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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 954, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mumps is a vaccine-preventable disease but outbreaks have been reported in persons vaccinated with two doses of MMR vaccine. The objective was to describe the demographic features, vaccination effectiveness and genetic mumps virus diversity among laboratory-confirmed cases between 2007 and 2011 in Catalonia. METHODS: Cases and outbreaks of mumps notified to the notifiable diseases system of Catalonia between 2007 and 2011 retrospectively registered were included. Public health care centres provided written immunization records to regional public health staff to determine the vaccination history. Saliva and serum specimens were collected from suspected cases for laboratory-confirmation using real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rtRT-PCR) or serological testing. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete SH gene (316 nucleotides) and complete coding HN protein (1749 nucleotides) sequences was made. Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-square or Fisher's tests and continuous variables using the Student test. Vaccination effectiveness by number of MMR doses was estimated using the screening method. RESULTS: During the study period, 581 confirmed cases of mumps were notified (incidence rate 1.6 cases/100,000 persons-year), of which 60% were male. Three hundred sixty-four laboratory-confirmed cases were reported, of which 44% were confirmed by rtRT-PCR. Of the 289 laboratory-confirmed cases belonging to vaccination cohorts, 33.5% (97) had received one dose of MMR vaccine and 50% (145) two doses. Based on phylogenetic analyses of 316-nucleotide and 174-nucleotide SH sequences, the viruses belonging to viral genotypes were: genotype G (126), genotype D (23), genotype H (2), genotype F (2), genotype J (1), while one remained uncharacterized. Amino acid differences were detected between circulating strains and the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strains, although the majority of amino acid substitutions were genotype-specific. Fifty-one outbreaks were notified that included 324 confirmed mumps cases. Genotype G was the most frequent genotype detected. The family (35%), secondary schools (25%) and community outbreaks (18%) were the most frequent settings. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that genotype G viruses are the most prevalent in Catalonia. Most cases occurred in people who had received two doses of MMR, suggesting inadequate effectiveness of the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strain. The possible factors related are discussed.

3.
Vaccine ; 37(9): 1137-1141, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709729

RESUMO

Hepatitis B is a viral disease of global importance. In Catalonia in the 1980s, the seroepidemiological pattern of HBV infection was low-intermediate. In 1990, the Expert Committee on Vaccinations of the Department of Health of the Generalitat of Catalonia evaluated the systematic introduction of hepatitis B vaccination in preadolescents, maintaining the vaccination of risk groups. The objective of this study was to estimate the effectiveness and impact of the systematic hepatitis B vaccination programme in preadolescents in Catalonia 21 years after its introduction. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, comparing the disease incidence in vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts. Cases of hepatitis B were defined as those reported by the General Subdirectorate of Surveillance and Response to Public Health Emergencies between 2000 and 2014. The incidence rate was 2.5 per 100,000 persons in 1991 and 1.2 per 100,000 persons in 2014, a reduction of 52%. During the study period, 388 cases of hepatitis B infection were notified, of which three were classified as vaccine failures. Vaccine effectiveness was 99.30% (95% CI: 97.83-99.78) and the population prevented fraction in the cohorts of preadolescents studied was 64.56% (95% CI: 60.45-68.66). The effectiveness and impact of the hepatitis B vaccination program in preadolescents in Catalonia is high, with the consequent benefits for the population.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 623, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679570

RESUMO

Legionnaires' disease (LD) is an atypical pneumonia caused by the inhalation of Legionella. The methods used for the diagnosis of LD are direct culture of respiratory samples and urinary antigen detection. However, the sensitivity of culture is low, and the urinary antigen test is specific only for L. pneumophila sg1. Moreover, as no isolates are obtained, epidemiological studies cannot be performed. The implementation of Nested-sequence-based typing (Nested-SBT) makes it possible to carry out epidemiological studies while also confirming LD, especially in cases caused by non-sg 1. Sixty-two respiratory samples from patients with Legionella clinically confirmed by positive urinary antigen tests were cultured and tested by Nested-SBT, following the European Study Group for Legionella Infections (ESGLI) protocol. Only 2/62 (3.2%) respiratory samples were culture-positive. Amplification and sequencing of Nested-SBT genes were successfully performed in 57/62 samples (91.9%). The seven target genes were characterised in 39/57 (68.4%) respiratory samples, and the complete sequence type (ST) was obtained. The mip gene was the most frequently amplified and sequenced. Nested-SBT is a useful method for epidemiological studies in culture-negative samples, achieving a 28.7-fold improvement over the results of culture studies and reducing the time needed to obtain molecular epidemiological results.

5.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 51(1): 40-46, ene. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181946

RESUMO

Las vacunas constituyen un instrumento esencial para la prevención de enfermedades infecciosas. Sin embargo, las falsas ideas y rumores sin fundamento científico sobre eventuales efectos negativos pueden disuadir de la vacunación, con los consiguientes riesgos para la protección de la población. El objetivo del artículo es evaluar el origen y los argumentos de algunos de los errores y rumores más frecuentes sobre eventuales efectos adversos de las vacunaciones. Se presentan algunos efectos adversos claramente establecidos, así como falsas creencias sobre diversas vacunas y potenciales daños para la salud. Las vacunas, como cualquier fármaco, pueden ocasionar efectos adversos, pero los eventuales efectos adversos de los programas de vacunación son claramente inferiores a sus beneficios individuales (a los vacunados) y colectivos (a los vacunados y a los que no pueden vacunarse por razones médicas). Cualquier efecto indeseable atribuible a las vacunas ha de poderse detectar mediante sistemas de farmacovigilancia potentes y bien estructurados


Vaccines are an essential tool for the prevention of infectious diseases. However, false ideas and rumours with no scientific foundation about their possible negative effects may dissuade people from being vaccinated, with the consequent risks for the health of the population. The objective of this article is to evaluate the origin and the arguments of some of the most frequent mistaken ideas and rumours about the possible adverse effects of vaccines. Some clearly established adverse effects are presented, as well as false beliefs about various vaccines and potential harm to health. Vaccines, like any drug, can cause adverse effects, but the possible adverse effects of vaccination programs are clearly lower than their individual (vaccinated) and collective benefits (those vaccinated and those who cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons). The possible adverse effects attributable to vaccines should be detected by powerful and well-structured pharmacovigilance systems


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Recusa de Vacinação , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
6.
Euro Surveill ; 23(47)2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482266

RESUMO

Dengue has emerged as the most important viral mosquito-borne disease globally. The current risk of dengue outbreaks in Europe appeared with the introduction of the vector Aedes albopictus mosquito in Mediterranean countries. Considering the increasing frequency of dengue epidemics worldwide and the movement of viraemic hosts, it is expected that new autochthonous cases will occur in the future in Europe. Arbovirus surveillance started in Catalonia in 2015 to monitor imported cases and detect possible local arboviral transmission. During 2015, 131 patients with a recent travel history to endemic countries were tested for dengue virus (DENV) and 65 dengue cases were detected. Twenty-eight patients with a febrile illness were viraemic, as demonstrated by a positive real-time RT-PCR test for DENV in serum samples. Entomological investigations around the viraemic cases led to the detection of DENV in a pool of local Ae. albopictus captured in the residency of one case. The sequence of the DENV envelope gene detected in the mosquito pool was identical to that detected in the patient. Our results show how entomological surveillance conducted around viraemic travellers can be effective for early detection of DENV in mosquitoes and thus might help to prevent possible autochthonous transmission.

7.
Aten Primaria ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262223

RESUMO

Vaccines are an essential tool for the prevention of infectious diseases. However, false ideas and rumours with no scientific foundation about their possible negative effects may dissuade people from being vaccinated, with the consequent risks for the health of the population. The objective of this article is to evaluate the origin and the arguments of some of the most frequent mistaken ideas and rumours about the possible adverse effects of vaccines. Some clearly established adverse effects are presented, as well as false beliefs about various vaccines and potential harm to health. Vaccines, like any drug, can cause adverse effects, but the possible adverse effects of vaccination programs are clearly lower than their individual (vaccinated) and collective benefits (those vaccinated and those who cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons). The possible adverse effects attributable to vaccines should be detected by powerful and well-structured pharmacovigilance systems.

8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(6): 1091-1094, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774836

RESUMO

In Spain, systematic reporting of pulmonary infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria is not mandatory. Therefore, to determine trends, we retrospectively identified cases for January 1994-December 2014 in Catalonia. Over the 21 years, prevalence increased and was associated with being male. Mycobacterium avium complex and M. abscessus prevalence increased; M. kansasii prevalence decreased.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6241, 2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674708

RESUMO

Legionella is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease (LD). In Spain, Catalonia is the region with the highest incidence of LD cases. The characterisation of clinical and environmental isolates using molecular epidemiology techniques provides epidemiological data for a specific geographic region and makes it possible to carry out phylogenetic and population-based analyses. The aim of this study was to describe and compare environmental and clinical isolates of Legionella pneumophila in Catalonia using sequence-based typing and monoclonal antibody subgrouping. A total of 528 isolates were characterised. For data analysis, the isolates were filtered to reduce redundancies, and 266 isolates (109 clinical and 157 environmental) were finally included. Thirty-two per cent of the clinical isolates were ST23, ST37 and ST1 while 40% of the environmental isolates were ST284 and ST1. Although the index of diversity was higher in clinical than in environmental ST isolates, we observed that clinical STs were similar to those recorded in other regions but that environmental STs were more confined to particular study areas. This observation supports the idea that only certain STs trigger cases or outbreaks in humans. Therefore, comparison of the genomes of clinical and environmental isolates could provide important information about the traits that favour infection or environmental persistence.

10.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 244, 2018 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Plan of Information on Acute Respiratory Infections in Catalonia (PIDIRAC) included the surveillance of severe hospitalized cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza (SHCLCI) in 2009. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical, epidemiological and virological features of SHCLCI recorded in 12 sentinel hospitals during five influenza seasons. RESULTS: From a sample of SHCLCI recorded during the 5 influenza epidemics seasons from 2010-2011 to 2014-2015, Cases were confirmed by PCR and/or viral isolation in cell cultures from respiratory samples. A total of 1400 SHCLCI were recorded, 33% required ICU admission and 12% died. The median age of cases was 61 years (range 0-101 years); 70.5% were unvaccinated; 80.4% received antiviral treatment (in 79.6 and 24% of cases within 48 h after hospital admission and the onset of symptoms, respectively); influenza virus A [37.9% A (H1N1)pdm09, 29.3% A (H3N2)] was identified in 87.7% of cases. Surveillance of SHCLCI provides an estimate of the severity of seasonal influenza epidemics and the identification and characterization of at-risk groups in order to facilitate preventive measures such as vaccination and early antiviral treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Infect ; 75(5): 426-432, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28867343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We assessed the value of the clinical symptoms included in the case definition of pertussis in household contacts of laboratory-confirmed cases. METHODS: A prospective epidemiological study was made in two Spanish regions. Household contacts were identified for each confirmed case reported during 2012 and 2013. Two clinical samples were taken to determine the presence or absence of Bordetella pertussis by culture or real-time PCR. Clinical variables, age and vaccination status were recorded. Positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR, NLR) were estimated for each symptom. RESULTS: 2852 household contacts of 688 confirmed cases were reported. 178 household contacts with clinical symptoms were analyzed: 150 were laboratory confirmed and 28 were not. The clinical symptom with the highest PLR in comparison with the NLR was paroxysmal cough(PLR 4.76; 95% CI 1.91-11.87 and NLR 0.37; 95% CI 0.28-0.49). The contrast between the PLR and NLR was especially important for persons aged <18 years (PLR 7.08; 95% CI 1.10-45.74 and NLR 0.32; 95% CI 0.21-0.49). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical symptoms of pertussis are poor predictors of pertussis disease, independently of the vaccination status. Differences were observed between persons aged <18 years and adults. To adopt the appropriate treatment and control measures, rapid laboratory confirmation by PCR of all household contacts of confirmed cases who present any clinical symptoms compatible with pertussis should be recommended.


Assuntos
Coqueluche/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bordetella pertussis/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tosse/diagnóstico , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Espanha/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/diagnóstico , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
14.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 31(2): 161-166, mar.-abr. 2017. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-161202

RESUMO

El brote de enfermedad por virus Ébola iniciado en Guinea Conakry y notificado a la Organización Mundial de la Salud en marzo de 2014ha sido el mayor documentado hasta la fecha. Su extensión a países limítrofes y el riesgo de expansión fuera del continente africano hicieron que, en agosto de 2014, fuese declarado emergencia de salud pública internacional. En el marco de lo establecido por el Centro de Coordinación de Alertas y Emergencias Sanitarias, la Agencia de Salud Pública de Cataluña inició las actuaciones de salud pública en marzo de 2014 y elaboró un único protocolo para todo el territorio, consejos para viajeros y cooperantes procedentes de países afectados, y una nota informativa semanal. Asimismo, en Cataluña, se crearon el Comité de Análisis y Seguimiento de Ébola y el Comité Científico Asesor de Ébola. Se realizaron sesiones informativas y formativas a más de 9600 profesionales de la salud de diferentes ámbitos. Desde agosto de 2014, a través del Sistema de Urgencias de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Cataluña se notificaron 117 sospechas de Ébola. En tres casos se activó el protocolo con derivación al centro hospitalario de referencia, siendo los resultados descartados microbiológicamente. Se realizó la vigilancia de 95 cooperantes, un 52% mujeres y un 74% procedentes de Sierra Leona. En la gestión de alertas fueron esenciales la preparación y la planificación previas, el trabajo sinérgico entre la red epidemiológica, la asistencial y el conjunto de agentes implicados, así como la comunicación de riesgo precisa, veraz y proporcionada. Fue clave el circuito de cribado previo establecido ante la sospecha de casos por parte de los servicios de vigilancia epidemiológica. Así, solo se activó el protocolo de inmediato en aquellos casos que cumplían estrictamente los criterios. Este es un aspecto esencial a reforzar y mantener de cara a futuras alertas de salud pública internacional (AU)


The Ebola outbreak in Guinea Conakry was notified to the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2014. It is the most complex Ebola outbreak to date, affecting Guinea Conakry as well as the surrounding countries and with a risk of the disease spreading outside Africa. For this reason, the World Health Organization declared this Ebola outbreak an international public health emergency in August 2014. The Public Health Agency of Catalonia, through the Spanish Alert and Emergencies Coordination Network, initiated public health actions in March 2014, developing a single protocol of action to be applied by all the health care providers in the whole Catalan territory, advice for travellers and voluntary workers arriving from affected countries and a weekly newsletter addressed to health professionals. At the same time, the Ebola Analysis and Monitoring Committee and the Ebola Scientific and Advisory Committee were established. More than 9600 professional health workers attended training sessions and informative sessions. From August 2014, the Catalan Epidemiological Surveillance Emergency Service (SUVEC) reported 117 suspected Ebola cases, of which only 3 met the epidemiological and clinical criteria leading to the activation of the action protocol. All 3 cases proved negative for Ebola. Also, 95 voluntary workers were monitored, 52% of whom were female and 74% had returned from Sierra Leone. Dealing with the suspected Ebola cases required a detailed advance preparation and planning, with a coordinated effort between the epidemiological and health-care network, and all the agents involved, as well as precise, realistic and appropriate risk communication. The prior screening of suspected Ebola cases by the SUVEC meant the immediate protocol was activated only in the cases that met the epidemiological and clinical criteria. This is a key point to be reinforced in any future international public health alerts (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Ebolavirus/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Vigilância Epidemiológica , Diagnóstico Precoce , Avaliação de Resultado de Ações Preventivas
15.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 86(3): 110-114, mar. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-160627

RESUMO

Introducción. La tuberculosis (TB) en el adolescente puede presentar formas radiológicas cavitadas en los lóbulos superiores, con esputos bacilíferos, en lo que se ha llamado TB pulmonar tipo adulto, que implica un importante riesgo de contagio en el entorno social y familiar del paciente. Pacientes y métodos. Estudio observacional retrospectivo (2007-2012) en una serie pediátrica (<18 años) con TB en un hospital pediátrico de referencia en Barcelona. Se compara a los pacientes≤12 y>12 años. Resultados. Se incluyeron 124 pacientes (56,5% hombres, edad mediana: 4,0 años). En la mitad, la TB afectó a pacientes de origen inmigrante y se diagnosticó por sospecha clínico-radiológica. La TB intratorácica fue la forma clínica predominante (91,9%), los cultivos fueron positivos en un tercio de los casos (37,9%) y sensibles a los fármacos orales de primera línea en su totalidad. El tiempo mediano (rango intercuartil) de tratamiento fue de 6 (6-9) meses; solo 10 pacientes precisaron tratamiento directamente observado y la evolución fue satisfactoria en la mayoría (98,4%). Entre los adolescentes, la TB fue más prevalente en mujeres (63,2%) e inmigrantes (68,4%), la comorbilidad al diagnóstico y las formas pulmonares cavitadas fueron más comunes y se identificó el caso índice solo en el 21,1% de los pacientes. Conclusión. En el adolescente, la TB pulmonar tipo adulto es común, y a menudo asocia comorbilidad y se diagnostica más tarde, implicando un mayor riesgo de contagio a la comunidad (AU)


Introduction. Adolescents may present with adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), including cavity disease in upper lobes and smear-positive sputum, which involves a significant transmission risk for social and family contacts. Patients and methods. A retrospective (2007-2012) observational study of a case series of TB was conducted in children and adolescents (<18 years) in a paediatric referral centre in Barcelona. Patients aged≤12 and>12 years at diagnosis are compared. Results. The series consisted of 124 patients (56.5% males, median age: 4.0 years). In half of the cases, the patient was of immigrant origina and TB was diagnosed after clinical-radiological suspicion, intra-thoracic disease being the most common (91.9%). Cultures yielded positive results in one third of cases (37.9%) and isolates were sensitive to oral first-line anti-TB agents in 100%. Median (interquartile range) duration of treatment was 6 (6-9) months, directly observed therapy was needed in 10 patients, and there was a satisfactory outcome after treatment in 98.4%. Among adolescents, TB was more prevalent in females (63.2%) and immigrant patients (68.4%), comorbidity at diagnosis and lung cavity forms were more common, and the source case was identified only in 21.1% of the patients. Conclusion. Adult-type pulmonary TB is common among adolescents, may be associated with underlying medical conditions, and is often diagnosed late, posing a significant transmission risk to the community (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/prevenção & controle , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Período de Transmissibilidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comorbidade , Diagnóstico Precoce
16.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 86(3): 110-114, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27079844

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents may present with adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), including cavity disease in upper lobes and smear-positive sputum, which involves a significant transmission risk for social and family contacts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective (2007-2012) observational study of a case series of TB was conducted in children and adolescents (<18 years) in a paediatric referral centre in Barcelona. Patients aged≤12 and>12 years at diagnosis are compared. RESULTS: The series consisted of 124 patients (56.5% males, median age: 4.0 years). In half of the cases, the patient was of immigrant origina and TB was diagnosed after clinical-radiological suspicion, intra-thoracic disease being the most common (91.9%). Cultures yielded positive results in one third of cases (37.9%) and isolates were sensitive to oral first-line anti-TB agents in 100%. Median (interquartile range) duration of treatment was 6 (6-9) months, directly observed therapy was needed in 10 patients, and there was a satisfactory outcome after treatment in 98.4%. Among adolescents, TB was more prevalent in females (63.2%) and immigrant patients (68.4%), comorbidity at diagnosis and lung cavity forms were more common, and the source case was identified only in 21.1% of the patients. CONCLUSION: Adult-type pulmonary TB is common among adolescents, may be associated with underlying medical conditions, and is often diagnosed late, posing a significant transmission risk to the community.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/transmissão , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha
17.
Gac Sanit ; 31(2): 161-166, 2017 Mar - Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27742265

RESUMO

The Ebola outbreak in Guinea Conakry was notified to the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2014. It is the most complex Ebola outbreak to date, affecting Guinea Conakry as well as the surrounding countries and with a risk of the disease spreading outside Africa. For this reason, the World Health Organization declared this Ebola outbreak an international public health emergency in August 2014. The Public Health Agency of Catalonia, through the Spanish Alert and Emergencies Coordination Network, initiated public health actions in March 2014, developing a single protocol of action to be applied by all the health care providers in the whole Catalan territory, advice for travellers and voluntary workers arriving from affected countries and a weekly newsletter addressed to health professionals. At the same time, the Ebola Analysis and Monitoring Committee and the Ebola Scientific and Advisory Committee were established. More than 9600 professional health workers attended training sessions and informative sessions. From August 2014, the Catalan Epidemiological Surveillance Emergency Service (SUVEC) reported 117 suspected Ebola cases, of which only 3 met the epidemiological and clinical criteria leading to the activation of the action protocol. All 3 cases proved negative for Ebola. Also, 95 voluntary workers were monitored, 52% of whom were female and 74% had returned from Sierra Leone. Dealing with the suspected Ebola cases required a detailed advance preparation and planning, with a coordinated effort between the epidemiological and health-care network, and all the agents involved, as well as precise, realistic and appropriate risk communication. The prior screening of suspected Ebola cases by the SUVEC meant the immediate protocol was activated only in the cases that met the epidemiological and clinical criteria. This is a key point to be reinforced in any future international public health alerts.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Saúde Pública , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
18.
Euro Surveill ; 21(45)2016 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27918260

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate transmission rates of pertussis in household contacts of cases and factors associated with transmission. A prospective epidemiological study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 to determine the incidence of pertussis among household contacts of reported cases in Catalonia and Navarre, Spain. An epidemiological survey was completed for each case and contact, who were followed for 28 days to determine the source of infection (primary case) and detect the occurrence of secondary cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to estimate the effectiveness of vaccination and chemoprophylaxis in preventing new cases, using the formula (1 - OR) × 100. For the 688 primary cases, a total of 2,852 contacts were recorded. The household transmission rate was 16.1% (459/2,852) and rose according to the age (> 18 years) and lack of immunisation of the primary cases, and also the age (0-18 years), family relationship (siblings and children), lack of vaccination and chemoprophylaxis of contacts. Pertussis vaccine effectiveness in preventing new cases was 65.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.6 to 86.2) for full vaccination (≥ 4 doses) and 59.7% (95% CI: -6.8 to 84.8) for incomplete vaccination (< 4 doses). The effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis was 62.1% (95% CI: 40.3 to 75.9). To reduce household transmission, contacts should be investigated to detect further cases and to administer chemoprophylaxis. The current vaccination status of cases and contacts can reduce household transmission.


Assuntos
Quimioprevenção , Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacina contra Coqueluche/uso terapêutico , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Coqueluche/diagnóstico , Coqueluche/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Vacina contra Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
19.
Future Microbiol ; 11: 865-75, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27357520

RESUMO

AIM: To characterize the genetic diversity of unrelated Legionella pneumophila clinical isolates in Catalonia and compare with other European regions. METHODS: 95 unrelated isolates were analyzed using monoclonal antibodies and sequence-based typing, 1989-2013. RESULTS: The isolates showed a high diversity (IOD 0.964) with a predominance of some profiles (ST37-Phialdelphia, ST23-Philadelphia and ST1-OLDA). All regions had predominant sequence types (STs) that differed between regions, and only 3% of STs were shared between the three regions. CONCLUSION: L. pneumophila clinical isolates from Catalonia presented a high diversity and can be used in epidemiological surveillance studies. The heterogeneous predominance of STs between European regions suggested a relationship between geographical distribution and virulence of some STs.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Variação Genética , Legionella pneumophila/classificação , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Doença dos Legionários/microbiologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Legionella pneumophila/imunologia , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem
20.
Future Microbiol ; 11: 757-65, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27191711

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the discriminatory power of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequence-based typing (SBT) in Legionella outbreaks for determining the infection source. MATERIALS & METHODS: Twenty-five investigations of Legionnaires' disease were analyzed by PFGE, SBT and Dresden monoclonal antibody. RESULTS: The results suggested that monoclonal antibody could reduce the number of Legionella isolates to be characterized by molecular methods. The epidemiological concordance PFGE-SBT was 100%, while the molecular concordance was 64%. Adjusted Wallace index (AW) showed that PFGE has better discriminatory power than SBT (AWSBT→PFGE = 0.767; AWPFGE→SBT = 1). The discrepancies appeared mostly in sequence type (ST) 1, a worldwide distributed ST for which PFGE discriminated different profiles. CONCLUSION: SBT discriminatory power was not sufficient verifying the infection source, especially in worldwide distributed STs, which were classified into different PFGE patterns.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado/métodos , Legionella/isolamento & purificação , Doença dos Legionários/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Legionella/classificação , Legionella/genética , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
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