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1.
J Inj Violence Res ; 16(1)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38415723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestic violence is a deeply entrenched issue in Indian society, with global implications, especially for women's physical and mental health. Healthcare providers play important role in early identification and support of the victims. Medical interns, the future generation of Health care professionals, often acting as primary caregivers are uniquely positioned and expected to recognize and assist victims. This study aims to evaluate their knowledge, attitudes, practices, and readiness to manage domestic violence and its associating factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 157 medical interns at a Medical college and hospital in West Bengal, India, from December 2022 to February 2023. Simple random sampling was done. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, Medical Intern Readiness to manage domestic violence scale (MIREDS), validated after adoption from Physician Readiness to manage Intimate partner violence scale (PREMIS). Ethical approval was obtained, and participants gave informed written consent for inclusion. Satisfactory threshold was determined to be more than 50 percent. Data analysis was performed using MS Excel and SPSS software, including descriptive and inferential statistics, with a significance level of p less than 0.05, along with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Only 45.2% of medical interns demonstrated satisfactory knowledge, 54.8% had a satisfactory attitude. Most interns (91.7%) exhibited poor practice in dealing with domestic violence cases, only 31.2% considered themselves ready to manage domestic violence cases. Interns who attend more patients was found to have better attitude. Positive associations were found between knowledge, attitude, and readiness to manage domestic violence cases among doctors . CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of medical interns demonstrated inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes, and poor practice and inadequate readiness to manage domestic violence. Comprehensive training and education with cultural sensitivity training along with more practical exposures are in need to address this issue properly.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2304, 2023 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37990176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed to evaluate the effects of a health education intervention on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among school teachers. METHODS: The study, conducted from August 2016 to May 2017, involved teachers from four schools in Baruipur, West Bengal, India. It was a multicentric, quasi-experimental study with an intervention group receiving tailored health education promoting lifestyle modifications, while the control group received no intervention. Baseline and endline assessments included behavioural and biological characteristics related to cardiovascular health and risk assessment. Data were analysed using JAMOVI. RESULTS: The intervention group showed significant improvements in physical activity levels [Cohen's d (Cd): 0.43, p = 0.006] and the consumption of fruits and vegetables (Cd: 1.00, p = < 0.001). Notably, there was a considerable reduction in the consumption of salt (Cd: -0.93, p = 0.039), oil (Cd: -0.98, p = < 0.001), fast food (Cd: -0.99, p = < 0.001), junk food (Cd: -0.99, p = < 0.001), and red meat (Cd: -1.00, p = < 0.001) among participants. However, there were no significant improvements in biological characteristics within the intervention group. In contrast, the control group exhibited no significant changes in behavioural and biological characteristics compared to baseline. The intervention group showed a minor non-significant reduction (3.0%) in their 10-year cardiovascular risk compared to baseline (Cd: -1.00, p = 0.50), while the control group had a negligible non-significant increase (0.7%) in their cardiovascular risk (Cd: 1.00, p = 1.00). CONCLUSION: Health education intervention positively influenced behavioural characteristics, such as physical activity and dietary habits, among school teachers. However, no significant improvements were observed in biological characteristics or cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Professores Escolares , Cádmio , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Midlife Health ; 14(2): 130-138, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38029030

RESUMO

Introduction: In spite of falls being a major public health problem, where most of the falls are preventable, there is a lack of epidemiological investigation among those aged 50 and above, especially in developing countries. Hence, we investigate the proportion, pattern, and predictors of falls in this age group. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional community-based study was done in the Uluberia-II block of Howrah district, West Bengal, from February to July 2021. A multistage cluster sampling method was used to meet the sample size. Data were collected with the help of a structured interview schedule. Predictors were estimated by the SPSS version 16 and defined in adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval. Results: Among 170 study participants, 34.7% (59/170) experienced at least one episode of fall, while 20.6% (35/170) experienced recurrent falls in 12 months. Most (78%; 46/59) falls occurred in the home environment and due to slippage (67.8%; 40/59) on the floor. 84.7% (50/59) sustained any type of injuries, 47.5% (28/59) required either consultation of a physician or medication, and 6.8% (4/59) required hospitalization. Safety Checklist Score measured 75.3% (128/170) had a poor household environment, within that 30.6% (52/170) had a seriously poor household environment, which was an important predictor of falls ([AOR] = 3.59 [1.24-10.38]). Fear of fall (AOR = 6.18 [1.77-21.53]) measured by shortfall efficacy scale and nonformal education (AOR = 5.05 [1.33-19.07]) were also predictors of falls. Conclusion: Considerable proportion of falls occurred in the past year, which can be preventable by improving modifiable environmental factors and detection of fear of fall in persons at different levels of health-care facilities.

4.
Malays Fam Physician ; 18: 26, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37205146

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite policy actions and strategic efforts for improving the reproductive and sexual health of adolescents by promoting the uptake of adolescent reproductive and sexual health (ARSH) services, the utilisation rate remains significantly low, especially in rural areas of India. This study aimed to assess the utilisation of these services by adolescents in rural West Bengal and its associated determinants. Method: This mixed-method study was conducted from May to September 2021 in the Gosaba rural block of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal. Quantitative data were collected from 326 adolescents using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected via four focus group discussions among 30 adolescents and key-informant interviews among six healthcare workers. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS, while qualitative data were analysed thematically. Results: Ninety-six (29.4%) adolescents had utilised ARSH services at least once during adolescence. The factors associated with non-utilisation of ARSH services were younger age, female sex, increasing reproductive health stigma and decreasing parent-adolescent communication related to sexual health. Qualitative exploration revealed that unawareness regarding services, perceived lack of privacy and confidentiality at healthcare facilities and disruption of services post-emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic were some major barriers to ARSH service utilisation. Conclusion: A multi-component strategy, including promotion of adolescent-friendly health clinics, community support interventions associated with motivation and counselling of parents regarding the importance of adolescent reproductive health, is needed to improve the utilisation of ARSH services. Necessary steps to correct the deficiencies at the facility level should also be prioritised.

5.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(8): 4555-4561, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352948

RESUMO

Context: Multimorbidity is considered as a priority for global health research. It is defined as the coexistence of two or more chronic health conditions in an individual. It is increasingly being recognized as a major concern for primary care physicians due to its huge impact on individual, family, and societal level. Aim: The aim of this study was to find the quantum of gender-related inequalities and determinants of multimorbidity among the elderly people in a rural part of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out among 246 elderly people (60 years and above) in a community setting from Oct 2017 to Sep 2018. Logistic regression analysis was done to find out the predictors of multimorbidity. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc.). Results: Approximately 82% of the study subjects were suffering from multi-morbidity with a significant difference between males (80.9%) and females (88.5%). In binary logistics, people of both the genders aged >70 years, who had less than primary level education, had more than three children, whose source of income was from their children (sons/daughters), were dependent on others for daily routine were at high risk of being multimorbid; whereas depression was a significant predictor of multimorbidity in females and not in males. In multivariable analysis, age remained the only significant predictor for both the gender and for females; depression remained significant after adjusting with significant variables in binary logistics. Conclusion: Morbidity screening at each visit, individual as well as family counseling and lifestyle modifications help to cope with the rising burden of multimorbidity at the primary care level. More insight into the epidemiology of multi-morbidity is necessary to take steps to prevent it, lower its burden and align health-care services as per needs.

6.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24225, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35602827

RESUMO

Introduction Malnutrition among women of reproductive age (WRA), especially those living in slum areas, is one of the most concerning nutritional issues because of the extreme nutritional stress they face in the form of inequitable intra-household food distribution (IHFD). This study aimed to assess the nutritional status (NS) and its association with IHFD among reproductive-age-group women along with exploring the perspectives of the stakeholders regarding inequitable food distribution. Materials and methods The quantitative part of the convergent parallel mixed-methods design study was conducted among 150 WRA, selected by cluster random sampling from 15 slum areas of Hooghly District, between December 2020 and May 2021. Data were collected using a predesigned pretested schedule with anthropometric measurements. IHFD was quantified by the relative dietary energy adequacy ratio (RDEAR). Ordinal logistic regression was performed to obtain adjusted-proportional odds ratios (aPOR) for higher categories of NS (underweight: reference category). Stratified subgroup analysis was done to assess the influencers of IHFD. For the qualitative part, in-depth interviews were conducted with eight purposively selected in-laws of study participants, and the data were interpreted by thematic analysis. Results The mean age of the study participants was 28.6±6.3 years. The proportion of malnutrition and inequitable IHFD (RDEAR<1) among them was 50% and 46%, respectively. Higher categories of NS were found to be significantly associated with an increase in RDEAR (aPOR=22.6, 95% CI: 2.75-185.45, p-value=0.004). Among underweight and normal NS women, those who were earning members and directly involved in food preparation/production had a greater allocation of food within their households. Physiological intolerance, incapacity of earning, and traditional customs were the most recurring themes transcribed as the barriers to equitable food distribution. Conclusion A high magnitude of malnutrition and its association with inequitable IHFD among WRA warrant policy-level support to increase women's employment opportunities and address gender-based inequities through comprehensive information education communication (IEC) techniques as well.

7.
J Educ Health Promot ; 11: 108, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, facemask use has been the most feasible public health measure in preventing transmission of SARS-CoV2 with the dual benefit of controlling the source of infection and decreasing the risk of acquiring infection from infected people. Therefore, COVID-appropriate behavior regarding facemask use is imperative for controlling the pandemic. This study aimed to assess COVID-appropriate mask behavior and factors associated with it among the patients attending outpatient departments of a public health institute in West Bengal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done among 298 patients attending outpatient departments of Rural and Urban Health Units of a public health institute of Kolkata, during October 2020-February 2021. A pretested questionnaire and an observational checklist based on the World Health Organization guidelines were used to collect data. COVID-appropriate mask behavior was assessed by a five-point domain-wise scale, where good practice regarding facemask usage was considered when the score was three or more. Statistical analyses were done in SPSS 16.0. RESULTS: Good practices regarding COVID-19 appropriate mask-related activities were recorded among 30.2% of the study participants. No difficulties faced during or on wearing a mask (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86, 95% confidence interval CI: 1.1-3.33) and higher socioeconomic status (AOR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.22-4.15) were significantly associated with good practice regarding COVID-19 appropriate facemask usage. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of poor practice regarding COVID-appropriate mask-related behaviors is quite high among the study participants. Awareness regarding correct mask handling, storage, hygiene, disposal, and place of wearing from a reliable source would go a long way to curb the myths and misinformation surrounding mask usage and encourage COVID-appropriate mask behaviors among the general population.

8.
J Patient Exp ; 8: 23743735211039330, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514122

RESUMO

The multisectoral impact of the COVID-19 pandemic can impair treatment adherence of patients with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This mixed-method study, conducted from November 2020 to January 2021, assessed the quantum of their treatment adherence and its determinants in rural West Bengal. Quantitative data were collected from 213 NCD patients while qualitative exploration for barriers of treatment adherence was conducted as 6 in-depth Interviews. Treatment adherence was assessed by "Medication Compliance Questionnaire" and "Adherence to Healthy Lifestyle and Follow-up Advice" Questionnaire. A total of 39.4% were nonadherent to medications while 67.1% had nonadherence to healthy lifestyle and follow-up advice. Significant predictors associated with nonadherence were increasing age, female gender, lower socioeconomic status, decreasing patient empowerment, and decreasing trust in the medical profession. Economic crisis, fear of contagion, and nonavailability of investigation facilities were some new emerging barriers in addition to preexisting barriers of treatment adherence. Therefore, measures for improving patient empowerment and patient-provider relationship by motivation and counseling, taking proper care of vulnerable patients affected by the pandemic, and correcting deficiencies at the health-system level should be given utmost priority.

9.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(2): 917-921, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041098

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Garment Industry is considered to be the second-largest employment sector in India. Occupational health problems among workers are often ignored, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) accounts for the majority of it. The leverage of a healthy workforce is indispensable in the smooth running of the country's economic machinery. AIMS: To find out the prevalence of WMSD among the workers and to assess the relationship of WMSDs with sociodemographic, behavioral, and occupational factors. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2017 to August 2019 among 222 workers in three garment factories located in a municipality area of south 24 Parganas District, West Bengal. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, occupational differentials, and morbidity profiles were assessed using a pre-designed, pre-tested schedule. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 16.0. Logistic regression was done to determine the associates of WMSDs. RESULTS: Most of the workers were males (70.27%), belonged to the age-group of 36-55 (42.34%) and were illiterate (33.78%). WMSD was prevalent among 70.72% of the workers. Presence of WMSD was significantly associated with educational status{illiterate (OR: 3.59; CI: 1.56-8.22), below secondary (OR-2.89;CI: 1.26-6.62)}, sitting job (OR: 2.02; CI: 1.01-4.03), unsatisfactory working environment (OR: 8.38; CI:1.95-36.06), and level of distress {mild (OR-2.89;CI: 1.26-6.62), moderate-severe (OR: 6.98; CI: 1.46-33.25)}. CONCLUSIONS: Improving health awareness and periodic health check-up is the need of the hour for the sustenance of the massive workforce, which can be achieved through the integration of basic occupational health services (BOHS) with primary health care (PHC) infrastructure.

10.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 33(4): 369-377, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588576

RESUMO

India's scheduled tribe population very often bears the brunt of inequity in accessing health care. The mixed-method research assessed the health care seeking behavior (HSB) of a tribal community residing in the eastern fringes of Kolkata metropolis. An adult, preferably the head, in 209 households was interviewed followed by qualitative interviews with relevant stakeholders. Conceptual framework of Andersen's behavioral model helped in identifying the potential predisposing, enabling, and need factors that influenced HSB. A total of 25.4% respondents reportedly sought informal care during last illness episode. Multivariable hierarchical-regression model (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.381) showed that respondents' education level [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.52], household size (AOR = 3.14), nonenrollment to health insurance (AOR = 2.47), decision making by household head (AOR = 2.40), distance from the nearest urban primary health center (AOR = 3.18), and poor perception to illness severity (AOR = 2.24) were significantly associated to inappropriate HSB. Predominant health system barriers that emerged from qualitative interviews were irregular logistics, unfavorable outpatient timing, absence of female doctors, and nonretention of doctors at local urban primary health center. Community level barriers were poor awareness, self-medication practices, poor health insurance coverage, and poor public transportation. Recognition of these determinants may help in developing health promotion interventions tailored to their needs.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Grupos Populacionais , Adulto , Humanos , Índia , Modelos Psicológicos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Populacionais/psicologia , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(9): 4603-4612, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209770

RESUMO

CONTEXT: With the aging of Indian society, maintaining salubrious cognitive health in late life is a public health priority. Early detection and possible prevention of cognitive impairment (CI), thus, will help in increasing the quality of life of elderly people and decreasing the social, psychological, and economic burden of their families and caregivers. AIMS: The study aimed to assess proportion of CI and its predictors. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 135 elderly people selected from 15 villages out of a total 64 villages in rural field practice area Singur of AIIH&PH, Kolkata. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Cluster sampling technique was used and villages were selected according to probability proportional to size method. Data was collected using a predesigned, pretested structured schedule, which included sociodemographic and behavioral variables, Montreal cognitive assessment tool, Geriatric depression scale short form (GDS 15), and mini nutritional assessment tool. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Predictors of CI were assessed by univariate and multivariable logistic regression using MS-Excel 2016 and SPSS version 16 software. RESULTS: Mean age of the study participants was 67.03 ± 6.7 years with 51.9% of them being females. Proportion of CI was observed to be 48.1% which was significantly associated with increasing age [AOR = 1.1 (1.02-1.13)], decreasing years of schooling [AOR = 1.1 (1.01-1.2)], depression [AOR = 2.7 (1.3-5.8)], and malnourished group [AOR = 4.5 (1.01-20.3)]. CONCLUSION: The burden of CI among the study population was found to be quite high. It is an alarming situation which needs improved screening facility for early detection. Nutritional upliftment and screening for depression should also be done on a regular basis.

12.
Indian J Community Med ; 45(2): 204-208, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Demanding clinical and academic environments have been potential sources of stress among nursing students. Inability to cope effectively often potentiates this stress. If not intervened early, this may have a detrimental effect on health and may eventually affect the future workforce in rendering care. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the levels and sources of perceived stress and coping behavior among undergraduate nursing students in West Bengal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in two nursing training institutions in West Bengal, from July to September 2018, using a validated pretested self-administered questionnaire comprising demographics, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and coping behavior inventory (CBI). Students having at least 6 months of clinical exposure were invited to participate. Of 256 eligible students, 182 returned completed questionnaires, giving an overall response rate of 71%. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression analysis were performed using SPSS 16.0 software. RESULTS: "Stress from assignments and workload" and "problem-solving" was the most prominent stressor and coping behavior (Factor rank 1) respectively among students. Statistically significant correlation was observed between overall mean PSS and CBI score (r = 0.306, P < 0.01). Years of education, self-decision to join, increased screen time, staying at hostel significantly predicted stress (R 2 = 0.248, F = 9.640, P < 0.01), and coping behavior (R 2 = 0.223, F = 10.077, P < 0.01) among students. CONCLUSIONS: Stress from academics and clinics were high among nursing students. As they are the future carers, it is apt to intervene early to mitigate their stress and enhance their coping skills during professional training and practice.

13.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(2): 135-140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and osteopenia, and primarily manifest as fragile bones. This is a rapidly emerging global health problem with increasing prevalence in India. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this was to assess the status of bone health and find its determinants among women aged 40 years and above in a rural population of West Bengal. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2017 to April 2018 among 260 women aged 40 years and above residing in the selected villages of Singur through multistage random sampling. Each respondent was interviewed using a structured schedule. Serum Vitamin D and calcium levels were investigated. BMD was assessed through calcaneal quantitative ultrasound. Osteoporosis was diagnosed among those with T-score ≤-2.5, while those with 25(OH) Vitamin D <30 ng/ml were classified to have Vitamin D insufficiency (VDI). Individuals with BMD T-score <-1 were considered to have low BMD. Inferential statistics were employed to find the associates of poor bone health. RESULTS: Out of 260 participants, 34 (13.1%) were screened positive for osteoporosis and 77.7% had low BMD. Approximately 75% had VDI. On multivariable analysis, VDI (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 4.13 [2.12, 8.37]) was a significant predictor of low BMD after adjustment for poor education, decreasing diet score, menopause, presence of comorbidity, underweight, and overweight explaining 43.6% of the variance. CONCLUSION: Serum Vitamin D levels are implicated to play a crucial role in bone metabolism; however, its effect on the body in accordance with other important hormones should be explored.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(2): 844-849, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary preferences and childhood eating behavior has marked influence on nutritional status of children. The objective of the study was to find out eating behavior of primary school children in a rural area of West Bengal using Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire and to determine association of body mass index (BMI) with eating behavior. METHODOLOGY: It was an institution-based observational study with cross-sectional design done from May to August, 2018. The study was done among 142 children studying at four primary schools at Singur, in the rural field practice area of our institute. The four schools were selected randomly using list of primary schools in the area. Eating behavior of children was assessed using Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). BMI of the children was assessed using WHO Z scores tables for children. Data analysis was done using SPSS Version 16 and binary logistic regression was done to find out association of BMI with eating behavior of study participants. RESULTS: The proportion of under-nutrition and overnutrition was 22.0% and 16.0%, respectively. Food fussiness was significantly associated with thinness [BMI below (-2SD)]. Enjoyment of food, satiety response was significantly associated with overnutrition [BMI above (+1 SD)]. Food avoidance subscale was significantly associated with thinness [OR: 2.5, CI: 1.11, 5.63] and this subscale was protective for overweight [OR: 0.22, CI: 0.07, 0.69]. CONCLUSION: This study showed association of BMI with child eating behavior. Therefore, awareness among parents should be created to change problematic eating of their children which would further help them to achieve normal BMI.

15.
Psychogeriatrics ; 20(5): 636-644, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elder abuse is an important public health problem hidden from public view in spite of its detrimental effect on physical and mental health. In the last three decades, there is responsiveness toward abuse of children and spouses worldwide but even today abuse and neglect of aged people seem to be the matter of least concern. This study aims to reveal the magnitude of elder abuse and its predictors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a community setting among elderly people (60 years and older) from October 2015 to September 2017 in a rural area of West Bengal, eastern part of India. Elder abuse was elicited by questions adapted from the Actual Abuse Tool. Data were analysed using SPSS (version 16.0). Logistic regression analysis was performed to reveal the factors associated with elder abuse. RESULTS: The study found that 25.6% of the respondents had experienced abuse, psychological abuse being the commonest type. Disability was the most common perceived risk for abuse. Univariate logistic regression showed higher age (70 years and older), female gender, who were Scheduled caste, living in a nuclear family, having more than three children, financially and functionally dependent, who was suffering from depression and multimorbidity had increased odds of being abused. In multivariable logistic regression, people aged above 70 years, living in a nuclear family and dependent for instrumental activities of daily living remained significant predictors of abuse. CONCLUSION: Around one in four of the respondents was abused in a 1 year duration which implies the urgent need for action. Routine screening for elder abuse at ground level and abuse prevention campaigns can be an important measure to alleviate this hidden problem. Also, there is a need to explore culturally specific forms of elder abuse to provide an age-friendly environment.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Abuso de Idosos/etnologia , Abuso de Idosos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
16.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(1): 359-366, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110619

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Rice mill workers usually belong to unorganized sector and lack in training regarding hazard prevention. Unprotected exposure to suspended particles and fumes can lead to respiratory morbidities among them. Workers, especially loaders, were susceptible to work-related musculoskeletal diseases. AIM: To find out the morbidity profile and associated factors among rice mill workers. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional workplace-based study was conducted during July--September 2018 among 143 workers of two rice mills in Indas block, West Bengal. Workers, employed for at least 6 months in the rice mills and who gave informed written consent was interviewed using a predesigned pretested questionnaire and were clinically examined. Nonfasting capillary blood glucose estimation and spirometry were carried out. Workers contraindicated to spirometry were excluded. RESULT: Commonest morbidities were musculoskeletal discomfort (65%), hypertension (20.9%), and chronic respiratory morbidity (16.9%). No personal protective equipment (PPE) was used by these workers. Significant association of musculoskeletal discomfort was found with tobacco abuse (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) =2.90), job of loader (AOR = 3.51), and central obesity (AOR = 3.39). Hypertension was significantly associated with increasing age (AOR = 1.06), and increasing body mass index (AOR = 1.17). Whereas increasing age (AOR = 1.08), working inside mill (AOR = 7.58), working more than 48 hours a week (AOR = 7.37) were significantly associated with chronic respiratory morbidity. CONCLUSION: Optimization of working hours, effective continuous use of PPE, and use of proper ventilation technology are recommended. Proper work placement, preplacement examination, and periodic health screening with spirometry are also needed.

17.
Indian J Public Health ; 63(3): 178-185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, vector-borne diseases account for 17% of infectious disease burden. In India, despite accelerated efforts, both malaria and dengue are major public health concern. Understanding local community perspectives is essential to strengthen ongoing program activities. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess the community perceptions and risk reduction practices toward prevention and control of malaria and dengue at slums of Chetla in South Kolkata and to explore the perspectives of relevant local stakeholders in this regard. METHODS: This cross-sectional study with mixed-method design was conducted from June to September 2018. Quantitative data were collected in 288 sampled households through face-to-face interview of respondents and environmental checklist, whereas, qualitative exploration was done with five key informant interviews. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 Software. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically using "cut and sort" processing technique. RESULTS: In household survey, majority had unsatisfactory knowledge (68.4%), attitude (64.2%), and practices (62.8%) regarding diseases prevention/control, which was further substantiated by qualitative findings. The use of electric fans (79.5%), mosquito repellents (53.8%) were predominant practices; however, only a few used bed nets regularly (26.0%). Reportedly, "heat" and "poor ventilation" were key reasons behind reluctance to use bed nets. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that increasing age, proximity to a nearby canal, and unsatisfactory knowledge significantly predicted unfavorable attitude, whereas, respondents' gender and unfavorable attitude significantly predicted poor practices. CONCLUSIONS: Intensified social behavior change communication with active community participation is the need of the hour to prevent malaria and dengue occurrence and future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Dengue/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Participação da Comunidade , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Repelentes de Insetos/administração & dosagem , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Áreas de Pobreza , Análise de Regressão , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Abastecimento de Água , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 8(7): 2242-2248, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463237

RESUMO

CONTEXT: "Frailty" is a multidimensional geriatric syndrome that increases the risk for adverse health outcomes, such as falls, hospitalization, increased morbidity, and mortality, among elderly persons. AIM: The objective of this study is to find out the proportion of frailty and its associates among elderly (aged ≥60 years) in a rural area of West Bengal. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: It is a community-based cross-sectional observational study done during May-August 2018 among 165 elderly persons selected by systematic random sampling by probability proportionate to size method from three villages at the rural field practice area of our institute. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tilburg frailty indicator is used to measure frailty. An elderly is considered as frail if s/he scores ≥6 in this scale. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data analysis is done by SPSS Version 16. The logistic regression is done to find out the associates of frailty. RESULTS: Proportion of frailty is 38.8% (mean age ± SD: 67.03 ± 3.43 years) among the study subjects. Age, female gender, loss of spouse, illiteracy, economic dependency, no job/at home status, ≥2 chronic diseases are significantly associated with frailty in univariate logistic regression. In multivariable logistic regression, ≥2 chronic diseases [AOR: 8.4, CI: 4.6, 11.33] and illiteracy [AOR: 3.3, CI: 1.05, 9.8] retain their significance. CONCLUSION: Frailty should be recognized as a public health priority and awareness generation among elderly population for healthy ageing including self-motivation for proper management of their ailments should be emphasized for reduction of morbidity as well as for augmenting their quality of life.

19.
Indian J Community Med ; 43(3): 144-147, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294076

RESUMO

Indian health sector is a complex admixture of public and private providers, but several lacunae of public health service delivery system in terms of human resource, access, and quality have resulted in unprecedented growth of private sector. Although seamless delivery of services at rural and urban areas, timely approach, and improved information technology system are the strength of the private sector, this package comes at the cost of high out-of-pocket expenditure. Mobilization of private sector health workforce by their capacity building in terms of orientation toward public health services is one of the available solutions to move toward wider coverage of public health services. However, numerous challenges need to be addressed before realization of this vision.

20.
Indian J Public Health ; 62(3): 175-181, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency/Vitamin D Insufficiency (VDI) is now recognized as a pandemic. Cutaneous exposure to ultraviolet-B causes photolysis of epidermal 7-dehydrocholesterol, converting it to pre-Vitamin D3 (precholecalciferol), which then undergoes isomerization to form the stable hormone Vitamin D3. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study is to determine the status of Vitamin D level among the adults residing in a rural area of West Bengal and to find out the optimal cutoff of the sun exposure for Vitamin D sufficiency. METHODS: This study was a rural community based cross-sectional study. It was done from May 2016 to April 2017 among 197 adults residing in a rural block of West Bengal. Data were collected by interviewing the respondents with the help of a structured pre-tested pre-designed schedule. After interviewing, every individual was examined for height and weight and blood was collected for serum Vitamin 25-(OH) D. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were utilized to find out optimum cut-off for sun exposure using Youden's index. Binary logistic regression was performed to find out the associates of high sun exposure. All analysis was done using R. RESULTS: Overall VDI was found in 133 (67.5%). Among them, 102 (51.8%) were female. On ROC curve for veritable sun exposure for Vitamin D sufficiency, area under curve was 0.7841 which signifies veritable sun exposure as a good screening tool. CONCLUSION: Proper information, education, and communication material regarding various aspects of sun exposure and Vitamin D should be prepared with due consultation of field experts and disseminated to increase awareness among the community.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/sangue , Luz Solar , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/epidemiologia , Curva ROC , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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