence of poly(vinyl alcohol) and conductive MXene sheets, followed by impregnation with LiCl. Thanks to the synergy of LiCl and the charged polar terminal groups of the synthesized polymers, the composite hydrogel can not only bear an ultralow temperature of -80 °C without freezing but also maintain its original mass. Meanwhile, the resultant hydrogel possesses satisfactory self-regeneration ability benefiting from the moisturizing effect of LiCl. The conductive network of MXene sheets greatly improves the ionic conductivity of the hydrogel at low temperatures, exhibiting an ionic conductivity of 1.4 S m-1 at -80 °C. Furthermore, the electronic skin assembled by the multifunctional hydrogel is efficient in monitoring human motions at -80 °C. The antifreezing and antidrying features along with favorable ionic conductivity, high tensile strength, and outstanding flexibility make the composite hydrogel promising for applications in frigid and dry regions.

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