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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962023

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare residents' perceptions of readiness to perform robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy with the perceptions of residency program directors in obstetrics and gynecology programs throughout the United States DESIGN: A survey was administered to all residents taking the 2019 CREOG Exam and concurrently to program directors in all ACGME accredited training programs. SETTING: The survey was designed to assess resident confidence to perform robotic hysterectomies by the time of graduation. PATIENTS: No patients were included in the study. INTERVENTIONS: The only intervention was administration of the survey. MEASUREMENTS: De-identified survey data was analyzed using chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. MAIN RESULTS: 5473 resident respondents and 241 residency program directors were included in the study. Fifty-two percent of graduating residents reported they felt they were given surgical autonomy to perform robotic hysterectomies, and 53.7% reported they could perform one independently (if it was an "emergency" and they had to). By the time of graduation, only 59% of residents reported confidence performing a robotic hysterectomy and only 56% reported they felt it would be an important procedure for their future career. Program directors were significantly more likely to report their residents were given autonomy to perform robotic hysterectomy by graduation [61.0% (95% CI 54.3 - 67.3)], could perform a robotic hysterectomy independently [60.9% (95% CI 53.9 - 67.6)], or could perform a robotic hysterectomy by graduation [70.2% (95% CI 63.5 - 76.3)] than residents themselves [38.6% (95% CI 37.2 - 40.0); 22.8% (95% CI 21.6 - 24.0); 62.6% (95% CI 61.2 - 64.0) respectively]. CONCLUSION: At time of graduation, resident confidence in performing robotic hysterectomy independently is lower than all other approaches to hysterectomy.

2.
J Grad Med Educ ; 13(2): 257-265, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33897960

RESUMO

Background: Residency applications have increased in the last decade, creating growing challenges for applicants and programs. Objective: We evaluated factors associated with application and match into obstetrics and gynecology residency. Methods: During the annual in-training examination administered to all obstetrics and gynecology residents in the United States, residents were surveyed on the residency application process. Results: Ninety-five percent (5094 of 5347) residents responded to the survey. Thirty-six percent reported applying to 30 or fewer programs, 26.7% applied to more than 31 programs, and 37.1% opted not to answer this question. Forty-nine percent of residents received honors in their obstetrics and gynecology clerkship and 37.1% did not. The majority of residents (88.6%) reported scoring between 200 and 250 on USMLE Step 1. Eighty-six percent matched into one of their top 5 programs. The only factor associated with matching in residents' top 5 programs was receiving honors in their clerkship (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08-1.54; P < .005). The only factor associated with matching below the top 5 programs was a couples match (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.43-0.72; P < .001). In choosing where to apply, residents identified program location and reputation as the most important factors, while for ranking, location and residency culture were the most important. Conclusions: Most obstetrics and gynecology residents reported matching into their top 5 choices. Receiving an honors grade in the clerkship was the only factor associated with matching in applicants' top 5 programs. Location was the most important factor for applying to and ranking of programs.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310169

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the research was to both develop a vaginal hysterectomy model with surgically pertinent anatomic landmarks and assess its validity for simulation training. DESIGN: A low-cost, reproducible vaginal hysterectomy model with relevant anatomic landmarks for key surgical steps. SETTING: Nine academic and community-based obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred sixty-nine obstetrics and gynecology residents. INTERVENTIONS: A vaginal hysterectomy model with surgically pertinent anatomic landmarks was developed and tested for construct validity. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 184 available residents, 169 (91%) participated in this study and performed a vaginal hysterectomy procedure on the described model. The validated objective 7-item global rating scale (GRS) and the 13-item task-specific checklist (TSC) were used as tools to assess performance. The median TSC and GRS scores correlated with year of training, prior experience, and trainee confidence. In addition, the TSC scores also correlated with the GRS scores (p <.001) with regard to performance and resident year of training. Receiver Operator Curves for identification of the residents meeting national residency accreditation minimum numbers for vaginal hysterectomy using the GRS and TSC scores had an area under the curve of 0.89 and 0.83, respectively. CONCLUSION: This reduced-cost vaginal hysterectomy model offers high construct validity and pertinence for simulation.

4.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(6): 1234, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214522
5.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 174, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated treatment patterns among women diagnosed with symptomatic uterine fibroids (UF) in the United States. Data were retrospectively extracted from the IBM Watson Health MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicaid Multi-State databases. METHODS: Women aged 18-64 years with ≥1 medical claim with a UF diagnosis (primary position, or secondary position plus ≥1 associated symptom) from January 2010 to June 2015 (Commercial) and January 2009 to December 2014 (Medicaid) were eligible; the first UF claim during these time periods was designated the index date. Data collected 12 months pre- and 12 and 60 months post-diagnosis included clinical/demographic characteristics, pharmacologic/surgical treatments, and surgical complications. Prevalence (2015) and cumulative incidence (Commercial, 2010-2015; Medicaid, 2009-2015) of symptomatic UF were estimated. RESULTS: 225,737 (Commercial) and 19,062 (Medicaid) women had a minimum of 12 months post-index continuous enrollment and were eligible for study. Symptomatic UF prevalence and cumulative incidence were: 0.57, 1.23% (Commercial) and 0.46, 0.64% (Medicaid). Initial treatments within 12 months post-diagnosis were surgical (Commercial, 36.7%; Medicaid, 28.7%), pharmacologic (31.7%; 53.0%), or none (31.6%; 18.3%). Pharmacologic treatments were most commonly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and oral contraceptives; hysterectomy was the most common surgical treatment. Of procedures of abdominal hysterectomy, abdominal myomectomy, uterine artery embolization, and ablation in the first 12 months post-index, 14.9% (Commercial) and 24.9% (Medicaid) resulted in a treatment-associated complication. Abdominal hysterectomy had the highest complication rates (Commercial, 18.5%; Medicaid, 31.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Off-label use of pharmacologic therapies and hysterectomy for treatment of symptomatic UF suggests a need for indicated non-invasive treatments for symptomatic UF.

6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(2): 369-376, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649501

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess self-reported readiness of U.S. obstetrics and gynecology residents to perform surgical procedures compared with the perceptions of their program directors. METHODS: The 2019 Council on Resident Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology Survey assessed resident self-confidence and perceived readiness to independently perform common surgical procedures. Concurrently, obstetrics and gynecology residency program directors were surveyed about the readiness of their graduating residents to independently perform the same procedures. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 99.3% for residents (5,473/5,514 examinees attempted to complete the survey) and 83% for program directors (241/292 returned surveys). There were no significant differences in graduating residents and program directors' assessments of graduating residents' surgical confidence in performing cesarean delivery (99.6% [95% CI 98.9-99.9] vs 100% [95% CI 98.2-100.0]), vacuum delivery (96.5% [95% CI 95.2-97.4] vs 98.6% [95% CI 95.9-99.7]), abdominal hysterectomy (95.1% [95% CI 93.6-96.2] vs 96.7% [95% CI 93.3-98.7]) or operative hysteroscopy (99.5% [95% CI 98.9-99.9] vs 100% [95% CI 98.2-100.0]). Ninety percent, 86%, and 69% of graduating residents felt that they could independently perform an abdominal hysterectomy, laparoscopic hysterectomy, and vaginal hysterectomy, respectively, in the event of an emergency. Ninety-seven percent (95% CI 93.3-98.7) of program directors reported their residents could perform a laparoscopic hysterectomy by graduation, as did 93% of graduating resident respondents (95% CI 90.8-94.0). Ninety percent (95% CI 85.3-93.8) of program directors felt their residents could perform vaginal hysterectomies by graduation, compared with 79% (95% CI 76.9-81.8) of fourth-year residents. CONCLUSION: Graduating obstetrics and gynecology residents and their program directors are confident in their abilities to perform the majority of core surgical procedures by graduation. By the second year, more than 90% of residents and their program directors were confident in their ability to perform cesarean deliveries and operative hysteroscopy. Sixty-nine percent and 86% of graduating residents felt comfortable performing vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies, respectively.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Obstétricos/educação , Cesárea/educação , Feminino , Ginecologia/educação , Humanos , Histerectomia/educação , Histeroscopia , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Obstetrícia/educação , Autoimagem , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
7.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(1): 83-96, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish validity evidence for the Essentials in Minimally Invasive Gynecology laparoscopic and hysteroscopic simulation systems. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was IRB approved and conducted at 15 sites in the United States and Canada. The four participant cohorts based on training status were: 1) novice (postgraduate year [PGY]-1) residents, 2) mid-level (PGY-3) residents, 3) proficient (American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology [ABOG]-certified specialists without subspecialty training); and 4) expert (ABOG-certified obstetrician-gynecologists who had completed a 2-year fellowship in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery). Qualified participants were oriented to both systems, followed by testing with five laparoscopic exercises (L-1, sleeve-peg transfer; L-2, pattern cut; L-3, extracorporeal tie; L-4, intracorporeal tie; L-5, running suture) and two hysteroscopic exercises (H-1, targeting; H-2, polyp removal). Measured outcomes included accuracy and exercise times, including incompletion rates. RESULTS: Of 227 participants, 77 were novice, 70 were mid-level, 33 were proficient, and 47 were experts. Exercise times, in seconds (±SD), for novice compared with mid-level participants for the seven exercises were as follows, and all were significant (P<.05): L-1, 256 (±59) vs 187 (±45); L-2, 274 (±38) vs 232 (±55); L-3, 344 (±101) vs 284 (±107); L-4, 481 (±126) vs 376 (±141); L-5, 494 (±106) vs 420 (±100); H-1, 176 (±56) vs 141 (±48); and H-2, 200 (±96) vs 150 (±37). Incompletion rates were highest in the novice cohort and lowest in the expert group. Exercise errors were significantly less and accuracy was greater in the expert group compared with all other groups. CONCLUSION: Validity evidence was established for the Essentials in Minimally Invasive Gynecology laparoscopic and hysteroscopic simulation systems by distinguishing PGY-1 from PGY-3 trainees and proficient from expert gynecologic surgeons.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/educação , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Ginecologia , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Estudos Prospectivos , Treinamento por Simulação , Estados Unidos
8.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(5): 1230-1231, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332404
9.
Simul Healthc ; 15(4): 289-294, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218092

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Simulation-based training to manage surgical postpartum hemorrhage allows for improved preparation for these rarely needed life-saving procedures. Our objectives were to design a low-tech simulation model for use in training and evaluation of surgical techniques for the management of postpartum hemorrhage and to present evidence of its validity in assessment and training. METHODS: Fifty-two obstetrics and gynecology residents and 25 attending physicians from an academic hospital were video recorded while performing the O'Leary and B-Lynch techniques on the low-tech model. Performance was evaluated using a Technical Skills Checklist, for B-Lynch and O'Leary techniques, and the Reznick's Global Rating Scale. Interrater reliability was computed to assess the consistency of the ratings between 2 raters. Average scores were determined and compared between incoming residents, junior residents, senior residents, and attending physicians to show construct validity. RESULTS: For the B-Lynch, Technical Skills Checklist scores (maximum 17 points) of attendings (15.04) and senior residents (15.12) were higher than those of junior residents (5.63) and new residents (3.38). Global Rating Scale scores (maximum 25 points) on the B-Lynch reflected the same increase (22.38, 19.35 vs. 8.85, 6.75, respectively). For the O'Leary stitch, the scores of attendings, senior, junior, and incoming residents were as follows: 15.20, 13.65, 11.54, and 2.83, respectively (maximum 19 points). This supports the construct validity of the model. The model was considered realistic and useful for improving surgical skills in 71.4% of participants. CONCLUSIONS: This low-cost, easily constructed model is a useful tool for training these surgical skills.

10.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 26(1-a Suppl): S2-S10, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uterine fibroids (UF) affect up to 70%-80% of women by 50 years of age and represent a substantial economic burden on patients and society. Despite the high costs associated with UF, recent studies on the costs of UF-related surgical treatments remain limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the health care resource utilization (HCRU) and all-cause costs among women diagnosed with UF who underwent UF-related surgery. METHODS: Data from the IBM MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database and Medicaid Multi-State database were independently, retrospectively analyzed from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2015. Women aged 18-64 years with ≥ 1 UF claim from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014, a claim for a UF-related surgery (hysterectomy, myomectomy, uterine artery embolization [UAE], or ablation) from January 1, 2010, to November 30, 2015, and continuous enrollment for ≥ 1 year presurgery and ≥ 30 days postsurgery qualified for study inclusion. A 1-year period before the date of the first UF-related surgical claim after the first UF diagnosis was used to report baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Surgery characteristics were reported. All-cause HCRU and costs (adjusted to 2017 U.S. dollars) were described by the 14 days pre-, peri-, and 30 days postoperative periods, and independently by the inpatient or outpatient setting. RESULTS: Overall, 113,091 patients were included in this study: commercial database, n = 103,814; Medicaid database, n = 9,277. Median time from the initial UF diagnosis to first UF-related surgical procedure was 33 days for the commercial population and 47 days for the Medicaid population. Hysterectomy was the most common UF-related surgery received after UF diagnosis (commercial, 68% [n = 70,235]; Medicaid, 75% [n = 6,928]). In both populations, 97% of patients had ≥ 1 outpatient visit from 14 days presurgery to 30 days postsurgery (commercial, n = 100,402; Medicaid, n = 9,023), and the majority of all UF-related surgeries occurred in the outpatient setting (commercial, 64% [n = 66,228]; Medicaid, 66% [n = 6,090]). Mean total all-cause costs for patients with UF who underwent any UF-related surgery were $15,813 (SD $13,804) in the commercial population (n = 95,433) and $11,493 (SD $26,724) in the Medicaid population (n = 4,785). Mean total all-cause costs for UF-related surgeries for the commercial/Medicaid populations were $17,450 (SD $13,483)/$12,273 (SD $19,637) for hysterectomy, $14,216 (SD $16,382)/$11,764 (SD $15,478) for myomectomy, $17,163 (SD $13,527)/$12,543 (SD $23,777) for UAE, $8,757 (SD $9,369)/$7,622 (SD $50,750) for ablation, and $12,281 (SD $10,080)/$5,989 (SD $5,617) for myomectomy and ablation. Mean total all-cause costs for any UF-related surgery performed in the outpatient setting in the commercial and Medicaid populations were $14,396 (SD $11,466) and $6,720 (SD $10,374), respectively, whereas costs in the inpatient setting were $18,345 (SD $16,910) and $21,805 (SD $43,244), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective analysis indicated that surgical treatment options for UF continue to represent a substantial financial burden. This underscores the need for alternative, cost-effective treatments for the management of UF. DISCLOSURES: This study was sponsored by Allergan, Dublin, Ireland. Allergan played a role in the conduct, analysis, interpretation, writing of the report, and decision to publish this study. Harrington and Ye are employees of Allergan. Stafkey-Mailey, Fuldeore, and Yue are employees of Xcenda. Ta was a contractor at Allergan at the time the study was conducted and is currently supported by a training grant from Allergan. Bonine, Shih, and Gillard are employees of Allergan and have stock, stock options, and/or restricted stock units as employees of Allergan. Banks has no disclosures to report. This study was presented as a poster at Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy Nexus 2017; October 16-19, 2017; Dallas, TX.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Leiomioma/cirurgia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Ablação/economia , Técnicas de Ablação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/economia , Histerectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Leiomioma/economia , Medicaid , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Embolização da Artéria Uterina/economia , Embolização da Artéria Uterina/estatística & dados numéricos , Miomectomia Uterina/economia , Miomectomia Uterina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(2): 268-273, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize trends in self-reported numbers and routes of hysterectomy for obstetrics and gynecology residents using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case log database. METHODS: Hysterectomy case log data for obstetrics and gynecology residents completing training between 2002-2003 and 2017-2018 were abstracted from the ACGME database. Total numbers of hysterectomies and modes of approach (abdominal, laparoscopic, and vaginal) were compared using bivariate statistics, and trends over time were analyzed using simple linear regression. RESULTS: Hysterectomy data were collected from 18,982 obstetrics and gynecology residents in a median of 243 (interquartile range 241-246) ACGME-accredited programs. The number of graduating residents increased significantly over time (12.1/year, P<.001), whereas the number of residency programs decreased significantly (0.52 fewer programs per year, P<.001) over the 16-year period. For cases logged as "surgeon," the median number of abdominal hysterectomies decreased by 56.5% from 85 (interquartile range 69-102) to 37 (interquartile range 34-43) (P<.001). The median number of vaginal hysterectomies decreased by 35.5% from 31 (interquartile range 24-39) to 20 (interquartile range 17-25) (P=.002). The median total number of hysterectomies per resident decreased by 6.3% from 112 (interquartile range 97-132) to 105 (interquartile range 92-121) (P=.036). In contrast, the median number of laparoscopic hysterectomies increased by 115% from 20 (interquartile range 13-28) in 2008-2009 to 43 (interquartile range 32-56) in 2017-2018, despite the decrease in overall number of hysterectomies (P<.001). These trends were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The total number of hysterectomies performed by obstetrics and gynecology residents in the United States is decreasing, and the routes are changing with decreases in abdominal and vaginal approaches, and an increase in use of laparoscopic hysterectomy.


Assuntos
Ginecologia/educação , Histerectomia Vaginal/métodos , Histerectomia Vaginal/tendências , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Obstetrícia/educação , Acreditação , Competência Clínica , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Ginecologia/tendências , Humanos , Histerectomia Vaginal/educação , Internato e Residência/tendências , Laparoscopia/educação , Laparoscopia/tendências , Obstetrícia/tendências , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Surg Educ ; 77(3): 661-670, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate current availability and needs of simulation training among obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) residency programs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited OB/GYN residency programs in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Residency program directors, gynecology simulation faculty, obstetrics simulation faculty, and fourth-year residents. RESULTS: Of 673 invited participants, 251 (37.3%) completed the survey. Among the survey responses, OB procedures were more broadly represented compared to the GYN procedures for simulation teaching: 8 (50%) of 16 OB procedures versus 4 (18.2%) of 22 GYN procedures had simulation teaching. Among the simulated procedures, a majority of residents and faculty reported that simulation teaching was available for operative vaginal delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, perineal laceration repair, conventional laparoscopic procedures, and robotic surgery. There were significant differences between residents and faculty perceptions regarding the availability and needs of simulated procedures with a minority of residents having knowledge of Council on Resident Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology (47.2%) and American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (27.8%) simulation tools compared to the majority of faculty (84.7% and 72.1%, respectively). More than 80% of trainees and faculty reported they felt the average graduating resident could perform vaginal, laparoscopic, and abdominal hysterectomies independently. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation is now widely available for both gynecologic and obstetric procedures, but there remains tremendous heterogeneity between programs and the perceptions of residents, program directors, and faculty. The variations in simulation training and readiness for performing different procedures following residency support the need for objective, validated assessments of actual performance to better guide resident learning and faculty teaching efforts.

13.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 88, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uterine fibroids are non-cancerous overgrowths of the smooth muscle in the uterus. As they grow, some cause problems such as heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, discomfort during sexual intercourse, and rarely pregnancy complications or difficulty becoming pregnant. Multiple treatment options are available. The lack of comparative evidence demonstrating superiority of any one treatment means that choosing the best option is sensitive to individual preferences. Women with fibroids wish to consider treatment trade-offs. Tools known as patient decision aids (PDAs) are effective in increasing patient engagement in the decision-making process. However, the implementation of PDAs in routine care remains challenging. Our aim is to use a multi-component implementation strategy to implement the uterine fibroids Option Grid™ PDAs at five organizational settings in the USA. METHODS: We will conduct a randomized stepped-wedge implementation study where five sites will be randomized to implement the uterine fibroid Option Grid PDA in practice at different time points. Implementation will be guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and Normalization Process Theory (NPT). There will be a 6-month pre-implementation phase, a 2-month initiation phase where participating clinicians will receive training and be introduced to the Option Grid PDAs (available in text, picture, or online formats), and a 6-month active implementation phase where clinicians will be expected to use the PDAs with patients who are assigned female sex at birth, are at least 18 years of age, speak fluent English or Spanish, and have new or recurrent symptoms of uterine fibroids. We will exclude postmenopausal patients. Our primary outcome measure is the number of eligible patients who receive the Option Grid PDAs. We will use logistic and linear regression analyses to compare binary and continuous quantitative outcome measures (including survey scores and Option Grid use) between the pre- and active implementation phases while adjusting for patient and clinician characteristics. DISCUSSION: This study may help identify the factors that impact the implementation and sustained use of a PDA in clinic workflow from various stakeholder perspectives while helping patients with uterine fibroids make treatment decisions that align with their preferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov , NCT03985449. Registered 13 July 2019, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03985449.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Leiomioma/terapia , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Preferência do Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicação , Características Culturais , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoeficácia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 35(11): 1925-1935, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290716

RESUMO

Objective: To perform a retrospective, matched-cohort, longitudinal evaluation of annual pre- and post-diagnosis costs incurred among women with uterine fibroids (UF) (cases) compared to controls without UF. Methods: Data were derived from the IBM Watson Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicaid Multi-State databases. Women aged 18-64 years with ≥1 inpatient or outpatient medical claim with an initial UF diagnosis (index date) from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014 were included. Healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) data including pharmacy, outpatient and inpatient hospital claims were collected for 1 year pre-index and ≤5 years post-index. All-cause costs (adjusted to 2017 $US) were compared between cases and controls using multivariable regression models. Results: Analysis included 205,098 (Commercial) and 24,755 (Medicaid) case-control pairs. HCRU and total all-cause healthcare costs were higher for cases versus controls during the pre-index year and all years post-index. Total unadjusted mean all-cause costs were $1197 higher (p < .0001; Commercial) and $2813 higher (standardized difference 0.08; Medicaid) for cases during the pre-index year. Total adjusted mean all-cause costs in the first year post-index were $14,917 for cases versus $5717 for controls in the Commercial population, and $20,244 versus $10,544, respectively, in the Medicaid population. In Years 2-5 post-index, incremental mean adjusted total costs decreased, but remained significantly higher for cases versus controls at all time points in both populations (all p < .05). Conclusions: Costs were higher for women with UF compared to women without UF during the pre-index year and over 5 years post-index; differences were greatest in the first year post-index.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Recursos em Saúde , Leiomioma/economia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias Uterinas/economia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Leiomioma/terapia , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Uterinas/terapia
15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(8): e1054-e1064, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A ring-shaped, contraceptive vaginal system designed to last 1 year (13 cycles) delivers an average of 0·15 mg segesterone acetate and 0·013 mg ethinylestradiol per day. We evaluated the efficacy of this contraceptive vaginal system and return to menses or pregnancy after use. METHODS: In two identically designed, multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 3 trials (one at 15 US academic and community sites and one at 12 US and international academic and community sites), participants followed a 21-days-in, 7-days-out segesterone acetate and ethinylestradiol contraceptive vaginal system schedule for up to 13 cycles. Participants were healthy, sexually active, non-pregnant, non-sterilised women aged 18-40 years. Women were cautioned that any removals during the 21 days of cyclic use should not exceed 2 h, and used daily paper diaries to record vaginal system use. Consistent with regulatory requirements for contraceptives, we calculated the Pearl Index for women aged 35 years and younger, excluding adjunctive contraception cycles, as the primary efficacy outcome measure. We also did intention-to-treat Kaplan-Meier life table analyses and followed up women who did not use hormonal contraceptives or desired pregnancy after study completion for 6 months for return to menses or pregnancy. The trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00455156 and NCT00263341. FINDINGS: Between Dec 19, 2006, and Oct 9, 2009, at the 15 US sites, and between Nov 1, 2006, and July 2, 2009, at the 12 US and international sites we enrolled 2278 women. Our overall efficacy analysis included 2265 participants (1130 in the US study and 1135 in the international study) and 1303 (57·5%) participants completed up to 13 cycles. The Pearl Index for the primary efficacy group was 2·98 (95% CI 2·13-4·06) per 100 woman-years, and was well within the range indicative of efficacy for a contraceptive under a woman's control. The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed the contraceptive vaginal system was 97·5% effective, which provided further evidence of efficacy. Pregnancy occurrence was similar across cycles. All 290 follow-up participants reported return to menses or became pregnant (24 [63%] of 38 women who desired pregnancy) within 6 months. INTERPRETATION: The segesterone acetate and ethinylestradiol contraceptive vaginal system is an effective contraceptive for 13 consecutive cycles of use. This new product adds to the contraceptive method mix and the 1-year duration of use means that women do not need to return to the clinic or pharmacy for refills every few months. FUNDING: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health, the US Agency for International Development, and the WHO Reproductive Health Research Department.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Etinilestradiol , Bombas de Infusão Implantáveis , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pregnenodionas , Adolescente , Adulto , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg ; 23(6): 392-400, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine the effect of additional cadaver laboratory use in training obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) residents on transobturator vaginal tape (TOT) insertion. METHODS: Thirty-four OBGYN residents were randomized into 2 groups (group 1, control; group 2, intervention; 17 in each group). Before and after the interventions, written knowledge and confidence levels were assessed. Both groups received didactic lectures using a bony pelvis and an instructional video on TOT insertion; group 2 participated in a half day cadaver laboratory. Surgical skills were assessed by placing 1 arm of the TOT trocar on a custom-designed pelvic model simulator while being graded by an Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery (FPMRS) board-certified proctor. RESULTS: Demographics were comparable. Baseline knowledge and confidence level before interventions were similar. After interventions, knowledge scores improved for both groups (8.8% for group 1; 14.1% for group 2); TOT insertion scores were significantly higher in group 2 (6.76/15 ± 2.54 group 1; 10.24/15 ± 2.73 group 2, P < 0.01); confidence scores improved in both groups. The pelvic model simulator was rated as the most useful method to learn TOT placement by group 1. Group 2 rated TOT simulation (47%) and cadaver laboratory (41%). All trainees reported that the pelvic model was highly realistic. CONCLUSIONS: Cadaver laboratory exposure, along with other educational interventions (lectures and video), improves OBGYN residents' confidence, knowledge, and surgical skills regarding TOT placement. The custom-designed pelvic model allows for a realistic simulation of TOT placement: it can be used to assess resident surgical skills and also aid the training of OBGYN residents.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Ginecologia/educação , Obstetrícia/educação , Slings Suburetrais , Adulto , Cadáver , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Modelos Anatômicos
17.
Postgrad Med J ; 91(1082): 685-91, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26508720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benefits of exposure to global health training during medical education are well documented and residents' demand for this training is increasing. Despite this, it is offered by few US obstetrics and gynaecology (OBGYN) residency training programmes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate interest, perceived importance, predictors of global health interest and barriers to offering global health training among prospective OBGYN residents, current OBGYN residents and US OGBYN residency directors. METHODS: We designed two questionnaires using Likert scale questions to assess perceived importance of global health training. The first was distributed to current and prospective OBGYN residents interviewing at a US residency programme during 2012-2013. The second questionnaire distributed to US OBGYN programme directors assessed for existing global health programmes and global health training barriers. A composite Global Health Interest/Importance score was tabulated from the Likert scores. Multivariable linear regression was performed to assess for predictors of Global Health Interest/Importance. RESULTS: A total of 159 trainees (77%; 129 prospective OBGYN residents and 30 residents) and 69 (28%) programme directors completed the questionnaires. Median Global Health Interest/Importance score was 7 (IQR 4-9). Prior volunteer experience was predictive of a 5-point increase in Global Health Interest/Importance score (95% CI -0.19 to 9.85; p=0.02). The most commonly cited barriers were cost and time. CONCLUSION: Interest and perceived importance of global health training in US OBGYN residency programmes is evident among trainees and programme directors; however, significant financial and time barriers prevent many programmes from offering opportunities to their trainees. Prior volunteer experience predicts global health interest.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Saúde Global , Ginecologia/educação , Internato e Residência , Obstetrícia/educação , Médicos , Estudantes , Saúde da Mulher/normas , Currículo , Saúde Global/normas , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25185601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), key regulators of the extracellular matrix composition, in the uterosacral ligaments (USLs) of women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) compared with controls. METHODS: Under an institutional review board approval, USL samples were obtained from women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy for stage 2 or greater POP (cases, n = 21) and from women without POP undergoing vaginal hysterectomy for benign indications (controls, n = 19). Hematoxylin and eosin and trichrome staining were performed on the USL sections, and the distribution of smooth muscle and fibrous tissue were quantified. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti-TGF-ß1 and anti-MMP-9 antibodies. The expressions of TGF-ß1 and MMP-9 were evaluated by the pathologist, who was blinded to all clinical data. RESULTS: Transforming growth factor ß1 expression positively correlated with MMP-9 expression (R = 0.4, P = 0.01). The expressions of TGF-ß1 and MMP-9 were similar in subjects with POP versus controls. There was a significant increase in fibrous tissue (P = 0.008) and a corresponding decrease in smooth muscle (P = 0.03), associated with increasing age. The TGF-ß1 expression, but not MMP-9 expression, also significantly increased with age (P = 0.02). DISCUSSION: Although our study uncovered age-related alterations in USL composition and TGF-ß1 expression, there was no difference in the expression of TGF-ß1 or MMP-9 in the subjects with POP versus controls.


Assuntos
Ligamentos/química , Ligamentos/enzimologia , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/análise , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/análise , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Matriz Extracelular/enzimologia , Feminino , Fibrose/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligamentos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Liso/química , Músculo Liso/enzimologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego
19.
Contraception ; 89(3): 187-92, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24405797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether buccal misoprostol is effective for the treatment of intrauterine fetal death. STUDY DESIGN: This double-blind randomized trial was conducted at five tertiary-level hospitals in the United States and Vietnam. One hundred fifty-three women with an intrauterine fetal death at 14-28 weeks of pregnancy received either 100 mcg buccal misoprostol or 200 mcg buccal misoprostol every 6 h for a maximum of 8 doses. The main outcome measure was the fetal-placental delivery rate within 48 hours of prostaglandin commencement without any additional intervention. RESULTS: Most of the women (140/153) were recruited at the study site in Vietnam. Expulsion of both fetus and placenta within 48 hours of prostaglandin commencement without any additional interventions occurred in 61.8% (47/76) of women receiving misoprostol 100 mcg and 77.9% (60/77) of women receiving misoprostol 200 mcg. The 200 mcg dose was significantly more effective than the 100 mcg dose at expelling the fetus and placenta within 48 h [RR 0.68 (95% CI: 0.50-0.92; p=.03)]. The mean time to expulsion was significantly shorter using the 200 mcg dose (18.5±11.9 h) than the 100 mcg dose (23.9±12.5 h) (p=.02). Most women in both groups found the procedure satisfactory or very satisfactory (100 mcg: 76.7% (56/73); 200 mcg: 89.5% (68/76) [RR 0.86 (95% CI: 0.74-1.00)]. CONCLUSION: Buccal misoprostol is an effective method for medical induction of labor after intrauterine fetal demise. A 200 mcg dose is significantly more effective than 100 mcg for evacuating the uterus within 48h. The treatment is highly acceptable to women. IMPLICATIONS: Administration of 200 mcg buccal misoprostol every six hours is an effective and acceptable method to effect the delivery of a demised fetus at 14-28 weeks that can be feasibly implemented in a wide variety of settings.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Morte Fetal/terapia , Idade Gestacional , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Administração Bucal , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Vietnã
20.
Obstet Gynecol ; 121(5): 1075-82, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23635746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency volumetric thermal ablation of uterine myomas in symptomatic women. METHODS: A cohort of 135 premenopausal symptomatic women with uterine myomas, uteri 14 weeks of gestation-sized or less with no single myoma exceeding 7 cm, and objectively confirmed heavy menstrual bleeding participated in this prospective, international trial of outpatient laparoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency volumetric thermal ablation. Bleeding outcomes were measured by alkaline hematin analysis at baseline and again at 3, 6, and 12 months posttreatment. Validated quality-of-life and patient satisfaction scales and objective measurements of uterine and myoma volume were conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS: The mean baseline menstrual blood loss of women in the full analysis set (n=127) was 272.7±82.3 mL. At 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups, mean alkaline hematin and associated menstrual blood loss decreased from baseline levels by 31.8%, 40.7%, and 38.3%, respectively (P<.001, paired t test). Symptom severity decreased from a baseline mean transformed score of 61.1 to 26.6 at 12 months postprocedure (P<.001, paired t test). Health-related quality of life improved from a mean transformed score of 37.3 at baseline to 79.5 at 12 months (P<.001, paired t test). At 12 months postprocedure, total mean myoma volume decreased from baseline by 45.1% (measured by magnetic resonance imaging). There was one serious adverse event (one of 135 [0.7%]) requiring readmission 5 weeks postprocedure and one surgical reintervention for persistent bleeding. Ninety-four percent of the women reported satisfaction with the treatment. CONCLUSION: Radiofrequency volumetric thermal ablation of myomas is well tolerated and results in rapid recovery, high patient satisfaction, improved quality of life, and effective symptom relief. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: : ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00874029. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Eletrocirurgia , Laparoscopia , Leiomioma/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Neoplasias Uterinas/cirurgia , Técnicas de Ablação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Eletrocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Leiomioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico por imagem
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