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1.
Inorg Chem ; 63(23): 10557-10567, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787802

RESUMO

The Zintl phase CaSi2 is a layered compound with stacking variants known as 1P, 3R, and 6R. We extend the series by the 21R polytype formed by rapid cooling of the melt. The crystal structure of 21R-CaSi2 (space group R3̅m) was derived from HRTEM images, and the atomic positions were optimized by using the FPLO code (a = 3.868 Å, c = 107.276 Å). We explore polytype transformations by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), and thermal analysis. While 6R-CaSi2 is thermodynamically stable at ambient conditions, nanosized impurities of silicon stabilize 3R-CaSi2 as a bulk phase.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 53(3): 908-916, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38126575

RESUMO

Samples of the pseudo-binary system Na2-xLixGa7 (x ≤ 1) were synthesized from the elements at 300 °C in sealed Ta ampoules or by the reaction of Na2Ga7 with LiCl. The peritectic formation temperature decreases with increasing Li content from 501(2) °C (x = 0) to 489(2) °C (x = 1). The boundary compositions Na2Ga7 and Na1Li1Ga7 crystallize with different structure types related by a group-subgroup relation. While the Na-rich compositions (x ≤ 0.5) represent a substitutional solid solution (space group Pnma), the Li-rich compositions feature an unconventional replacement mechanism in which Li atoms occupying interstitial positions induce vancancies at the Na positions (space group Cmce). The crystal structure of Na1Li1Ga7 (a = 8.562(1) Å, b = 14.822(2) Å, c = 11.454(2) Å; Z = 8) was determined from X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, and reveals an anionic framework comprising 12-bonded Ga12 icosahedra and 4-bonded Ga atoms, with alkali-metal atoms occupying channels and cavities. The arrangement of cations makes NaLiGa7 a new structure type within the MgB12Si2 structure family. Band structure calculations for the composition NaLiGa7 predict semiconducting behavior consistent with the balance [Na+]2[Li+]2[(Ga12)2-][Ga-]2, considering closo Wade clusters [(12b)Ga12]2- and Zintl anions [(4b)Ga]-. Susceptibility measurements indicate temperature-independent diamagnetic behavior.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 62(23): 9054-9062, 2023 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37227413

RESUMO

Na2Ga7 crystallizes with the orthorhombic space group Pnma (no. 62; a = 14.8580(6) Å, b = 8.6766(6) Å, and c = 11.6105(5) Å; Z = 8) and constitutes a filled variant of the Li2B12Si2 structure type. The crystal structure consists of a network of icosahedral Ga12 units with 12 exohedral bonds and four-bonded Ga atoms in which the Na atoms occupy the channels and cavities. The atomic arrangement is consistent with the Zintl [(4b)Ga]- and Wade [(12b)Ga12]2- electron counting approach. The compound forms peritectically from Na7Ga13 and the melt at 501 °C and does not show a homogeneity range. The band structure calculations predict semiconducting behavior consistent with the electron balance [Na+]4[(Ga12)2-][Ga-]2. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that Na2Ga7 is diamagnetic.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 52(30): 10310-10322, 2023 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37221973

RESUMO

Clathrate phases with crystal structures exhibiting complex disorder have been the subject of many prior studies. Here we report syntheses, crystal and electronic structure, and chemical bonding analysis of a Li-substituted Ge-based clathrate phase with the refined chemical formula Ba8Li5.0(1)Ge41.0, which is a rare example of ternary clathrate-I where alkali metal atoms substitute framework Ge atoms. Two different synthesis methods to grow single crystals of the new clathrate phase are presented, in addition to the classical approach towards polycrystalline materials by combining pure elements in desired stoichiometric ratios. Structure elucidations for samples from different batches were carried out by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction methods. The ternary Ba8Li5.0(1)Ge41.0 phase crystallizes in the cubic type-I clathrate structure (space group Pm3̄n no. 223, a ≈ 10.80 Å), with the unit cell being substantially larger compared to the binary phase Ba8Ge43 (Ba8□3Ge43, a ≈ 10.63 Å). The expansion of the unit cell is the result of the Li atoms filling vacancies and substituting atoms in the Ge framework, with Li and Ge co-occupying one crystallographic (6c) site. As such, the Li atoms are situated in four-fold coordination environment surrounded by equidistant Ge atoms. Analysis of chemical bonding applying the electron density/electron localizability approach reveals ionic interaction of barium with the Li-Ge framework, while the lithium-germanium bonds are strongly polar covalent.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(30): 13456-13460, 2022 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35875975

RESUMO

The high-pressure phase Na8BxSi46-x (3 < x < 5) is the first representative of a borosilicide crystallizing in the rarely occurring clathrate VIII type structure. Crystals with composition Na8B4Si42 (space group I43̅m; a = 9.7187(2) Å; Pearson symbol cI54) were obtained at 5-8 GPa and 1200 K. The clathrate I modification exists for the same composition at lower pressure with a larger cell volume (Pm3̅n; a = 9. 977(2) Å; cP54). Profound structural adaptions allow for a higher density of the clathrate VIII type than clathrate I, opening up the perspective of obtaining clathrate VIII type compounds as high-pressure forms of clathrate I.

6.
Chemistry ; 27(50): 12776-12787, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270132

RESUMO

The metastable type-II clathrate Na24-δ Ge136 was obtained from Na12 Ge17 by applying a two-step procedure. At first, Na12 Ge17 was reacted at 70 °C with a solution of benzophenone in the ionic liquid (IL) 1,3-dibutyl-2-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) azanide. The IL was inert towards Na12 Ge17 , but capable of dissolving the sodium salts formed in the redox reaction. By annealing at 340 °C under an argon atmosphere, the X-ray amorphous intermediate product was transformed to crystalline Na24-δ Ge136 (δ≈2) and α-Ge in an about 1 : 1 mass ratio. The product was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, chemical analysis, and 23 Na solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Metallic properties of Na24-δ Ge136 were revealed by a significant Knight shift of the 23 Na NMR signals and by a Pauli-paramagnetic contribution to the magnetic susceptibility. At room temperature, Na24-δ Ge136 slowly ages, with a tendency to volume decrease and sodium loss.

7.
ChemistryOpen ; 10(2): 205-215, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492781

RESUMO

Substituted imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated for their reactivity towards Na12 Ge17 as a model system containing redox-sensitive Zintl cluster anions. The ILs proved widely inert for imidazolium cations with a 1,2,3-trisubstitution at least by alkyl groups, and for the anion bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)azanide (TFSI). A minute conversion of Na12 Ge17 observed on long-time contact with such ILs was not caused by dissolution of the salt-like compound, and did thus not provide dissolved Ge clusters. Rather, a cation exchange led to the transfer of Na+ ions into solution. In contrast, by using benzophenone as an oxidizer, heterogeneous redox reactions of Na12 Ge17 were initiated, transferring a considerable part of Na+ into solution. At optimized conditions, an X-ray amorphous product NaGe6.25 was obtained, which was thermally convertible to the crystalline type-II clathrate Na24-δ Ge136 with almost completely Na-filled polyhedral cages, and α-Ge. The presented method thus provides unexpected access to Na24-δ Ge136 in bulk quantities.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 50(4): 1274-1282, 2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393534

RESUMO

The clathrate-I borosilicide K8-xBySi46-y (0.8 ≤x≤ 1.2 and 6.4 ≤y≤ 7.2; space group Pm3[combining macron]n) was prepared in sealed tantalum ampoules between 900 °C and 1000 °C. By high-pressure preparation at 8 GPa and 1000 °C, a higher boron content is achieved (x = 0.2, y = 7.8). Crystal structure and composition were established from X-ray diffraction data, chemical analysis, WDX spectroscopy, and confirmed by 11B and 29Si NMR, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The compositions are electron-balanced according to the Zintl rule within one estimated standard deviation. The lattice parameter varies with composition from a = 9.905 Å for K7.85(2)B7.8(1)Si38.2(1) to a = 9.968(1) Å for K6.80(2)B6.4(5)Si39.6(5).

9.
Inorg Chem ; 60(4): 2160-2167, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104343

RESUMO

Rb8B8Si38 forms under high-pressure, high-temperature conditions at p = 8 GPa and T = 1273 K. The new compound (space group Pm3̅n, a = 9.9583(1) Å) is the second example for a clathrate-I borosilicide. The phase is inert against strong acids and bases and thermally stable up to 1300 K at ambient pressure. (Rb+)8(B-)8(Si0)38 is electronically balanced, diamagnetic, and shows semiconducting behavior with moderate Seebeck coefficient below 300 K. Chemical bonding analysis by the electron localizability approach confirms the description of Rb8B8Si38 as Zintl phase.

10.
Chemistry ; 26(4): 830-838, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652015

RESUMO

The clathrate I superconductor Sr8 Si46 is obtained under high-pressure high-temperature conditions, at 5 GPa and temperatures in the range of 1273 to 1373 K. At ambient pressure, the compound decomposes upon heating at T=796(5) K into Si and SrSi2 . The crystal structure of the clathrate is isotypic to that of Na8 Si46 . Chemical bonding analysis reveals conventional covalent bonding within the silicon network as well as additional multi-atomic interactions between Sr and Si within the framework cages. Physical measurements indicate a bulk BCS type II superconducting state below Tc =3.8(3) K.

11.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 491, 2017 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887470

RESUMO

Engineering lattice thermal conductivity requires to control the heat carried by atomic vibration waves, the phonons. The key parameter for quantifying it is the phonon lifetime, limiting the travelling distance, whose determination is however at the limits of instrumental capabilities. Here, we show the achievement of a direct quantitative measurement of phonon lifetimes in a single crystal of the clathrate Ba7.81Ge40.67Au5.33, renowned for its puzzling 'glass-like' thermal conductivity. Surprisingly, thermal transport is dominated by acoustic phonons with long lifetimes, travelling over distances of 10 to 100 nm as their wave-vector goes from 0.3 to 0.1 Å-1. Considering only low-energy acoustic phonons, and their observed lifetime, leads to a calculated thermal conductivity very close to the experimental one. Our results challenge the current picture of thermal transport in clathrates, underlining the inability of state-of-the-art simulations to reproduce the experimental data, thus representing a crucial experimental input for theoretical developments.Phonon lifetime is a fundamental parameter of thermal transport however its determination is challenging. Using inelastic neutron scattering and the neutron resonant spin-echo technique, Lory et al. determine the acoustic phonon lifetime in a single crystal of clathrate Ba7.81Ge40.67Au5.33.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(23): 236401, 2017 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28644655

RESUMO

The formation of framework vacancies in Si- and Ge-based type-I clathrates is studied using density-functional theory as a function of filling the cages with K and Ba atoms. Our analysis reveals the relevance of structural disorder, geometric relaxation, and electronic saturation as well as vibrational and configurational entropy. In the Si clathrates, we find that vacancies are unstable, but very differently, in Ge clathrates, up to three vacancies per unit cell can be stabilized. This contrasting behavior is largely driven by the different energy gain on populating the electronic vacancy states, which originates from the different degree of localization of the valence orbitals of Si and Ge. This also actuates a qualitatively different atomic relaxation of the framework.

13.
ACS Nano ; 11(2): 1455-1465, 2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28187255

RESUMO

We present the synthesis route to carbon with hierarchical morphology on the nanoscale. The structures are generated using crystalline orthorhombic lithium carbide (Li2C2) as precursor with nanolamellar organization. Careful treatment by SnI4 oxidizes carbon at the fairly low temperature of 80 °C to the elemental state and keeps intact the initial crystallite shape, the internal lamellar texture of particles, and the lamellae stacking. The reaction product is amorphous but displays in the microstructure parallel band-like arrangements with diameters in the range of 200-500 nm. These bands exhibit internal fine structure made up by thin strips of about 60 nm width running inclined with respect to the long axis of the band. The stripes of neighboring columns sometimes meet and give rise to arrow-like arrangements in the microstructure. This is an alternative preparation method of nanostructured carbon from an inorganic precursor by a chemical redox route without applying physical methods such as ion implantation, printing, or ablation. The polymerization reaction of the triple bond of acetylide anions gives rise to a network of carbon sp2 species with statistically sized and distributed pores with diameters between 2 and 6 Å resembling zeolite structures. The pores show partially paracrystal-like ordering and may indicate the possible formation of carbon species derived from graphitic foams.

14.
Materials (Basel) ; 9(7)2016 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28773710

RESUMO

The binary intermetallic clathrates K8-xSi46 (x = 0.4; 1.2), Rb6.2Si46, Rb11.5Si136 and Cs7.8Si136 were prepared from M4Si4 (M = K, Rb, Cs) precursors by spark-plasma route (SPS) and structurally characterized by Rietveld refinement of PXRD data. The clathrate-II phase Rb11.5Si136 was synthesized for the first time. Partial crystallographic site occupancy of the alkali metals, particularly for the smaller Si20 dodecahedra, was found in all compounds. SPS preparation of Na24Si136 with different SPS current polarities and tooling were performed in order to investigate the role of the electric field on clathrate formation. The electrical and thermal transport properties of K7.6Si46 and K6.8Si46 in the temperature range 4-700 K were investigated. Our findings demonstrate that SPS is a novel tool for the synthesis of intermetallic clathrate phases that are not easily accessible by conventional synthesis techniques.

15.
Dalton Trans ; 44(28): 12680-7, 2015 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26085288

RESUMO

The clathrate-I phase Ba8AlxSi46-x has been structurally characterized at the composition x = 6.9 (space group Pm3[combining macron]n, no. 223, a = 10.4645(2) Å). A crystal structure model comprising the distribution of aluminium and silicon atoms in the clathrate framework was established: 5.7 Al atoms and 0.3 Si atoms occupy the crystallographic site 6c, while 1.2 Al atoms and 22.8 Si atoms occupy site 24k. The atomic distribution was established based on a combination of (27)Al and (29)Si NMR experiments, X-ray single-crystal diffraction and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

16.
Dalton Trans ; 43(5): 2140-6, 2014 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24285253

RESUMO

The semiconducting compound BaRh2Si9 is a new kind of intermetallic clathrate. It was obtained by reacting BaSi, Rh and Si at 950 °C. The crystal structure (space group C2/c; Pearson symbol mC48, a = 6.2221(5) Å, b = 21.399(2) Å, c = 6.2272(5) Å, ß = 90.306(7)°) displays a covalently bonded Rh-Si framework, in which four-connected Si atoms partly show unusually small bond angles. The Ba atoms are encapsulated in large polyhedral cages formed by 18 Si and 4 Rh atoms. The compound is a diamagnetic p-type semiconductor, which is in agreement with band structure calculations resulting in a band gap of 0.12 eV. Quantum chemical calculations reveal positively charged Ba atoms (Ba(+1.3)) and negatively charged Rh atoms (Rh(-1)). Si atoms with neighboring Rh atoms are positively charged, while those connected only with Si atoms are negatively charged.

17.
Dalton Trans ; 41(45): 13960-8, 2012 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23027430

RESUMO

The new clathrate-I phase Ba(8)Rh(x)Si(46-x-y□y) (2.36 < x < 2.74; y = 0.65 for x = 2.74), Pearson symbol cP54, space group Pm3[combining macron]n, was prepared as a single phase and characterized. For these compositions, the lattice parameter does not change significantly and was found to be a = 10.347(1) Å. Phase relations were investigated by means of metallographic and thermal analyses. The incongruently melting phase Ba(8)Rh(x)Si(46-x-y□y) was obtained by annealing a solidified melt of the stoichiometric composition at 1000 °C for five days. Below 850 °C, the clathrate phase slowly decomposes to BaSi(2), Si and the new compound BaRh(2)Si(9). Crystal structure and vacancy concentration were investigated by means of single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses. Quantum chemical calculations show that the Rh 4d states hybridize with Si 3p states so that the DOS structure cannot be simply deduced in a rigid band approach from that of the binary Ba(8)Si(46). Analysis of the chemical bonding applying the ELI-D approach yielded covalent two-center two-electron bonds between Rh and Si atoms. For the composition Ba(8)Rh(2.74)Si(42.61□0.65), a temperature dependent diamagnetic susceptibility and an almost temperature independent electrical resistivity (ρ≈ 5 µΩm) were observed. The magnitude of the negative Seebeck coefficient is increasing linearly with temperature from 0 µV K(-1) at 2 K to -35 µV K(-1) at 850 K indicating n-type electrical conductivity.

19.
Inorg Chem ; 50(20): 10387-96, 2011 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21905757

RESUMO

The europium-containing clathrate-I Eu(x)Ba(8-x)Cu(16)P(30) was synthesized from the elements. Powder X-ray diffraction in combination with energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EDXS) and metallographic studies showed the homogeneity range with x ≤ 1.5. Determination of the crystal structure confirmed the presence of an orthorhombic superstructure of clathrate-I and revealed that Eu atoms exclusively resided in small pentagonal-dodecahedral cages. Magnetic measurements together with X-ray absorption spectroscopy are consistent with a 4f(7) (Eu(2+)) ground state for Eu(x)Ba(8-x)Cu(16)P(30). Below 3 K the Eu moments order antiferromagnetically. Resistivity measurements revealed metallic behavior of the investigated clathrate, in line with the composition deviating from the Zintl counting scheme. Local vibrations of the guest atoms inside the cages are analyzed with the help of specific heat investigations.

20.
Inorg Chem ; 50(10): 4523-8, 2011 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21486020

RESUMO

The clathrate-I phase Ba(8-x)Si(46) (space group Pm3̅n) was synthesized by oxidation of Ba(4)Li(2)Si(6) with gaseous HCl. Microcrystalline powders of the clathrate phase were obtained within a few minutes. The reaction temperature and the pressure of HCl were optimized to achieve good-quality crystalline products with a composition range of 1.3 < x < 1.9. The new preparation route presented here provides an alternative to the high-pressure synthesis applied so far.

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