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1.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(3): e00110121, 2022.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384994

RESUMO

The study aimed to present the methodological proposal entitled "Prompt Response", modelled in the cities of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais State) and Natal (Rio Grande do Norte State), Brazil. The proposal aims to identify and demarcate priority areas for timely targeting of surveillance activities, aiming to reduce the intensity and velocity in the spread of epidemics in endemic urban areas. The methodology uses three variables that represent the necessary causes for the production and reproduction of dengue: notified cases (virus), Aedes eggs (vector), and population (host). This was an ecological study that used data from three information planes aggregated in finer temporal and spatial scales of 3 to 4 weeks and 400 to 600-meter grids, respectively. The prompt response areas were defined by Scan statistical analysis with definition of simultaneous spatial clusters for the three planes via the SaTScan program. In Natal, the areas defined as prompt response occupied, on average, 15.2% of the city's territory and concentrated 67.77% of the dengue cases in the period following demarcation of the prompt response areas. In Belo Horizonte, the observed proportions were 64.16% of cases in 23.23% of the territory. These results were obtained in two cities with different socioenvironmental and geographic realities and distinct epidemiological profiles, indicating that the methodology can be applied to different urban realities, allowing control programs to concentrate on reduced portions of the territory and impacting a high percentage of cases in timely fashion.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar a proposta metodológica denominada de "Pronta Resposta" modelada nas cidades de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais) e Natal (Rio Grande do Norte), Brasil. A metodologia visa identificar e delimitar áreas prioritárias para o direcionamento das ações de vigilância em tempo oportuno, buscando a redução da intensidade e velocidade da dispersão de epidemias em áreas urbanas endêmicas. Para tanto, a metodologia utiliza três variáveis, que representam as causas necessárias para a produção e reprodução da dengue: casos notificados (vírus), ovos de Aedes (vetor) e população (hospedeiro). Trata-se de um estudo ecológico que utilizou os dados dos três planos de informações agregados em escalas temporais e espaciais mais finas, de três a quatro semanas e grades de 400 a 600 metros respectivamente. As áreas de pronta resposta foram definidas por meio de análise estatística de varredura Scan, com definição de clusters espaciais simultâneos para os três planos por meio do programa SaTScan. Os resultados observados foram: na cidade de Natal, as áreas definidas como pronta resposta ocuparam em média 15,2% do território do município e concentraram 67,77% dos casos de dengue do período posterior ao utilizado na delimitação das áreas de pronta resposta, e em Belo Horizonte, os números observados foram de 64,16% dos casos em 23,23% do território. Esses resultados foram obtidos em duas cidades com realidades socioambientais e geográficas diferentes e com perfis epidemiológicos também distintos, apontando que a metodologia pode ser aplicada em diferentes realidades urbanas, criando a possibilidade de os programas de controle atuarem em porções reduzidas do território e impactar num alto percentual de casos em tempo oportuno.


El objetivo del trabajo fue presentar la propuesta metodológica, denominada de "Resposta Rápida", modelada en las ciudades de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais) y Natal (Rio Grande do Norte), Brasil. Esta última tiene como meta identificar y delimitar áreas prioritarias para la ejecución de acciones de vigilancia en el momento oportuno, buscando la reducción de la intensidad y velocidad de la dispersión de epidemias en áreas urbanas endémicas. Para tal fin, la metodología utiliza tres variables, que representan las causas necesarias para la producción y reproducción del dengue: casos notificados (virus), huevos de Aedes (vector) y población (huésped). Se trata de un estudio ecológico que utilizó los datos de los tres planos de información agregados en escalas temporales y espaciales más finas, de 3 a 4 semanas y tablas de 400 a 600 metros respectivamente. Las áreas de respuesta rápida se definieron a través del análisis estadístico de exploración Scan, con definición de clústeres espaciales simultáneos para los tres planos mediante el programa SaTScan. Los resultados observados fueron: en la ciudad de Natal, las áreas definidas como de respuesta rápida ocuparon de media un 15,2% del territorio del municipio y concentraron un 67,77% de los casos de dengue del período posterior al utilizado en la delimitación de las áreas de respuesta rápida y, en Belo Horizonte, los números observados fueron un 64,16% de los casos en un 23,23% del territorio. Estos resultados se obtuvieron en dos ciudades con realidades socioambientales y geográficas diferentes y con perfiles epidemiológicos también distintos, apuntando que la metodología se puede aplicar en diferentes realidades urbanas. Dando la posibilidad de que los programas de control actúen en secciones reducidas del territorio e impactar en un alto porcentaje de casos en el momento oportuno.


Assuntos
Aedes , Infecções por Arbovirus , Dengue , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores
2.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; : 100221, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35309089

RESUMO

Background: Brazil has been severely impacted by COVID-19 pandemics that is aggravated by the absence of a scientifically-driven coordinated informative campaign and the interference in public health management, which ultimately affected health measures to avoid SARS-CoV2 spread. The decentralization and resultant conflicts in disease control activities produced different protection behaviours and local government measures. In the present study, we investigated how political partisanship and socio-economic factors determined the outcome of COVID-19 at the local level in Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study of COVID-19 deaths was carried out using mortality databases between Feb 2020, and Jun 2021 for the 5570 Brazilian municipalities. Socio-economic parameters including city categories, income and inequality indexes, health service quality and partisanship, assessed by the result of the second round of the 2018 Brazilian presidential elections, were included. Regression tree analysis was carried out to identify the statistical significance and conditioning relationships of variables. Findings: Municipalities that supported then-candidate Jair Bolsonaro in the 2018 elections were those that had the worst COVID-19 mortality rates, mainly during the second epidemic wave of 2021. This pattern was observed even considering structural inequalities among cities. Interpretation: In general, the first phase of the pandemic hit large and central cities hardest, while the second wave mostly impacted Bolsonarian municipalities, where scientific denialism among the population was stronger. Negative effects of partisanship towards the right-wing on COVID-19 outcomes counterbalances favourable socioeconomic indexes in affluent Brazilian cities. Our results underscore the fragility of public health policies which were undermined by the scientific denialism of right-wing supporters in Brazil. Funding: International joint laboratories of Institute de Recherche pour le Développement, a partnership between the University of Brasília and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (LMI-Sentinela - UnB - Fiocruz - IRD), Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq).

3.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 23, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an arbovirus that, despite the existence of a safe and effective vaccine, continues to cause outbreaks of varying dimensions in the Americas and Africa. Between 2017 and 2019, Brazil registered un unprecedented sylvatic YFV outbreak whose severity was the result of its spread into zones of the Atlantic Forest with no signals of viral circulation for nearly 80 years. METHODS: To investigate the influence of climatic, environmental, and ecological factors governing the dispersion and force of infection of YFV in a naïve area such as the landscape mosaic of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), we combined the analyses of a large set of data including entomological sampling performed before and during the 2017-2019 outbreak, with the geolocation of human and nonhuman primates (NHP) and mosquito infections. RESULTS: A greater abundance of Haemagogus mosquitoes combined with lower richness and diversity of mosquito fauna increased the probability of finding a YFV-infected mosquito. Furthermore, the analysis of functional traits showed that certain functional groups, composed mainly of Aedini mosquitoes which includes Aedes and Haemagogus mosquitoes, are also more representative in areas where infected mosquitoes were found. Human and NHP infections were more common in two types of landscapes: large and continuous forest, capable of harboring many YFV hosts, and patches of small forest fragments, where environmental imbalance can lead to a greater density of the primary vectors and high human exposure. In both, we show that most human infections (~ 62%) occurred within an 11-km radius of the finding of an infected NHP, which is in line with the flight range of the primary vectors. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our data suggest that entomological data and landscape composition analyses may help to predict areas permissive to yellow fever outbreaks, allowing protective measures to be taken to avoid human cases.


Assuntos
Brasil , Culicidae , Surtos de Doenças , Mosquitos Vetores , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Clima , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culicidae/virologia , Florestas , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia
4.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(3): e00110121, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364629

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar a proposta metodológica denominada de "Pronta Resposta" modelada nas cidades de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais) e Natal (Rio Grande do Norte), Brasil. A metodologia visa identificar e delimitar áreas prioritárias para o direcionamento das ações de vigilância em tempo oportuno, buscando a redução da intensidade e velocidade da dispersão de epidemias em áreas urbanas endêmicas. Para tanto, a metodologia utiliza três variáveis, que representam as causas necessárias para a produção e reprodução da dengue: casos notificados (vírus), ovos de Aedes (vetor) e população (hospedeiro). Trata-se de um estudo ecológico que utilizou os dados dos três planos de informações agregados em escalas temporais e espaciais mais finas, de três a quatro semanas e grades de 400 a 600 metros respectivamente. As áreas de pronta resposta foram definidas por meio de análise estatística de varredura Scan, com definição de clusters espaciais simultâneos para os três planos por meio do programa SaTScan. Os resultados observados foram: na cidade de Natal, as áreas definidas como pronta resposta ocuparam em média 15,2% do território do município e concentraram 67,77% dos casos de dengue do período posterior ao utilizado na delimitação das áreas de pronta resposta, e em Belo Horizonte, os números observados foram de 64,16% dos casos em 23,23% do território. Esses resultados foram obtidos em duas cidades com realidades socioambientais e geográficas diferentes e com perfis epidemiológicos também distintos, apontando que a metodologia pode ser aplicada em diferentes realidades urbanas, criando a possibilidade de os programas de controle atuarem em porções reduzidas do território e impactar num alto percentual de casos em tempo oportuno.


The study aimed to present the methodological proposal entitled "Prompt Response", modelled in the cities of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais State) and Natal (Rio Grande do Norte State), Brazil. The proposal aims to identify and demarcate priority areas for timely targeting of surveillance activities, aiming to reduce the intensity and velocity in the spread of epidemics in endemic urban areas. The methodology uses three variables that represent the necessary causes for the production and reproduction of dengue: notified cases (virus), Aedes eggs (vector), and population (host). This was an ecological study that used data from three information planes aggregated in finer temporal and spatial scales of 3 to 4 weeks and 400 to 600-meter grids, respectively. The prompt response areas were defined by Scan statistical analysis with definition of simultaneous spatial clusters for the three planes via the SaTScan program. In Natal, the areas defined as prompt response occupied, on average, 15.2% of the city's territory and concentrated 67.77% of the dengue cases in the period following demarcation of the prompt response areas. In Belo Horizonte, the observed proportions were 64.16% of cases in 23.23% of the territory. These results were obtained in two cities with different socioenvironmental and geographic realities and distinct epidemiological profiles, indicating that the methodology can be applied to different urban realities, allowing control programs to concentrate on reduced portions of the territory and impacting a high percentage of cases in timely fashion.


El objetivo del trabajo fue presentar la propuesta metodológica, denominada de "Resposta Rápida", modelada en las ciudades de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais) y Natal (Rio Grande do Norte), Brasil. Esta última tiene como meta identificar y delimitar áreas prioritarias para la ejecución de acciones de vigilancia en el momento oportuno, buscando la reducción de la intensidad y velocidad de la dispersión de epidemias en áreas urbanas endémicas. Para tal fin, la metodología utiliza tres variables, que representan las causas necesarias para la producción y reproducción del dengue: casos notificados (virus), huevos de Aedes (vector) y población (huésped). Se trata de un estudio ecológico que utilizó los datos de los tres planos de información agregados en escalas temporales y espaciales más finas, de 3 a 4 semanas y tablas de 400 a 600 metros respectivamente. Las áreas de respuesta rápida se definieron a través del análisis estadístico de exploración Scan, con definición de clústeres espaciales simultáneos para los tres planos mediante el programa SaTScan. Los resultados observados fueron: en la ciudad de Natal, las áreas definidas como de respuesta rápida ocuparon de media un 15,2% del territorio del municipio y concentraron un 67,77% de los casos de dengue del período posterior al utilizado en la delimitación de las áreas de respuesta rápida y, en Belo Horizonte, los números observados fueron un 64,16% de los casos en un 23,23% del territorio. Estos resultados se obtuvieron en dos ciudades con realidades socioambientales y geográficas diferentes y con perfiles epidemiológicos también distintos, apuntando que la metodología se puede aplicar en diferentes realidades urbanas. Dando la posibilidad de que los programas de control actúen en secciones reducidas del territorio e impactar en un alto porcentaje de casos en el momento oportuno.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Aedes/fisiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(12): e0009773, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882679

RESUMO

Dengue is hyperendemic in Brazil, with outbreaks affecting all regions. Previous studies identified geographical barriers to dengue transmission in Brazil, beyond which certain areas, such as South Brazil and the Amazon rainforest, were relatively protected from outbreaks. Recent data shows these barriers are being eroded. In this study, we explore the drivers of this expansion and identify the current limits to the dengue transmission zone. We used a spatio-temporal additive model to explore the associations between dengue outbreaks and temperature suitability, urbanisation, and connectivity to the Brazilian urban network. The model was applied to a binary outbreak indicator, assuming the official threshold value of 300 cases per 100,000 residents, for Brazil's municipalities between 2001 and 2020. We found a nonlinear relationship between higher levels of connectivity to the Brazilian urban network and the odds of an outbreak, with lower odds in metropoles compared to regional capitals. The number of months per year with suitable temperature conditions for Aedes mosquitoes was positively associated with the dengue outbreak occurrence. Temperature suitability explained most interannual and spatial variation in South Brazil, confirming this geographical barrier is influenced by lower seasonal temperatures. Municipalities that had experienced an outbreak previously had double the odds of subsequent outbreaks. We identified geographical barriers to dengue transmission in South Brazil, western Amazon, and along the northern coast of Brazil. Although a southern barrier still exists, it has shifted south, and the Amazon no longer has a clear boundary. Few areas of Brazil remain protected from dengue outbreaks. Communities living on the edge of previous barriers are particularly susceptible to future outbreaks as they lack immunity. Control strategies should target regions at risk of future outbreaks as well as those currently within the dengue transmission zone.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Aedes/fisiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Clima , Dengue/transmissão , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Temperatura , Urbanização
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(9): 4263-4274, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586277

RESUMO

Due to intense ongoing urbanization in the Amazon, the urban pattern of malaria may be changing, both in its spatial distribution and epidemiological profile. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the process of production of urban space in Porto Velho, the capital of the state of Rondonia, Brazil has contributed to the occurrence and maintenance of urban malaria. Using data collected from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance System (SIVEP-Malaria), we calculated malaria indices for the districts of Porto Velho from 2005 to 2018. We also developed two typologies for classifying urban space based on functional characteristics and features of the landscape. While the former considers characteristics of urban space in Porto Velho, the latter is based on suitability for malaria vectors. We found that the annual parasite index declined in Porto Velho during the study period. However, changes in the index were not uniform across the districts of the city. Periurban areas showed no decline in the index, which we attribute to these areas' high vegetation density and hydrological characteristics.


Assuntos
Malária , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Malária/epidemiologia
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(9): 4263-4274, set. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339602

RESUMO

Abstract Due to intense ongoing urbanization in the Amazon, the urban pattern of malaria may be changing, both in its spatial distribution and epidemiological profile. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the process of production of urban space in Porto Velho, the capital of the state of Rondonia, Brazil has contributed to the occurrence and maintenance of urban malaria. Using data collected from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance System (SIVEP-Malaria), we calculated malaria indices for the districts of Porto Velho from 2005 to 2018. We also developed two typologies for classifying urban space based on functional characteristics and features of the landscape. While the former considers characteristics of urban space in Porto Velho, the latter is based on suitability for malaria vectors. We found that the annual parasite index declined in Porto Velho during the study period. However, changes in the index were not uniform across the districts of the city. Periurban areas showed no decline in the index, which we attribute to these areas' high vegetation density and hydrological characteristics.


Resumo A Amazônia tem passado por um intenso processo de urbanização em anos recentes, produzindo transformações na organização espacial da região que podem estar refletindo no padrão espaço temporal da malária urbana. O objetivo deste trabalho é compreender como o processo de produção do espaço urbano do município de Porto Velho-RO, tem corroborado para a ocorrência e manutenção da malária urbana. Os dados levantados no Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica (SIVEP-Malária) possibilitaram o cálculo do Índice Parasitário Anual (IPA) de malária para os bairros da cidade de Porto Velho dos anos de 2005 a 2018 e a construção de duas tipologias da paisagem do espaço urbano. A primeira considerou o processo de produção do espaço urbano de Porto Velho; a segunda se baseou nas condições de receptividade para o vetor da malária. A ocorrência da malária em Porto Velho vem declinando de forma diferenciada ao longo do território, havendo uma tendência de permanência nas áreas periurbanas com maior densidade de vegetação e hidrografia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Cidades/epidemiologia
8.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 92, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance and infectious agents have challenged hospitals in recent decades. Our aim was to investigate the circulation of target infectious agents using Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial-temporal statistics to improve surveillance and control of healthcare-associated infection and of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), using Klebsiella pneumoniae complex as a model. METHODS: A retrospective study carried out in a 450-bed federal, tertiary hospital, located in Rio de Janeiro. All isolates of K. pneumoniae complex from clinical and surveillance cultures of hospitalized patients between 2014 and 2016, identified by the use of Vitek-2 system (BioMérieux), were extracted from the hospital's microbiology laboratory database. A basic scaled map of the hospital's physical structure was created in AutoCAD and converted to QGis software (version 2.18). Thereafter, bacteria according to resistance profiles and patients with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKp) complex were georeferenced by intensive and nonintensive care wards. Space-time permutation probability scan tests were used for cluster signals detection. RESULTS: Of the total 759 studied isolates, a significant increase in the resistance profile of K. pneumoniae complex was detected during the studied years. We also identified two space-time clusters affecting adult and paediatric patients harbouring CRKp complex on different floors, unnoticed by regular antimicrobial resistance surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital GIS with space-time statistical analysis can be applied in hospitals. This spatial methodology has the potential to expand and facilitate early detection of hospital outbreaks and may become a new tool in combating AMR or hospital-acquired infection.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Brasil , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Centros de Atenção Terciária
9.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(4): e209-e219, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temperature and rainfall patterns are known to influence seasonal patterns of dengue transmission. However, the effect of severe drought and extremely wet conditions on the timing and intensity of dengue epidemics is poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to quantify the non-linear and delayed effects of extreme hydrometeorological hazards on dengue risk by level of urbanisation in Brazil using a spatiotemporal model. METHODS: We combined distributed lag non-linear models with a spatiotemporal Bayesian hierarchical model framework to determine the exposure-lag-response association between the relative risk (RR) of dengue and a drought severity index. We fit the model to monthly dengue case data for the 558 microregions of Brazil between January, 2001, and January, 2019, accounting for unobserved confounding factors, spatial autocorrelation, seasonality, and interannual variability. We assessed the variation in RR by level of urbanisation through an interaction between the drought severity index and urbanisation. We also assessed the effect of hydrometeorological hazards on dengue risk in areas with a high frequency of water supply shortages. FINDINGS: The dataset included 12 895 293 dengue cases reported between 2001 and 2019 in Brazil. Overall, the risk of dengue increased between 0-3 months after extremely wet conditions (maximum RR at 1 month lag 1·56 [95% CI 1·41-1·73]) and 3-5 months after drought conditions (maximum RR at 4 months lag 1·43 [1·22-1·67]). Including a linear interaction between the drought severity index and level of urbanisation improved the model fit and showed the risk of dengue was higher in more rural areas than highly urbanised areas during extremely wet conditions (maximum RR 1·77 [1·32-2·37] at 0 months lag vs maximum RR 1·58 [1·39-1·81] at 2 months lag), but higher in highly urbanised areas than rural areas after extreme drought (maximum RR 1·60 [1·33-1·92] vs 1·15 [1·08-1·22], both at 4 months lag). We also found the dengue risk following extreme drought was higher in areas that had a higher frequency of water supply shortages. INTERPRETATION: Wet conditions and extreme drought can increase the risk of dengue with different delays. The risk associated with extremely wet conditions was higher in more rural areas and the risk associated with extreme drought was exacerbated in highly urbanised areas, which have water shortages and intermittent water supply during droughts. These findings have implications for targeting mosquito control activities in poorly serviced urban areas, not only during the wet and warm season, but also during drought periods. FUNDING: Royal Society, Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, National Institutes of Health, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico. TRANSLATION: For the Portuguese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Dengue , Urbanização , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Temperatura , Estados Unidos
10.
Cad. saúde colet., (Rio J.) ; 29(spe): 51-58, 2021. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364657

RESUMO

Resumo Introdução O termo "big data" no ambiente acadêmico tem deixado de ser uma novidade, tornando-se mais comum em publicações científicas e em editais de fomento à pesquisa, levando a uma revisão profunda da ciência que se faz e se ensina. Objetivo Refletir sobre as possíveis mudanças que as ciências de dados podem provocar nas áreas de estudos populacionais e de saúde. Método Para fomentar esta reflexão, artigos científicos selecionados da área de big data em saúde e demografia foram contrastados com livros e outras produções científicas. Resultados Argumenta-se que o volume dos dados não é a característica mais promissora de big data para estudos populacionais e de saúde, mas a complexidade dos dados e a possibilidade de integração com estudos convencionais por meio de equipes interdisciplinares são promissoras. Conclusão No âmbito do setor de saúde e de estudos populacionais, as possibilidades da integração dos novos métodos de ciência de dados aos métodos tradicionais de pesquisa são amplas, incluindo um novo ferramental para a análise, monitoramento, predição de eventos (casos) e situações de saúde-doença na população e para o estudo dos determinantes socioambientais e demográficos.


Abstract Background The term big data is no longer new in the academic environment and has become more common in scientific publications and research grants, leading to a profound revision of the way science is being made and taught. Objective To reflect on the possible changes that data science can induce in population and health related studies. Method To foster this debate, scientific articles selected from the big data field in health and demography were contrasted with books and other scientific productions. Results It is argued that volume is not the most promising characteristic of big data for population and health related studies, but rather the complexity of data and the possibilities of integration with traditional studies by means of interdisciplinary teams. Conclusion In population and health related studies, the possibilities of integration between new and traditional methods are broad, and include new toolboxes for analysis, monitoring, prediction of events (cases) and health-disease processes in the population, and for the study of sociodemographic and environmental determinants.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rio de Janeiro is the second-largest city in Brazil, with strong socio-spatial segregation, and diverse and heterogeneous land use, occupation, and landscapes. The complexity of dengue requires the construction of surveillance and control tools that take into account the historical, social, economic, and environmental processes mediated in the territory as a central axis of public policy. In this context, this study aimed to stratify the city into areas of receptivity to dengue, using innovative "territorial indicators" because they are built based on the actual occupation of the territory. METHODS: We designed and constructed 17 indicators that sought to characterize the transformed and inhabited space according to receptivity to dengue. We used data on land use and occupation, connectivity, climate, and landscape. We developed the dengue receptivity through principal component analysis (PCA), using multiple criteria analysis and map algebra integrated in a GIS platform. RESULTS: The most receptive areas were concentrated in the transition between the north and west zones of the city, a region of unconsolidated urban sprawl. The areas of greatest receptivity had the highest incidence and density of Aedes eggs during the study period. The correlation between receptivity index and incidence rate was positive in the epidemic years. CONCLUSION: The proposed set of indicators was able to identify areas of greater receptivity, such as regions of disorderly urban sprawl, with a concentration of social and environmental processes that are related to the occurrence of dengue outbreaks and high vector density. On the other hand, population immunity plays an important role in the spatial distribution of dengue during non-epidemic years.


Assuntos
Dengue , Temperatura Alta , Urbanização , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Ocupações , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
J Biomed Inform ; 108: 103512, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702521

RESUMO

In data analysis, the mining of frequent patterns plays an important role in the discovery of associations and correlations between data. During this process, it is common to produce thousands of association rules (ARs), making the study of each one arduous. This problem weakens the process of finding useful information. There is a scientific effort to develop approaches capable of filtering interesting patterns, balancing the number of ARs produced with the goal of not being trivial and known by specialists. However, even when such approaches are adopted, the number of produced ARs can still be high. This work contributes by presenting Divergent Association Rules Approach (DARA), a novel approach for obtaining ARs that presents themselves in divergence with the data distribution. DARA is applied right after traditional approaches to filtering interesting patterns. To validate our approach, we studied the dataset related to the occurrence of malaria in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. The discovered patterns highlight that ARs brought relevant insights from the data. This article contributes both in the medical and computer science fields since this novel computational approach enabled new findings regarding malaria in Brazil.


Assuntos
Malária , Brasil , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia
13.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(7): e00133419, 2020.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696825

RESUMO

Natural disasters result in impacts on the population's health, damage to healthcare establishments, and, in extreme situations, the health systems' breakdown. National and global trends show an increase in the frequency of disasters associated with climate change. This article aims to analyze the impacts and economic costs of natural disasters for healthcare establishments, identifying the most frequent and costly types and distribution across the Brazilian territory, based on data recorded in Brazil's Integrated Disaster Information System (S2ID) from 2000 to 2015. A total of 15,950 records were systematized and analyzed, of which only 29.4% of the events showed records of costs, totaling nearly BRL 4 billion. Climate disasters were the most frequent, but they did not account for the highest costs. In the cost per event ratio, the costs of hydrological disasters were 3.2 to 3.6 higher than for climate and geologic disasters. Pernambuco, Amazonas, and Santa Catarina were the states with highest total costs in millions of Brazilian reais. The North region, especially the state of Acre, had the highest cost per disaster. Despite the study's limitations (involving the records' quality), the data should be viewed as the tip of an iceberg, since the impacts go beyond the economic damages, impacting the infrastructure and resources that support services, compromising their capacity precisely when the population most needs health services.


Assuntos
Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Brasil , Custos e Análise de Custo , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235010, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634152

RESUMO

Since 2015 Brazil has experienced the social repercussions of the Zika virus epidemic, thus raising a debate about: difficulties of diagnosis; healthcare access for children with Zika Congenital Syndrome (ZCS); the search for benefits by affected families; social and gender inequalities; and a discussion on reproductive rights, among others. The objective of this article is to analyse access to specialized health services for the care of children born with ZCS in three North-eastern states of Brazil. This is an exploratory cross-sectional study which analyses recorded cases of microcephaly at the municipal level between 2015 and 2017. Most of the cases of ZCS were concentrated on the Northeast coast. Rio Grande do Norte and Paraiba had the highest incidence of microcephaly in the study period. The states of Bahia, Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte were selected for their high incidence of microcephaly due to the Zika Virus. Socio-territorial vulnerability was stratified using access to microcephaly diagnosis and treatment indicators. The specialized care network was mapped according to State Health Secretaries Protocols. A threshold radius of 100 km was stablished as the maximum distance from municipalities centroids to specialised health care for children with microcephaly. Prenatal coverage was satisfactory in most of the study area, although availability of ultrasound equipment was uneven within states and health regions. Western Bahia had the lowest coverage of ultrasound equipment and lacked health rehabilitation services. ZCS's specialized health services were spread out over large areas, some of which were outside the affected patients' home municipalities, so displacements were expensive and very time consuming, representing an extra burden for the affected families. This study is the first to address accessibility of children with microcephaly to specialised health care services and points to the urgent need to expand coverage of these services in Brazil, especially in the northeastern states, which are most affected by the epidemic.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Microcefalia/virologia , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/terapia
15.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e15409, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-border malaria is a significant obstacle to achieving malaria control and elimination worldwide. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to build a cross-border surveillance system that can make comparable and qualified data available to all parties involved in malaria control between French Guiana and Brazil. METHODS: Data reconciliation rules based on expert knowledge were defined and applied to the heterogeneous data provided by the existing malaria surveillance systems of both countries. Visualization dashboards were designed to facilitate progressive data exploration, analysis, and interpretation. Dedicated advanced open source and robust software solutions were chosen to facilitate solution sharing and reuse. RESULTS: A database gathering the harmonized data on cross-border malaria epidemiology is updated monthly with new individual malaria cases from both countries. Online dashboards permit a progressive and user-friendly visualization of raw data and epidemiological indicators, in the form of time series, maps, and data quality indexes. The monitoring system was shown to be able to identify changes in time series that are related to control actions, as well as differentiated changes according to space and to population subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-border monitoring tool could help produce new scientific evidence on cross-border malaria dynamics, implementing cross-border cooperation for malaria control and elimination, and can be quickly adapted to other cross-border contexts.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População/métodos , Padrões de Referência , Brasil , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Guiana Francesa , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 274, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Malaria is an infectious disease that annually presents around 200,000 cases in Brazil. The availability of data on malaria is crucial for enabling and supporting studies that can promote actions to prevent it. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to contribute to such studies by offering an integrated dataset containing data on reported and suspected cases of malaria in the Brazilian Legal Amazon comprising the period from the years 2009 to 2019. DATA DESCRIPTION: This paper presents a dataset with all medical records of patients who were tested for malaria in the Brazilian Legal Amazon from 2009 to 2019. The dataset has 40 attributes and 22,923,977 records of suspected cases of malaria. Around 12% of the data correspond to confirmed cases of malaria. The attributes include data regarding the notifications, examinations, as well as personal patient information, which are organized into health regions.


Assuntos
Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Malária , Registros Médicos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia
18.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(2): 461-472, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102876

RESUMO

Em entrevista à Reciis, o geógrafo e sanitarista, Christovam Barcellos, reflete sobre a influência das condições socioambientais no estado de saúde das populações, um tema que adquiriu ainda mais relevância depois de uma sequência de desastres ambientais ocorridos recentemente no Brasil. A pandemia da Covid-19 o fez retomar alguns estudos, que podem contribuir para pensar de forma ampla sobre as diversas questões sociais e de saúde envolvidas nas situações de emergência sanitária que alteram o cotidiano das pessoas e da sociedade. Contribuindo para as ações de controle à pandemia do novo coronavírus no estado do Rio de Janeiro e no Brasil, o vice-diretor de pesquisa do Instituto de Comunicação, Informação Científica e Tecnológica em Saúde da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Icict/Fiocruz) relata o desafio de propor decisões oportunas e baseadas em dados que, apesar da ideia geral de preservar a vida, conforme o uso podem pôr em risco as pessoas mais vulneráveis num contexto de profundas incertezas relacionadas à Covid-19 e às desigualdades sociais históricas do Brasil. O pesquisador revela que esta pandemia produzirá uma nova organização socioespacial com a formação de grupos que podem ser mais solidários ou, ao contrário, individualistas. Para Barcellos, a pandemia também reforçará a relevância da ciência e da saúde pública para a sociedade, de modo que, na pós-pandemia, o direito às tecnologias de informação e comunicação qualificadas será pauta necessária para uma agenda de combate às desigualdades.


Assuntos
Humanos , Entrevista , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comunicação em Saúde , Pandemias , Geografia , Sistema Único de Saúde , Brasil , Meio Ambiente , Saúde da População
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(5): 1641-1652, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402044

RESUMO

The specific characteristics of the Federal District (DF) favor the introduction, reproduction, dissemination, and permanence of dengue vector and viruses. Here, we aimed to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of dengue epidemics in the Administrative Regions (RAs) of the DF from January 2007 to December 2017. We used Fourier partial series model to obtain a seasonal signature of the time series, which allowed calculating indicators of permanence (number of epidemic years, number of epidemic months per year, the proportion of epidemic months for the period) and time/moment of epidemics (month of epidemic peak). A total of 82 epidemics were recorded in this period. The RAs with the largest number of epidemic years were Varjão (5 epidemics), Gama, Lago Sul, and Sobradinho (4 epidemics). These last three RAs also had the highest proportions of epidemic months of the entire study period (9 epidemic months). The RAs with urban centrality function had an earlier epidemic peak than the others, in February and March. Epidemics showed high permanence values in RAs with different types of occupations, emphasizing the need to consider the social organization of space processes in dengue distribution studies.


Assuntos
Dengue , Epidemias , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos
20.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(5): 1641-1652, 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101013

RESUMO

Resumo O Distrito Federal (DF) apresenta características particulares que favorecem a introdução, reprodução, disseminação e permanência do vetor e dos vírus da dengue. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os padrões espaço-temporais das epidemias de dengue nas Regiões Administrativas (RAs) do DF no período de janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2017. Utilizando o modelo da série parcial de Fourier, obteve-se uma assinatura sazonal da série temporal, o que permitiu calcular indicadores de permanência (número de anos epidêmicos, número de meses epidêmicos por ano, proporção de meses epidêmicos do período) e tempo/momento das epidemias (mês do pico epidêmico). Contabilizou-se um total de 82 epidemias nesse período. As RAs com maior número de anos epidêmicos foram Varjão (5 epidemias), Gama, Lago Sul e Sobradinho (4 epidemias). Essas últimas três RAs também tiveram as maiores proporções de meses epidêmicos de todo o período de estudo (nove). Verificou-se que as RAs com função de centralidade urbana possuem pico epidêmico mais cedo que as demais, nos meses de fevereiro e março. As epidemias apresentaram altos valores de permanência em RAs com diferentes tipos de ocupação, ressaltando-se a necessidade de considerar os processos de organização social do espaço nos estudos da distribuição da dengue.


Abstract The specific characteristics of the Federal District (DF) favor the introduction, reproduction, dissemination, and permanence of dengue vector and viruses. Here, we aimed to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of dengue epidemics in the Administrative Regions (RAs) of the DF from January 2007 to December 2017. We used Fourier partial series model to obtain a seasonal signature of the time series, which allowed calculating indicators of permanence (number of epidemic years, number of epidemic months per year, the proportion of epidemic months for the period) and time/moment of epidemics (month of epidemic peak). A total of 82 epidemics were recorded in this period. The RAs with the largest number of epidemic years were Varjão (5 epidemics), Gama, Lago Sul, and Sobradinho (4 epidemics). These last three RAs also had the highest proportions of epidemic months of the entire study period (9 epidemic months). The RAs with urban centrality function had an earlier epidemic peak than the others, in February and March. Epidemics showed high permanence values in RAs with different types of occupations, emphasizing the need to consider the social organization of space processes in dengue distribution studies.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Brasil/epidemiologia
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