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1.
Food Res Int ; 157: 111247, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761558

RESUMO

Filamentous fungi are used in the dairy industry as adjunct cultures in fermented products, but can also lead to food spoilage, waste and economic losses. The control of filamentous fungi with abiotic factors contributes to longer food shelf life and prevention of fungal spoilage. One of the main abiotic factors for controlling fungal growth in foods is water activity (aw). This study aimed to evaluate radial growth as a function of aw for sixteen fungal adjuncts and/or spoilers isolated from dairy products or a dairy environment. Glycerol (a non-ionic compound) and sodium chloride (NaCl, an ionic compound) were used to adjust the aw of culture media. This study showed significant diversity in the responses of the tested fungal strains as a function of medium aw. The growth response of Penicillium bialowiezense and Sporendonema casei was binary, with no clear decrease of growth rate until the growth limit, when the aw was reduced. For the strains of Bisifusarium domesticum, Mucor circinelloides and Penicillium camemberti, a decrease of aw had the same impact on radial growth rate regardless of the aw belonging to their growth range. For the strains of Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium herbarum, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor lanceolatus, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium fuscoglaucum, Penicillium nalgiovense, Paecilomyces niveus, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium solitum and Scopulariopsis asperula, the impact of a decrease in aw was more pronounced at high aw than at low aw. A mathematical model was suggested to describe this impact on the radial growth rate. For all tested species, radial growth was more sensitive to NaCl than glycerol. The ionic strength of NaCl mainly explains the difference in the effects of the two solutes.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio , Água , Laticínios/microbiologia , Glicerol , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
2.
Mar Drugs ; 19(8)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436250

RESUMO

Among the different tools to address the antibiotic resistance crisis, bioprospecting in complex uncharted habitats to detect novel microorganisms putatively producing original antimicrobial compounds can definitely increase the current therapeutic arsenal of antibiotics. Fungi from numerous habitats have been widely screened for their ability to express specific biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) involved in the synthesis of antimicrobial compounds. Here, a collection of unique 75 deep oceanic crust fungi was screened to evaluate their biotechnological potential through the prism of their antimicrobial activity using a polyphasic approach. After a first genetic screening to detect specific BGCs, a second step consisted of an antimicrobial screening that tested the most promising isolates against 11 microbial targets. Here, 12 fungal isolates showed at least one antibacterial and/or antifungal activity (static or lytic) against human pathogens. This analysis also revealed that Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis CIP A 186 were the most impacted, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. A specific focus on three fungal isolates allowed us to detect interesting activity of crude extracts against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, complementary mass spectrometry (MS)-based molecular networking analyses were performed to putatively assign the fungal metabolites and raise hypotheses to link them to the observed antimicrobial activities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Fungos/metabolismo , Animais , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Environ Microbiol ; 22(9): 3950-3967, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743889

RESUMO

The lithified oceanic crust, lower crust gabbros in particular, has remained largely unexplored by microbiologists. Recently, evidence for heterogeneously distributed viable and transcriptionally active autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial populations within low-biomass communities was found down to 750 m below the seafloor at the Atlantis Bank Gabbro Massif, Indian Ocean. Here, we report on the diversity, activity and adaptations of fungal communities in the deep oceanic crust from ~10 to 780 mbsf by combining metabarcoding analyses with mid/high-throughput culturing approaches. Metabarcoding along with culturing indicate a low diversity of viable fungi, mostly affiliated to ubiquitous (terrestrial and aquatic environments) taxa. Ecophysiological analyses coupled with metatranscriptomics point to viable and transcriptionally active fungal populations engaged in cell division, translation, protein modifications and other vital cellular processes. Transcript data suggest possible adaptations for surviving in the nutrient-poor, lithified deep biosphere that include the recycling of organic matter. These active communities appear strongly influenced by the presence of cracks and veins in the rocks where fluids and resulting rock alteration create micro-niches.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Fungos/fisiologia , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Micobioma/genética , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Ciclo do Carbono , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Oceano Índico , Água do Mar/química
4.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 135, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a growing number of investigations on early diverging fungi, the corresponding lineages have not been as extensively characterized as Ascomycota or Basidiomycota ones. The Mucor genus, pertaining to one of these lineages is not an exception. To this date, a restricted number of Mucor annotated genomes is publicly available and mainly correspond to the reference species, Mucor circinelloides, and to medically relevant species. However, the Mucor genus is composed of a large number of ubiquitous species as well as few species that have been reported to specifically occur in certain habitats. The present study aimed to expand the range of Mucor genomes available and identify potential genomic imprints of adaptation to different environments and lifestyles in the Mucor genus. RESULTS: In this study, we report four newly sequenced genomes of Mucor isolates collected from non-clinical environments pertaining to species with contrasted lifestyles, namely Mucor fuscus and Mucor lanceolatus, two species used in cheese production (during ripening), Mucor racemosus, a recurrent cheese spoiler sometimes described as an opportunistic animal and human pathogen, and Mucor endophyticus, a plant endophyte. Comparison of these new genomes with those previously available for six Mucor and two Rhizopus (formerly identified as M. racemosus) isolates allowed global structural and functional description such as their TE content, core and species-specific genes and specialized genes. We proposed gene candidates involved in iron metabolism; some of these genes being known to be involved in pathogenicity; and described patterns such as a reduced number of CAZymes in the species used for cheese ripening as well as in the endophytic isolate that might be related to adaptation to different environments and lifestyles within the Mucor genus. CONCLUSIONS: This study extended the descriptive data set for Mucor genomes, pointed out the complexity of obtaining a robust phylogeny even with multiple genes families and allowed identifying contrasting potentially lifestyle-associated gene repertoires. The obtained data will allow investigating further the link between genetic and its biological data, especially in terms of adaptation to a given habitat.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Genômica , Estilo de Vida , Mucor/genética , Sequência de Bases/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 6(1): e000374, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956802

RESUMO

Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infections are the primary cause of morbi-mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In this cohort study, the objective was to identify candidate biomarkers of P. aeruginosa infection within the airway microbiota. Methods: A 3-year prospective multicentre study (PYOMUCO study) was conducted in Western France and included patients initially P. aeruginosa free for at least 1 year. A 16S-targeted metagenomics approach was applied on iterative sputum samples of a first set of patients (n=33). The composition of airway microbiota was compared according to their P. aeruginosa status at the end of the follow-up (colonised vs non-colonised), and biomarkers associated with P. aeruginosa were screened. In a second step, the distribution of a candidate biomarker according to the two groups of patients was verified by qPCR on a second set of patients (n=52) coming from the same cohort and its load quantified throughout the follow-up. Results: Porphyromonas (mainly P. catoniae) was found to be an enriched phylotype in patients uninfected by P. aeruginosa (p<0.001). This result was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Conversely, in patients who became P. aeruginosa-positive, P. catoniae significantly decreased before P. aeruginosa acquisition (p=0.014). Discussion: Further studies on replication cohorts are needed to validate this potential predictive biomarker, which may be relevant for the follow-up in the early years of patients with CF. The identification of infection candidate biomarkers may offer new strategies for CF precision medicine.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/complicações , Porphyromonas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Mucosa Respiratória/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Criança , Fibrose Cística/imunologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Seguimentos , França , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/imunologia , Porphyromonas/genética , Porphyromonas/imunologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/etiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/imunologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Escarro/microbiologia , Simbiose/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Genomics ; 111(6): 1306-1314, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195068

RESUMO

Mucor species belong to the Mucorales order within the Mucoromycota phylum, an early diverging fungal lineage. Although Mucor species are often ubiquitous some species have been reported to specifically occur in certain ecological niches. In this study, similarities and differences of a representative set of Mucor species with contrasted lifestyles were investigated at the transcriptome level. Five strains pertaining to five different species were studied, namely M. fuscus and M. lanceolatus, two species used in cheese production (during ripening), M. racemosus, a recurrent cheese spoiler sometimes described as an opportunistic pathogen, M. circinelloides, often described as an opportunistic pathogen and M. endophyticus, a plant endophyte. A core transcriptome was delimited and a phylogenetic analysis led to an altered phylogenetic placement of M. endophyticus compared to previously published topologies. Interestingly, the core transcriptome comprising 5566 orthogroups included genes potentially involved in secondary metabolism. As expected, given the wide taxonomic range investigated, the five transcriptomes also displayed specificities that can be, for some of them, linked to the different lifestyles such as differences in the composition of transcripts identified as virulence factors or carbohydrate transporters.


Assuntos
Mucor/genética , Transcriptoma , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mucor/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Análise de Sequência de RNA
7.
Mar Drugs ; 15(4)2017 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28387732

RESUMO

Four bioactive compounds have been isolated from the fungus Oidiodendron griseum UBOCC-A-114129 cultivated from deep subsurface sediment. They were structurally characterized using a combination of LC-MS/MS and NMR analyses as fuscin and its derivatives (dihydrofuscin, dihydrosecofuscin, and secofuscin) and identified as polyketides. Albeit those compounds were already obtained from terrestrial fungi, this is the first report of their production by an Oidiodendron species and by the deepest subseafloor isolate ever studied for biological activities. We report a weak antibacterial activity of dihydrosecofuscin and secofuscin mainly directed against Gram-positive bacteria (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) equal to Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), in the range of 100 µg/mL). The activity on various protein kinases was also analyzed and revealed a significant inhibition of CDC2-like kinase-1 (CLK1) by dihysecofuscin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Policetídeos/farmacologia , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Fatores Biológicos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
8.
Fungal Biol ; 120(8): 1017-1029, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27521633

RESUMO

The fungal genus Cladosporium (Cladosporiaceae, Dothideomycetes) is composed of a large number of species, which can roughly be divided into three main species complexes: Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cladosporium herbarum, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. The aim of this study was to characterize strains isolated from contaminated milk bread rolls by phenotypic and genotypic analyses. Using multilocus data from the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA (rDNA), partial translation elongation factor 1-α, actin, and beta-tubulin gene sequences along with Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and morphological observations, three isolates were identified as a new species in the C. sphaerospermum species complex. This novel species, described here as Cladosporium lebrasiae, is phylogenetically and morphologically distinct from other species in this complex.


Assuntos
Pão/microbiologia , Cladosporium/classificação , Cladosporium/isolamento & purificação , Cladosporium/citologia , Cladosporium/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos , França , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Microscopia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
9.
Genome Announc ; 4(4)2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27389259

RESUMO

Cryptococcus sp. strain Mo29 was isolated from the Rainbow hydrothermal site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of this basidiomycetous yeast strain, which has highlighted its biotechnological potential as revealed by the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites and biotechnologically important enzymes.

10.
Genome Announc ; 4(4)2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27389260

RESUMO

Cadophora malorum Mo12 was isolated from the Rainbow hydrothermal site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We present the draft genome sequence of this filamentous fungal strain, which has high biotechnological potentials as revealed by the presence of genes encoding biotechnologically important enzymes and genes involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites.

11.
Food Microbiol ; 57: 1-7, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27052695

RESUMO

Penicillium camemberti is a technologically relevant fungus used to manufacture mold-ripened cheeses. This fungal species produces many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including ammonia, methyl-ketones, alcohols and esters. Although it is now well known that VOCs can act as signaling molecules, nothing is known about their involvement in P. camemberti lifecycle. In this study, spore germination was shown to be self-regulated by quorum sensing in P. camemberti. This phenomenon, also called "crowding effect", is population-dependent (i.e. observed at high population densities). After determining the volatile nature of the compounds involved in this process, 1-octanol was identified as the main compound produced at high-spore density using GC-MS. Its inhibitory effect was confirmed in vitro and 3 mM 1-octanol totally inhibited spore germination while 100 µM only transiently inhibited spore germination. This is the first time that self-inhibition of spore germination is demonstrated in P. camemberti. The obtained results provide interesting perspectives for better control of mold-ripened cheese processes.


Assuntos
1-Octanol/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Penicillium/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , 1-Octanol/análise , Antifúngicos/análise , Queijo/microbiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
12.
Mar Drugs ; 14(3)2016 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26978374

RESUMO

The evolving global threat of antimicrobial resistance requires a deep renewal of the antibiotic arsenal including the isolation and characterization of new drugs. Underexplored marine ecosystems may represent an untapped reservoir of novel bioactive molecules. Deep-sea fungi isolated from a record-depth sediment core of almost 2000 m below the seafloor were investigated for antimicrobial activities. This antimicrobial screening, using 16 microbial targets, revealed 33% of filamentous fungi synthesizing bioactive compounds with activities against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Interestingly, occurrence of antimicrobial producing isolates was well correlated with the complexity of the habitat (in term of microbial richness), as higher antimicrobial activities were obtained at specific layers of the sediment core. It clearly highlights complex deep-sea habitats as chemical battlefields where synthesis of numerous bioactive compounds appears critical for microbial competition. The six most promising deep subseafloor fungal isolates were selected for the production and extraction of bioactive compounds. Depending on the fungal isolates, antimicrobial compounds were only biosynthesized in semi-liquid or solid-state conditions as no antimicrobial activities were ever detected using liquid fermentation. An exception was made for one fungal isolate, and the extraction procedure designed to extract amphipathic compounds was successful and highlighted the amphiphilic profile of the bioactive metabolites.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia
13.
J Clin Virol ; 74: 19-25, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26655076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5A is known to play a role in development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via interactions with host cell pathways. OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b strains presenting a wide insertion of 31 amino acids in the non-structural protein 5A V3 domain (V3 DI) were studied to determine whether this V3-like additional domain (V3 DII) was associated with HCC occurrence. STUDY DESIGN: Seventy-four patients' sera were screened for V3 DII presence regarding clinical status. RESULTS: Three strains with duplicated V3 were detected among patients with progression to HCC (n=28), two strains among patients with liver cirrhosis (Ci, n=27) and none among patients with chronic hepatitis (Chr, n=19). Phylogenetic trees built from V3 DI and V3 DII sequences indicated that the latter clustered separately. In between-group clonal analysis, V3 DII sequences from the HCC group were found to be more distant from HCV-J than V3 DI sequences (p<0.0001). Between-group comparisons showed significant differences in genetic distances from HCV-J, in HCC V3 DI and HCC V3 DII compared to Ci V3 DI and Ci V3 DII sequences (p<0.0001). HCC V3 DII domain and its junction with V3 DI exhibited higher Shannon entropy values and enrichment in disorder-promoting residues. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that V3 DII evolution may differ in strains associated with HCC occurrence. The presence of an intrinsically "disordered" V3 duplicate may alter the NS5A protein network. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the potential impact of V3 duplication in the context of carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Duplicação Gênica , Hepacivirus/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutagênese Insercional , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Springerplus ; 4: 405, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26266076

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly more prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.

15.
Res Microbiol ; 166(9): 700-9, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26226336

RESUMO

Hydrostatic pressure plays a significant role in the distribution of life in the biosphere. Knowledge of deep-sea piezotolerant and (hyper)piezophilic bacteria and archaea diversity has been well documented, along with their specific adaptations to cope with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Recent investigations of deep-sea microbial community compositions have shown unexpected micro-eukaryotic communities, mainly dominated by fungi. Molecular methods such as next-generation sequencing have been used for SSU rRNA gene sequencing to reveal fungal taxa. Currently, a difficult but fascinating challenge for marine mycologists is to create deep-sea marine fungus culture collections and assess their ability to cope with pressure. Indeed, although there is no universal genetic marker for piezoresistance, physiological analyses provide concrete relevant data for estimating their adaptations and understanding the role of fungal communities in the abyss. The present study investigated morphological and physiological responses of fungi to HHP using a collection of deep-sea yeasts as a model. The aim was to determine whether deep-sea yeasts were able to tolerate different HHP and if they were metabolically active. Here we report an unexpected taxonomic-based dichotomic response to pressure with piezosensitve ascomycetes and piezotolerant basidiomycetes, and distinct morphological switches triggered by pressure for certain strains.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Pressão Hidrostática , Fontes Hidrotermais/microbiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/ultraestrutura , Basidiomycota/genética , Basidiomycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Basidiomycota/ultraestrutura , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0124124, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25853698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airway microbiota composition has been clearly correlated with many pulmonary diseases, and notably with cystic fibrosis (CF), an autosomal genetic disorder caused by mutation in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Recently, a new molecule, ivacaftor, has been shown to re-establish the functionality of the G551D-mutated CFTR, allowing significant improvement in lung function. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: The purpose of this study was to follow the evolution of the airway microbiota in CF patients treated with ivacaftor, using quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons, in order to identify quantitative and qualitative changes in bacterial communities. Three G551D children were followed up longitudinally over a mean period of more than one year covering several months before and after initiation of ivacaftor treatment. RESULTS: 129 operational taxonomy units (OTUs), representing 64 genera, were identified. There was no significant difference in total bacterial load before and after treatment. Comparison of global community composition found no significant changes in microbiota. Two OTUs, however, showed contrasting dynamics: after initiation of ivacaftor, the relative abundance of the anaerobe Porphyromonas 1 increased (p<0.01) and that of Streptococcus 1 (S. mitis group) decreased (p<0.05), possibly in relation to the anti-Gram-positive properties of ivacaftor. The anaerobe Prevotella 2 correlated positively with the pulmonary function test FEV-1 (r=0.73, p<0.05). The study confirmed the presumed positive role of anaerobes in lung function. CONCLUSION: Several airway microbiota components, notably anaerobes (obligate or facultative anaerobes), could be valuable biomarkers of lung function improvement under ivacaftor, and could shed light on the pathophysiology of lung disease in CF patients.


Assuntos
Aminofenóis/uso terapêutico , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Anaerobiose/fisiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Criança , Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/agonistas , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação , Porphyromonas/genética , Porphyromonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Porphyromonas/isolamento & purificação , Prevotella/genética , Prevotella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Testes de Função Respiratória , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Clin Microbiol ; 53(6): 1898-907, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25854483

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent lethal genetic disease in the Caucasian population. Lung destruction is the principal cause of death by chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization. There is a high prevalence of oropharyngeal anaerobic bacteria in sputum of CF patients. This study was carried out due to the lack of results comparing subgingival periodontal pathogenic bacteria between the oral cavity and lungs in patients with CF in relation with P. aeruginosa presence. Our first goal was to detect P. aeruginosa in oral and sputum samples by culture and molecular methods and to determine clonality of isolates. In addition, subgingival periodontal anaerobic bacteria were searched for in sputum. A cross-sectional pilot case-control study was conducted in the CF Reference Center in Roscoff, France. Ten CF patients with a ΔF508 homozygous mutation (5 chronically colonized [CC] and 5 not colonized [NC]) were enrolled. P. aeruginosa was detected in saliva, sputum, and subgingival plaque samples by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Subsequently, periodontal bacteria were also detected and quantified in subgingival plaque and sputum samples by qPCR. In CC patients, P. aeruginosa was recovered in saliva and subgingival plaque samples. Sixteen P. aeruginosa strains were isolated in saliva and sputum from this group and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Subgingival periodontal anaerobic bacteria were found in sputum samples. A lower diversity of these species was recovered in the CC patients than in the NC patients. The presence of the same P. aeruginosa clonal types in saliva and sputum samples underlines that the oral cavity is a possible reservoir for lung infection.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 81(10): 3571-83, 2015 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25769836

RESUMO

The fungal kingdom is replete with unique adaptive capacities that allow fungi to colonize a wide variety of habitats, ranging from marine habitats to freshwater and terrestrial habitats. The diversity, importance, and ecological roles of marine fungi have recently been highlighted in deep-subsurface sediments using molecular methods. Fungi in the deep-marine subsurface may be specifically adapted to life in the deep biosphere, but this can be demonstrated only using culture-based analyses. In this study, we investigated culturable fungal communities from a record-depth sediment core sampled from the Canterbury Basin (New Zealand) with the aim to reveal endemic or ubiquist adapted isolates playing a significant ecological role(s). About 200 filamentous fungi (68%) and yeasts (32%) were isolated. Fungal isolates were affiliated with the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, including 21 genera. Screening for genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis also revealed their bioactive compound synthesis potential. Our results provide evidence that deep-subsurface fungal communities are able to survive, adapt, grow, and interact with other microbial communities and highlight that the deep-sediment habitat is another ecological niche for fungi.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/fisiologia , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Ecossistema , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Nova Zelândia , Filogenia
19.
Food Microbiol ; 45(Pt A): 10-7, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25481057

RESUMO

Few antifungal protective cultures adapted to fermented dairy products are commercially available because of the numerous constraints linked to their market implementation. Consumer's demand for naturally preserved food products is growing and the utilization of lactic acid bacteria is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this study, using a 2(5-1) factorial fractional design, we first evaluated the effects of fermentation time, of initial sucrose concentration and of the initial contamination amount of a spoilage yeast, on antifungal activities of single and mixed cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus K.C8.3.1I and Lactobacillus harbinensis K.V9.3.1Np in yogurt. L. harbinensis K.V9.3.1Np, the most relevant strain with regard to antifungal activity was then studied to determine its minimal inhibitory inoculation rate, its antifungal stability during storage and its impact on yogurt organoleptic properties. We showed that L. harbinensis K.V9.3.1Np maintained a stable antifungal activity over time, which was not affected by initial sucrose, nor by a reduction of the fermentation time. This inhibitory activity was an all-or-nothing phenomenon. Once L. harbinensis K.V9.3.1Np reached a population of ∼ 2.5 × 10(6) cfu/g of yogurt at the time of contamination, total inhibition of the yeast was achieved. We also showed that an inoculation rate of 5 × 10(6) cfu/ml in milk had no detrimental effect on yogurt organoleptic properties. In conclusion, L. harbinensis K.V9.3.1Np is a promising antifungal bioprotective strain for yogurt preservation.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Yarrowia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Iogurte/microbiologia , Antifúngicos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Fermentação , Contaminação de Alimentos , Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus/fisiologia , Sacarose/metabolismo
20.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 90(3): 908-21, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25348233

RESUMO

The deep subseafloor, extending from a few centimeters below the sediment surface to several hundred meters into sedimentary deposits, constitutes the deep biosphere and harbors an unexpected microbial diversity. Several studies have described the occurrence, turnover, activity and function of subseafloor prokaryotes; however, subsurface eukaryotic communities still remain largely underexplored. Ribosomal RNA surveys of superficial and near-surface marine sediments have revealed an unexpected diversity of active eukaryotic communities, but knowledge of the diversity of deep subseafloor microeukaryotes is still scarce. Here, we investigated the vertical distribution of DNA and RNA fungal signatures within subseafloor sediments of the Canterbury basin (New Zealand) by 454 pyrotag sequencing of fungal genetic markers. Different shifts between the fungal classes of Tremellomycetes, Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Saccharomycetes, Wallemiomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Exobasidiomycetes and Microbotryomycetes were observed. These data provide direct evidence that fungal communities occur at record depths in deep sediments of the Canterbury basin and extend the depth limit of fungal presence and activity, respectively 1740 and 346 mbsf. As most of the fungal sequences retrieved have a cosmopolitan distribution, it indicates that fungi are able to adapt to the deep subseafloor conditions at record-depth and must play important ecological roles in biogeochemical cycles.


Assuntos
Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Consórcios Microbianos/genética , Sequência de Bases , Nova Zelândia , Oceanos e Mares , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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