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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256190, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364523

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) is a major air pollutant causing serious health problems. The aim of the present study was to find out concentration of PM in ambient air and its associated health risk in Haripur city, Pakistan. Twenty-three samples were taken at various educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas and industries in Haripur city. Concentration of PM2.5 (µg/m3) and PM10 (µg/m3) was measured with Youngteng YT-HPC 3000A portable PM counter. The results revealed that values of both PM2.5 and PM10 were above the permissible limits (35 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 150 µg/m3 for PM10) set by Environmental Protection Agency Pakistan (Pak-EPA) in all the educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas and industries investigated. Furthermore, significant (p<0.05) variation was found in the concentration of both PM2.5 and PM10 in all the educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas, and industries studied. The concentration of PM2.5 was positively correlated with the concentration of PM10 in all the sampling sites. Therefore, from 1-14 scale standard of health index, the values of PM2.5 and PM10 exhibited that the ambient air quality of Haripur city Pakistan is under high risk. If the regulatory authorities such as Environmental Protection Agency, Health Department and Local Government monitor PM pollution in different settings of Haripur city, then a decrease can be possible in the pollution level. The remedies that can be taken to overcome the problem of ambient air pollution such as PM are plantation of trees at the sites where there are higher levels of air pollutants and use of masks on personal protection basis along with implementation of pollution control system in industries of Hattar Industrial Estate Haripur city, Pakistan.


O material particulado (MP) é um importante poluente do ar que causa sérios problemas de saúde. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descobrir a concentração de MP no ar ambiente e sua associação com o risco à saúde na cidade de Haripur, Paquistão. Vinte e três amostras foram coletadas em várias instituições de ensino, hospitais, áreas recreativas e indústrias na cidade de Haripur. A concentração de MP2,5 (µg/m3) e MP10 (µg/m3) foi medida por meio do contador de MP portátil Youngteng YT-HPC 3000A. Os resultados revelaram que os valores de MP2,5 e MP10 estavam acima dos limites permitidos (35 µg/m3 para MP2,5 e 150 µg/m3 para MP10) estabelecidos pela Agência de Proteção Ambiental do Paquistão (Pak-EPA) em todas as instituições de ensino, hospitais, áreas recreativas e indústrias investigadas. Além disso, foi encontrada variação significativa (p < 0,05) na concentração de MP2,5 e MP10 em todos os locais estudados. A concentração de MP2,5 correlacionou-se positivamente com a concentração de MP10 em todos os locais de amostragem. Portanto, a partir da escala padrão 1-14 do índice de saúde, os valores de MP2,5 e MP10 mostraram que a qualidade do ar ambiente na cidade de Haripur, Paquistão, está sob alto risco. Se as autoridades reguladoras, como a Pak-EPA, o Departamento de Saúde e o governo local, monitorarem a poluição por MP em diferentes configurações da cidade de Haripur, pode ser que haja uma diminuição no nível de poluição. As medidas que podem ser tomadas para superar o problema da poluição do ar ambiente, como o MP, são o plantio de árvores nos locais onde há maiores níveis de poluentes atmosféricos, o uso de máscaras e a implantação de sistema de controle de poluição nas propriedades industriais de Hattar, na cidade Haripur, Paquistão.


Assuntos
Risco à Saúde Humana , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Material Particulado , Paquistão
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253106, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345544

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed to develop and evaluate data driven models for prediction of forest yield under different climate change scenarios in the Gallies forest division of district Abbottabad, Pakistan. The Random Forest (RF) and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) models were developed and evaluated using yield data of two species (Blue pine and Silver fir) as an objective variable and climate data (temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed) as predictive variables. Prediction accuracy of both the models were assessed by means of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), correlation coefficient (r), relative root mean squared error (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), Willmott's index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) metrics. Overall, the RF model outperformed the KRR model due to its higher accuracy in forecasting of forest yield. The study strongly recommends that RF model should be applied in other regions of the country for prediction of forest growth and yield, which may help in the management and future planning of forest productivity in Pakistan.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar modelos baseados em dados para previsão da produção florestal em diferentes cenários de mudanças climáticas na divisão florestal Gallies do distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os modelos Random Forest (RF) e Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) foram desenvolvidos e avaliados usando dados de produção de duas espécies (pinheiro-azul e abeto-prateado) como uma variável objetiva e dados climáticos (temperatura, umidade, precipitação e velocidade do vento) como preditivos variáveis. A precisão da previsão de ambos os modelos foi avaliada por meio de erro quadrático médio (RMSE), erro absoluto médio (MAE), coeficiente de correlação (r), erro quadrático médio relativo (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), índice de Willmott (WI) e métricas Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE). No geral, o modelo RF superou o modelo KRR devido à sua maior precisão na previsão do rendimento florestal. O estudo recomenda fortemente que o modelo RF seja aplicado em outras regiões do país para previsão do crescimento e produtividade florestal, o que pode ajudar no manejo e planejamento futuro da produtividade florestal no Paquistão.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Paquistão
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253107, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355911

RESUMO

Abstract Life cycle assessment was carried out for a conventional wooden furniture set produced in Mardan division of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan during 2018-19. Primary data regarding inputs and outputs were collected through questionnaire surveys from 100 conventional wooden furniture set manufacturers, 50 in district Mardan and 50 in district Swabi. In the present study, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach was applied for a functional unit of one conventional wooden furniture set. Production weighted average data were modelled in the environmental impacts modelling software i.e., SimaPro v.8.5. The results showed that textile used in sofa set, wood preservative for polishing and preventing insects attack and petrol used in generator had the highest contribution to all the environmental impact categories evaluated. Total cumulative energy demand for wooden furniture set manufactured was 30,005 MJ with most of the energy acquired from non-renewable fossil fuel resources.


Resumo A abordagem de avaliação do ciclo de vida foi realizada para um conjunto de móveis de madeira convencional produzido na divisão Mardan da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa do Paquistão durante 2018-19. Os dados primários sobre entradas e saídas foram coletados por meio de pesquisas por questionário de 100 fabricantes de conjuntos de móveis de madeira convencionais, 50 no distrito de Mardan e 50 no distrito de Swabi. No presente estudo, a abordagem de avaliação do ciclo de vida do berço ao portão foi aplicada para uma unidade funcional de um conjunto de móveis de madeira convencional. Os dados da média ponderada da produção foram modelados no software de modelagem de impactos ambientais, isto é, SimaPro v.8.5. Os resultados mostraram que os têxteis usados ​​no conjunto de sofás, o preservativo de madeira para polir e prevenir o ataque de insetos e a gasolina usada no gerador tiveram a maior contribuição em todas as categorias de impacto ambiental avaliadas. A demanda total acumulada de energia para o conjunto de móveis de madeira fabricado foi de 30.005 MJ, com a maior parte da energia adquirida de recursos de combustíveis fósseis não renováveis.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário , Paquistão
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(12): 9726-9737, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207186

RESUMO

The present study investigated the potential consequences, positive or negative, that selection for favorable production-related traits may have on concentrations of vitamin B12 and key chemical elements in dairy cow milk and serum and the possible impact on milk healthiness, and associated benefits, for the dairy product consumer. Milk and serum samples (950 and 755, respectively) were collected from Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 479) on 19 occasions over a 59-mo period, generating 34,258 individual records, and analyzed for concentrations of key trace and quantity elements, heavy metals, and milk vitamin B12. These data were then matched to economically important production data (milk, fat, and protein yield) and management data (dry matter intake, liveweight, and body condition score). Multivariate animal models, including full pedigree information, were used to analyze data and investigate relationships between traits of interest. Results highlighted negative genetic correlations between many quantity and trace elements in both milk and serum with production and management traits. Milk yield was strongly negatively correlated with the milk quantity elements Mg and Ca (genetic correlation between traits, ra = -0.58 and -0.63, respectively) as well as the trace elements Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mo (ra = -0.32, -0.58, -0.52, -0.40, -0.34, and -0.96, respectively); and in serum, Mg, Ca, Co, Fe, and Zn (ra = -0.50, -0.36, -0.68, -0.54, and -0.90, respectively). Strong genetic correlations were noted between dry matter intake with V (ra = 0.97), Fe (ra = -0.69), Ni (ra = -0.81), and Zn (ra = -0.75), and in serum, strong negative genetic correlations were observed between dry matter intake with Ca and Se (ra = -0.95 and -0.88, respectively). Body condition score was negatively correlated with serum P, Cu, Se, and Pb (ra = -0.45, -0.35, -0.51, and -0.64, respectively) and positively correlated with Mn, Fe, and Zn (ra = 0.40, 0.71, and 0.55, respectively). Our results suggest that breeding strategies aimed at improving economically important production-related traits would most likely result in a negative impact on levels of beneficial nutrients within milk for human consumption (such as Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Se).


Assuntos
Leite , Oligoelementos , Feminino , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Leite/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Lactação , Vitamina B 12/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(12): 4207-4219, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Though tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have a predictive impact in cancer patients, their association with presentation and prognosis in breast cancer is less consistent. This study aimed to assess the level of infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) and their association with the clinicopathological features of breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tissue samples from female patients (n=153) diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer were stained with CD8 (a CTL marker) and Foxp3 (a Treg marker) using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: CTLs were distributed between tumor bed and stroma whereas Treg cells were mainly located in the stroma. The level of intratumoral CTLs correlated positively with Tregs in both tumor and stroma (rho=0.312, p<0.001 and rho=0.176, p=0.031; respectively). Stromal CTLs correlated positively with stromal Tregs (rho=0.319, p=0.005). Tumor size correlated inversely with the number of Treg cells in the tumor bed (rho= - 0.179, p=0.028). Tregs were associated with lymphovascular invasion status in the tumor bed (p=0.042). The ratio of intratumoral CTLs to Tregs was associated with estrogen receptor positivity and luminal subtype (p=0.029 and p=0.045, respectively). The median number of CTLs was significantly lower in patients using aspirin or antihypertensive medications compared to nonusers (p=0.024 and p=0.03, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: TILs were distributed differently in tumor tissues of breast cancer patients. CTLs infiltrates were found in both tumor bed and stroma while Tregs were dominant in the stroma. TILs were also distinctly associated with tumor features. The impact of TILs on prognosis and treatment outcomes in Jordanian breast cancer patients needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos , Linfócitos T Reguladores
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(10): 3695-3702, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647851

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a well-known cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in T2DM patients in relation to CAD is not well understood. We examined serum inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activities in patients with T2DM in relation to the presence of coronary artery disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects were grouped into control (Group A, n=87), T2DM without CAD (Group B, n=70), and T2DM patients with CAD (Group C, n=49). The selection of T2DM subjects was according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Serum iNOS, eNOS, hsCRP, nitrates and nitrites along with lipid profile were compared between different groups. Spearman's correlation and ROC analysis were also performed. RESULTS: Serum eNOS levels were significantly high in the control group (112.38±47.16 U/ml) than in DM without CAD (81.43±49.91 U/ml) and DM with CAD (84.80±43.32 U/ml, p<.001). Serum iNOS levels were significantly higher in DM with CAD (42.87±28.83 U/ml) compared to both control (22.08±11.77 U/ml) and DM without CAD (16.24±12.30 U/ml, p<.001). Additionally, the differences in nitrite and NO were not significant between the three groups (34.06±24.75, 33.02±21.50, 38.83±24.34 uM, p = .384), and (56.51±36.78, 49.89±28.83 vs. 55.77±30.34 uM, p=.416) respectively. ROC curve analysis revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 73.5% and 68.6% of iNOS level at a cutoff point of 21.1 U/ml to predict CAD in T2DM patients. The ROC analysis for iNOS, eNOS, and hs-CRP were .782 (p<.001), .574 (p=.170), and .726 (p<.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T2DM have significantly higher levels of serum iNOS and lower levels of eNOS. However, iNOS levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients with concomitant CAD. Moreover, iNOS activity positively correlated with glycemic control and hsCRP. Therefore, iNOS could be an emerging future marker for CAD in T2DM patients and its antagonists could be useful in the management of these patients.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/sangue , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/sangue
7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(19): 191802, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622021

RESUMO

Tests of lepton universality in B^{0}→K_{S}^{0}ℓ^{+}ℓ^{-} and B^{+}→K^{*+}ℓ^{+}ℓ^{-} decays where ℓ is either an electron or a muon are presented. The differential branching fractions of B^{0}→K_{S}^{0}e^{+}e^{-} and B^{+}→K^{*+}e^{+}e^{-} decays are measured in intervals of the dilepton invariant mass squared. The measurements are performed using proton-proton collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9 fb^{-1} . The results are consistent with the standard model and previous tests of lepton universality in related decay modes. The first observation of B^{0}→K_{S}^{0}e^{+}e^{-} and B^{+}→K^{*+}e^{+}e^{-} decays is reported.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(19): 191803, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622037

RESUMO

The first observation of the semileptonic b-baryon decay Λ_{b}^{0}→Λ_{c}^{+}τ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{τ}, with a significance of 6.1σ, is reported using a data sample corresponding to 3 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity, collected by the LHCb experiment at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV at the LHC. The τ^{-} lepton is reconstructed in the hadronic decay to three charged pions. The ratio K=B(Λ_{b}^{0}→Λ_{c}^{+}τ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{τ})/B(Λ_{b}^{0}→Λ_{c}^{+}π^{-}π^{+}π^{-}) is measured to be 2.46±0.27±0.40, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The branching fraction B(Λ_{b}^{0}→Λ_{c}^{+}τ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{τ})=(1.50±0.16±0.25±0.23)% is obtained, where the third uncertainty is from the external branching fraction of the normalization channel Λ_{b}^{0}→Λ_{c}^{+}π^{-}π^{+}π^{-}. The ratio of semileptonic branching fractions R(Λ_{c}^{+})≡B(Λ_{b}^{0}→Λ_{c}^{+}τ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{τ})/B(Λ_{b}^{0}→Λ_{c}^{+}µ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{µ}) is derived to be 0.242±0.026±0.040±0.059, where the external branching fraction uncertainty from the channel Λ_{b}^{0}→Λ_{c}^{+}µ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{µ} contributes to the last term. This result is in agreement with the standard model prediction.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(16): 162001, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522517

RESUMO

Two narrow resonant states are observed in the Λ_{b}^{0}K^{-}π^{+} mass spectrum using a data sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, collected by the LHCb experiment and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6 fb^{-1}. The minimal quark content of the Λ_{b}^{0}K^{-}π^{+} system indicates that these are excited Ξ_{b}^{0} baryons. The masses of the Ξ_{b}(6327)^{0} and Ξ_{b}(6333)^{0} states are m[Ξ_{b}(6327)^{0}]=6327.28_{-0.21}^{+0.23}±0.12±0.24 and m[Ξ_{b}(6333)^{0}]=6332.69_{-0.18}^{+0.17}±0.03±0.22 MeV, respectively, with a mass splitting of Δm=5.41_{-0.27}^{+0.26}±0.12 MeV, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and due to the Λ_{b}^{0} mass measurement. The measured natural widths of these states are consistent with zero, with upper limits of Γ[Ξ_{b}(6327)^{0}]<2.20(2.56) and Γ[Ξ_{b}(6333)^{0}]<1.60(1.92) MeV at a 90% (95%) credibility level. The significance of the two-peak hypothesis is larger than nine (five) Gaussian standard deviations compared to the no-peak (one-peak) hypothesis. The masses, widths, and resonant structure of the new states are in good agreement with the expectations for a doublet of 1D Ξ_{b}^{0} resonances.

10.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260614, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475996

RESUMO

Payment for ecosystem services (PES) is a mechanism where a consumer is able and ready to pay for the protection of the precise ecosystem service and there must be a provider such as local societies receiving an economic resource, who in return, must have the ability to maintain that ecosystem service. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services. Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate tourism and carbon stock services of the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), Pakistan. Two forest zones (Chirpine and Scrub) of Islamabad capital territory (ICT) were selected for estimation of carbon stock and their carbon credits and carbon worth, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted for tourism as a payment for ecosystem services. The method for carbon stock assessment was systematic sampling for Chirpine forest whereas random sampling was done for scrub forest. The size of sampling plot was 17.84 m radius, and a total of 93 plots (49 Scrub zone and 44 Chirpine zone) was taken in the study area. The carbon stock of both zones (Chirpine and Scrub zone) is 22556.75 ton/ha (Chirpine 20105.79, Scrub 2450.96) and total carbon dioxide sequestered by both zone is 82557.72 ton/ha (Chirpine 73587.2, Scrub 8970.52), total carbon credits of both zone is 302160.87 (Chirpine 269328.97, Scrub 32831.9) and the carbon worth of both Chirpine and scrub zone is 4532418.92 $ (Chirpine 4039937.09$, Scrub 492481.83$). Similarly, from tourism point of view, in Shakar Parian, 94% tourists were agreed for PES whereas 6% were disagreed for the PES (the 6% tourist were disagreed to contribute for PES, 40% were agreed for Rs.5 contribution and 54% for Rs.10.). moreover, in Lake view Park, 97% tourists were agreed and 3% are disagreed (In Lake View Park 5% tourists were disagreed for the PES contribution whereas 32% were agreed for Rs.5 and 63% were for Rs.10). In Damen e Koh, around 87% tourist were agreed and 13% were disagreed, (24% were agreed for the contribution of Rs.5 and 63% tourists were agreed for the contribution of Rs.10). In Marghazar Zoo, 93% tourists were agreed (22% were agreed for contribution of Rs.5 and 71% tourist were agreed for contribution of Rs.10) and 7% are disagreed for PES whereas 7% tourists were not agreed for contribution. PES may implement to compensate forest and parks manager to ensure better management of the forests and parks. Due to prime location and scenic beauty of the ICT, it has huge potential for implementation of PES mechanism for sustainable forest management and conservation. Therefore, it is recommended that Capital Development Authority (CDA) Islamabad should devise a plan for implementation of PES in forests and parks of ICT for its sustainable management of recreational and forest resources.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Florestas , Lagos , Paquistão
11.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e256190, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239789

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) is a major air pollutant causing serious health problems. The aim of the present study was to find out concentration of PM in ambient air and its associated health risk in Haripur city, Pakistan. Twenty-three samples were taken at various educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas and industries in Haripur city. Concentration of PM2.5 (µg/m3) and PM10 (µg/m3) was measured with Youngteng YT-HPC 3000A portable PM counter. The results revealed that values of both PM2.5 and PM10 were above the permissible limits (35 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 150 µg/m3 for PM10) set by Environmental Protection Agency Pakistan (Pak-EPA) in all the educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas and industries investigated. Furthermore, significant (p<0.05) variation was found in the concentration of both PM2.5 and PM10 in all the educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas, and industries studied. The concentration of PM2.5 was positively correlated with the concentration of PM10 in all the sampling sites. Therefore, from 1-14 scale standard of health index, the values of PM2.5 and PM10 exhibited that the ambient air quality of Haripur city Pakistan is under high risk. If the regulatory authorities such as Environmental Protection Agency, Health Department and Local Government monitor PM pollution in different settings of Haripur city, then a decrease can be possible in the pollution level. The remedies that can be taken to overcome the problem of ambient air pollution such as PM are plantation of trees at the sites where there are higher levels of air pollutants and use of masks on personal protection basis along with implementation of pollution control system in industries of Hattar Industrial Estate Haripur city, Pakistan.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Paquistão
12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(8): 082001, 2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275686

RESUMO

Events containing a Z boson and a charm jet are studied for the first time in the forward region of proton-proton collisions. The data sample used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 6 fb^{-1} collected at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the LHCb detector. In events with a Z boson and a jet, the fraction of charm jets is determined in intervals of Z-boson rapidity in the range 2.0

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(6): 062001, 2022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213204

RESUMO

An amplitude analysis of flavor-untagged B_{s}^{0}→J/ψpp[over ¯] decays is performed using a sample of 797±31 decays reconstructed with the LHCb detector. The data, collected in proton-proton collisions between 2011 and 2018, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 9 fb^{-1}. Evidence for a new structure in the J/ψp and J/ψp[over ¯] systems with a mass of 4337_{-4}^{+7} _{-2}^{+2} MeV and a width of 29_{-12}^{+26} _{-14}^{+14} MeV is found, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic, with a significance in the range of 3.1 to 3.7σ, depending on the assigned J^{P} hypothesis.

14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(3): 1049-1055, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The reorganization of cancer services and the increased work burden on health care providers during the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to be associated with significant negative psychological impact. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological well-being of oncology clinicians in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We randomly invited 1500 oncology clinicians including medical oncologists, clinical oncologists, radiation oncologists and surgical oncologists from 17 countries in the MENA region to complete a web-based survey to determine the level of psychological stress during the COVID-19 pandemic from October 2020 to January 2021. The questionnaire was based on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Generalized Anxiety Disorders Scale (GAD-7) and WHO Well-being Index (WHO-5). The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 and the difference between groups was measured by t-test and ANOVA. RESULTS: Overall, 520 (35%) clinicians including 368 (71%) males and 152 (29%) females participated in the survey with 247 (47%) participants between the ages of 36 to 45 years. Average score of 29.6 for males and 30.2 on PSS-10, indicative of high-perceived stress in both the genders. Compared to males, females had significantly higher anxiety levels on GAD-7 scale (p=.04), but this difference in stress level and well-being was not observed on PSS-10 (p=.134) and WHO -5 well-being index (p=.709). Clinicians of age 25-35 years had significantly higher anxiety levels on GAD-7 scale (p=.004) and higher stress on PSS (p=.000) as compared to other age groups. Age over 55 years was associated with lower levels of anxiety and stress on GAD-7 and PSS. Oncology clinicians working in public sector experienced significantly lower stress as compared to private sector on PSS scale (p=.041). CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and stress levels among oncology clinicians have significantly increased in COVID-19 pandemic in the MENA region. Females and young clinicians had higher anxiety and stress, while oncology clinicians over the age of 55 years and working in the public sector reported less stress and anxiety. The general wellbeing of clinicians was well preserved even in a highly stressful and anxious situation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Oncologistas/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Setor Privado , Setor Público
15.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e253107, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019094

RESUMO

Life cycle assessment was carried out for a conventional wooden furniture set produced in Mardan division of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan during 2018-19. Primary data regarding inputs and outputs were collected through questionnaire surveys from 100 conventional wooden furniture set manufacturers, 50 in district Mardan and 50 in district Swabi. In the present study, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach was applied for a functional unit of one conventional wooden furniture set. Production weighted average data were modelled in the environmental impacts modelling software i.e., SimaPro v.8.5. The results showed that textile used in sofa set, wood preservative for polishing and preventing insects attack and petrol used in generator had the highest contribution to all the environmental impact categories evaluated. Total cumulative energy demand for wooden furniture set manufactured was 30,005 MJ with most of the energy acquired from non-renewable fossil fuel resources.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário , Paquistão
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(1): 305-311, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35049013

RESUMO

The pandemic of COVID-19 started spreading more exponentially across Pakistan since the end of February 2020. Numerous models and factors have been used to estimate predictions of the prevalence and severity of COVID-19 infections around the globe. While many factors play a role in the spread of COVID-19, climate and weather conditions are considered key elements in the transmission of COVID-19. Many researchers believe that recent increases in COVID-19 cases correlate strongly with local temperatures and factors (such as humidity, weather conditions, etc.) related to it. In this manuscript we test the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 spread is temperature-dependent by using the available data derived from Pakistan. The present review focuses on the relationship between temperature and COVID-19, examining the virus's viability and infectivity under various conditions. Our findings indicate that the trough and crest of the COVID-19 wave observed in 2020 are likely to repeat in the summer and winter of 2021, respectively. In Pakistan, temperatures, and humidity significantly affect the COVID-19 transmission and incidence. Like other types of beta-coronaviruses (ß-CoVs), the spread of COVID-19 may depend upon a great deal on temperature.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Humanos , Umidade , Incidência , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(23): 7375-7379, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Physical exercise has showed potential in improving brain function and increase in cortical size. This study aims to assess the cortical changes that are associated with physical exercise. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We investigated 45 subjects; 25 of them involved in exercise group and 20 in non-exercise group. The exercise group underwent 6 months of intervention consisting of 40 minutes (min) of aerobic exercise and 20 minutes of anaerobic exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired from both groups to measure the thickness of the cortex and was assessed with FreeSurfer software. RESULTS: Exercise group demonstrated significantly increased cortical thickness in the left pericalcarine area, left superior parietal area, right rostral middle frontal and right lateral occipital gyrus compared to non-exercise group. CONCLUSIONS: Regular and continuous physical exercise can enhance brain structures. The current findings have important implications for understanding the effect of physical activity or fitness programs on the brains of healthy individuals and of patients with a range of conditions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
18.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e253106, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730700

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop and evaluate data driven models for prediction of forest yield under different climate change scenarios in the Gallies forest division of district Abbottabad, Pakistan. The Random Forest (RF) and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) models were developed and evaluated using yield data of two species (Blue pine and Silver fir) as an objective variable and climate data (temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed) as predictive variables. Prediction accuracy of both the models were assessed by means of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), correlation coefficient (r), relative root mean squared error (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), Willmott's index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) metrics. Overall, the RF model outperformed the KRR model due to its higher accuracy in forecasting of forest yield. The study strongly recommends that RF model should be applied in other regions of the country for prediction of forest growth and yield, which may help in the management and future planning of forest productivity in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Paquistão
19.
Folia Biol (Praha) ; 67(2): 49-61, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624937

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of exogenous replacement therapy with acylated ghrelin (AG) post sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on the memory function in rats. In addition, we investigated the possible underlying mechanisms, including the effects on markers of oxidative stress, tau phosphorylation, and apoptosis. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (N = 18/group) as follows: sham (control), SG, SG+AG (100 µM), and SG+AG+LY294002 (0.25 µg/100 g). We continued all treatments daily for four weeks post-surgery. SG impaired the spatial, retention, and recognition memories as tested by the Morris water maze test, passive avoidance test, and novel object recognition test, respectively. Also, it enhanced the levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione and protein levels of Bcl-2, and increased the levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in the hippocampus. In addition, SG reduced the hippocampal levels of acetylcholine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Concomitantly, it inhibited the hippocampal activity of Akt and increased the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3ß and tau protein phosphorylation. Exogenous administration of acylated ghrelin to rats that had undergone SG prevented memory deficits. Also, it prevented the alteration in the above-mentioned biochemical parameters, an effect that was abolished by co-administration of LY294002 (phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor). In conclusion, AG replacement therapy after SG in rats protects them against memory deficits and hippocampal damage by suppressing tau protein phosphorylation, mediated by activating PI3K/Aktinduced inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3ß.


Assuntos
Grelina , Proteínas tau , Animais , Apoptose , Gastrectomia , Grelina/metabolismo , Grelina/farmacologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
20.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468521

RESUMO

Unavailability of probiotics in fish digestive system fingerlings is unable to digest and absorb their food properly. The current research was conducted to investigate the influence of probiotics added Linseed meal based (LMB) diet on hematology and carcass composition of Labeo rohita juveniles. Hematological parameters are essential diagnostics used to estimate the health status of fish. The usage of probiotics for fish health improvement is becoming common due to the higher demand for environment-friendly culture system in water. Linseed meal was used as a test ingredient to prepare six experimental test diets by adding probiotics (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg) and 1% indigestible chromic oxide for seventy days. According to their live wet weight, five percent feed was given to fingerlings twice a day. Fish blood and carcass samples (Whole body) were taken for hematological and carcass analysis at the end of the experiment. The highest carcass composition (crude protein; 18.72%, crude fat; 8.80% and gross energy; 2.31 kcal/g) was observed in fish fed with test diet II supplemented with probiotics (2 g/kg). Moreover, maximum RBCs number (2.62× 106mm-3), WBCs (7.84×103mm-3), PCV (24.61), platelets (63.85) and hemoglobin (7.87) had also been reported in the fish fingerlings fed on 2 g/kg of probiotics supplemented diet. Results indicated that probiotics supplementation has a critical role in improvement of fingerlings' body composition and hematological indices. Present findings showed that probiotics supplementation at 2 g/kg level in linseed by-product-based diet was very useful for enhancing the overall performance of L. rohita fingerlings.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Linho , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária
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