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1.
Folia Biol (Praha) ; 67(2): 49-61, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624937

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of exogenous replacement therapy with acylated ghrelin (AG) post sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on the memory function in rats. In addition, we investigated the possible underlying mechanisms, including the effects on markers of oxidative stress, tau phosphorylation, and apoptosis. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (N = 18/group) as follows: sham (control), SG, SG+AG (100 µM), and SG+AG+LY294002 (0.25 µg/100 g). We continued all treatments daily for four weeks post-surgery. SG impaired the spatial, retention, and recognition memories as tested by the Morris water maze test, passive avoidance test, and novel object recognition test, respectively. Also, it enhanced the levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione and protein levels of Bcl-2, and increased the levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in the hippocampus. In addition, SG reduced the hippocampal levels of acetylcholine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Concomitantly, it inhibited the hippocampal activity of Akt and increased the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3ß and tau protein phosphorylation. Exogenous administration of acylated ghrelin to rats that had undergone SG prevented memory deficits. Also, it prevented the alteration in the above-mentioned biochemical parameters, an effect that was abolished by co-administration of LY294002 (phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor). In conclusion, AG replacement therapy after SG in rats protects them against memory deficits and hippocampal damage by suppressing tau protein phosphorylation, mediated by activating PI3K/Aktinduced inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3ß.


Assuntos
Grelina , Proteínas tau , Animais , Apoptose , Gastrectomia , Grelina/metabolismo , Grelina/farmacologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468521

RESUMO

Unavailability of probiotics in fish digestive system fingerlings is unable to digest and absorb their food properly. The current research was conducted to investigate the influence of probiotics added Linseed meal based (LMB) diet on hematology and carcass composition of Labeo rohita juveniles. Hematological parameters are essential diagnostics used to estimate the health status of fish. The usage of probiotics for fish health improvement is becoming common due to the higher demand for environment-friendly culture system in water. Linseed meal was used as a test ingredient to prepare six experimental test diets by adding probiotics (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg) and 1% indigestible chromic oxide for seventy days. According to their live wet weight, five percent feed was given to fingerlings twice a day. Fish blood and carcass samples (Whole body) were taken for hematological and carcass analysis at the end of the experiment. The highest carcass composition (crude protein; 18.72%, crude fat; 8.80% and gross energy; 2.31 kcal/g) was observed in fish fed with test diet II supplemented with probiotics (2 g/kg). Moreover, maximum RBCs number (2.62× 106mm-3), WBCs (7.84×103mm-3), PCV (24.61), platelets (63.85) and hemoglobin (7.87) had also been reported in the fish fingerlings fed on 2 g/kg of probiotics supplemented diet. Results indicated that probiotics supplementation has a critical role in improvement of fingerlings' body composition and hematological indices. Present findings showed that probiotics supplementation at 2 g/kg level in linseed by-product-based diet was very useful for enhancing the overall performance of L. rohita fingerlings.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Linho , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária
3.
Public Health ; 197: 42-47, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Out-of-pocket (OOP) payment is a major health financing mechanisms across developing nations such as Pakistan. Private health expenditures are estimated to be 64.4%, of which 89% are OOP made by the households (National Health Accounts, 2015-16). These high health care expenditures cause households to face financial burden resulting in poverty. This study aims to estimate the incidence and determinants of catastrophic health expenditures and impoverishment for Pakistan. STUDY DESIGN: Household-based cross-section study. METHODS: We used the data from the Household Integrated Economic Survey (2015-16 and 2018-19), carried out by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. The well known methodology developed by Wagstaff and Doorslaer was used in this study for estimating the incidence and impoverishment effect of catastrophic health spending. RESULTS: It is found that at 10% threshold (out of total consumption expenditures), catastrophic health payments are incurred by 4.51% and 13.15% of households for 2015-16 and 2018-19, respectively. Moreover, following the 40% threshold (out of non-food expenditures), this incidence is 0.45% and 4.57%. Poverty headcount was 23.28% and 18.43% gross of health payments in both the considered years, respectively, whereas it turns out to be 24.68% and 22.02% net of healthcare payments for the respective years, representing an increase in poverty headcounts of 1.4% and 3.59%. CONCLUSION: OOP health payments exert pressure on household's capacity to pay and push them into poverty. This article recommends that the burden of OOP expenditures borne by households should be reduced to prevent them from falling into poverty by initiating some strategies (health financing policy reforms in terms of financial protection) with political support.


Assuntos
Doença Catastrófica , Gastos em Saúde , Doença Catastrófica/epidemiologia , Financiamento Pessoal , Humanos , Incidência , Paquistão/epidemiologia
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(8): 3162-3172, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928602

RESUMO

Naegleria fowleri is a deadly human pathogen that causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). In this study, in silico investigations of two important N. fowleri cathepsin B paralogs, i.e., copies of genes resulting from a gene duplication event, were carried out using comparative modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Comparative models of both paralogs showed significant architectural similarity with their template, i.e., rat cathepsin B. However, in N. fowleri cathepsin B (UniProt ID: X5D761) and putative cathepsin B (UniProt ID: M1HE19) enzymes, eleven and fifteen residues in the occluding loop regions were deleted, respectively, suggesting that these enzymes have a short occluding loop. Thus, it is concluded that N. fowleri cathepsin B and putative cathepsin B enzymes lack exopeptidase activity but possess enhanced endopeptidase activity and an affinity for macromolecular inhibitors. MD simulations further confirmed that prosegments (macromolecular inhibitors) bond more tightly with both enzymes than with wild-type cathepsin B. Additionally, a mutation was identified at an important N-glycosylation site; this mutation is believed to affect cathepsin B targeting inside the cell and make cathepsin B available in the extracellular environment. Due to this important N-glycosylation site mutation, these enzymes are secreted in the extracellular environment via an alternative, still unknown, posttranslational processing strategy. The present study is the first to predict the three-dimensional folds of N. fowleri cathepsin B paralogous enzymes, including a detailed description of the active site architecture and information about propeptide binding mode. This information can contribute to the discovery of novel and selective treatments that are effective against N. fowleri.

6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(4): 2021-2030, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive impairment is one of the most common manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the pathophysiology of this issue is still poorly understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between vitamin D levels and cognitive function in patients with MS as assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, case-control study; the subjects were 39 Saudi patients diagnosed with MS. For all participants, demographic information, including age, sex, and educational level, was collected. Participants were also evaluated using the disease steps scale and the PHQ-9 scale. Their vitamin D levels were assessed, and the participants completed a computerized cognitive assessment using the CANTAB. RESULTS: From the total sample of 39 patients with MS, 31 (79.5%) were female. Physical disability due to MS was insignificant in 25 (64.1%) of the subjects and significant in 14 (35.9%). Seventeen (43.6%) of the participants had normal vitamin D levels; 22 (56.4%) had low vitamin D levels. The MS patients had lower MOT mean errors than the control group, and this difference was statistically significant (t = -4.313, p < 0.01). Moreover, the scores of the two groups for all subcategories of the memory domain were different at statistically significant levels. Furthermore, the control group had higher PAL total errors (adjusted), PAL total errors (6 shapes, adjusted), and PRM percent correct than the MS patients (p < 0.01). The control group also achieved lower scores on SWM between errors and SWM strategy than the MS patients (p < 0.01). The MOT mean error was found to correlate with the disease steps score (r = 0.394, p < 0.05) and with significant physical disability (r = 0.457, p< 0.01). In the memory domain, PAL total errors (adjusted) correlated with age (r = 0.381, p < 0.05), SWM between errors correlated with age at onset of disease (r = 0.345, p < 0.05), and vitamin D level (r = 0.335, p < 0.05) and SWM strategy correlated with the number of relapses in the past 12 months (r = -0.355, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive performance was impaired in patients with MS. Vitamin D deficiency, a potentially modifiable risk factor, independently predicted cognitive impairment in MS patients.

8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(2): 669-677, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alterations in brain function in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and other neuropsychiatric disorders are evident not only during specific cognitive challenges, but also from functional MRI data obtained during a resting state. Patients with chronic SCZ have shown deficits in default mood network (DMN) and gray matter volume in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). However, cortical thickness and surface area in first-episode schizophrenic patients have rarely been investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present study, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to a series of rs-fMRIs of 15 SCZ patients and 15 matched healthy controls. The data were analyzed using MELODIC of FMRIB's Software Library (FSL version 5.9; www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl) to identify large-scale patterns of temporal signal-intensity coherence. RESULTS: Patients with SCZ showed significantly higher functional connectivity in the DMN, auditory network, and cerebellum network (p=0.049, p=0.05, and p=0.007, respectively) than matched healthy controls. The patients also exhibited significantly less cortical thickness, primarily in the bilateral prefrontal and parietal cortex, and higher thickness in the bilateral anterior temporal lobes, left medial orbitofrontal cortex, and left cuneus than the matched healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that significantly abnormal DMN connectivity and cortical thickness contribute to local functional pathology in patients with SCZ.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede de Modo Padrão/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Rede de Modo Padrão/metabolismo , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(2): 1060-1069, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The world is facing a devastating challenge in the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19) outbreak.  Healthcare workers (HCWs) provide the first line of defense against any disease outbreak. Thus, the present study is designed to assess HCWs' attitudes towards, knowledge of, and awareness of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted using an online survey on social media; the participants were 597 adults. The study was conducted from March to April 2020. The questionnaire was randomly administered on Arabic-language social media applications; the 26-item survey assessed knowledge levels, attitudes, and practices. RESULTS: The analysis includes 597 complete responses from HCWs; participants included physicians, nurses, medical students, and pharmacists. Most participants were females aged 18 to 25 years. Most participants agreed that the virus can spread via direct and indirect contact. Most participants indicated that they wash their hands; avoid touching their eyes, nose, or mouth; and avoid crowded places to protect themselves against infection. Most indicated that a bat was the original source of the virus. Most participating HCWs indicated that the symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Most of the participants also indicated that there is no specific treatment for patients infected with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this work can support the design of effective measures to prevent and control COVID-19 infections during the pandemic. The results also highlight where improvement is needed to HCWs' knowledge of and attitudes towards COVID-19; the findings also highlight the best healthcare practices regarding this illness.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 127(1): 20-27, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789058

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an important factor in the pathogenesis of micro- and macrovascular complications. The present study was to investigate the impact of combined vanadium and insulin for proper control and protection against endothelial dysfunction in T1DM rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; control non-treated; control vanadium treated; T1DM; T1DM + insulin; T1DM + vanadium; T1DM + insulin + vanadium treated groups. At the end of the experiment (6 weeks), serum C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6, endothelin-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, fasting glucose serum lipogram, liver homogenate SOD activity and MDA levels were determined. Concomitant insulin and vanadium treatment improved the diabetic metabolic disturbances in addition to endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory markers. We can conclude that concomitant administration of both vanadium and insulin in T1DM decreased the risk for the development of endothelial dysfunction, micro- and macrovascular complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Vanádio/administração & dosagem , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Endotelina-1/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 13098-13100, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378063

RESUMO

COVID-19 is rapidly spreading throughout the world since December 2019. It has hit South Asian countries with faded impact, which can be attributed to (a) availability of kits, (b) number of people tested for COVID-19, (c) immunity, (d) environmental conditions and (e) vaccination.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Umidade , Malária/imunologia , Temperatura , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Ásia Ocidental/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/provisão & distribuição , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
13.
J Chem Phys ; 152(4): 044712, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007032

RESUMO

The potential of CeO2 as an epoxidation catalyst is studied for the reaction of propylene with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Adsorption and decomposition of H2O2 and propylene oxide (PO) are also explored to determine their surface chemistry and thermal stability. Hydrogen peroxide adsorbed dissociatively on CeO2 forming adsorbed peroxo (O-O) species, as observed through vibrational features at 890 cm-1 and (830-855) cm-1 (FTIR). The signal at 890 cm-1 disappeared when a pulse of propylene was passed through the catalyst, and at the same time, adsorbed PO was observed (a sharp IR mode at 827 cm-1; ring deformation). The reaction between gas phase propylene and adsorbed peroxide species suggested the Eley-Rideal type mechanism. The absence of a ring opening reaction of PO at room temperature may indicate that CeO2 can be a suitable oxide for epoxidation of hydrocarbons. PO started to decompose above 323 K, as observed from FTIR and TPD results. TPD spectra of PO show its desorption at 365 K, with a small fraction decomposing into acetaldehyde and formaldehyde due to partial decomposition, while CO2 and CO are released at higher temperatures. Adsorbed acetate, formate, and carbonate species, formed due to further reactions of aldehydes, are observed during the thermal reaction (FTIR).

14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(1): 345-351, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at assessing asthma control test (ACT score), quality of life (QOL), and pulmonary functions in asthmatic children, and to see the correlations between ACT score, QOL, and pulmonary functions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the departments of pediatrics and physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Medical City (KSUMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 109 (53 asthmatics and 56 controls) children (aged 6 to 13 years) of both genders were studied. All subjects underwent clinical evaluation, 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) for QOL, Spirometry, and cognitive assessment through mini mental state examination (MMSE). RESULTS: QOL showed significantly lower scores in asthmatic compared to non-asthmatic children. The higher social functioning [SF] (p=0.0012) and less role limitation due to physical health [RLPH] (non-asthmatic patients had had higher physical functioning [PF] (p=0.0001), less energy/fatigue [EF] (p=0.0008=0.0068). On the opposite side, no significant difference was found regarding role limitations due to emotional problems [RLEP] (p=0.0644) and Emotional well-being [EW] (p=0.0758) between the two groups. A significant positive correlation was seen between QOL items and ACT score in PF (r=.535, p<0.01), less RLPH (r=.593, p<0.01), less FE (r=.379, p<0.01), higher EW (r=.310, p<0.05), and higher SF (r=.495, p<0.01). No significant correlation was found between body mass index (BMI) and lung functions in children with asthma. Interestingly, a positive correlation was found in asthmatic children between BMI and MMSE scores (r=.298, p=0.030). CONCLUSIONS: Our study concluded that QOL in asthmatic patients was significantly lower than healthy subjects in terms of patient's physical functioning and social life. However, the emotional aspects of QOL were not significantly affected in asthmatic children.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Asma/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Respiratória , Adolescente , Asma/fisiopatologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Data Brief ; 27: 104566, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799342

RESUMO

This article provides experimental and numerical data for the propagation of stress-induced martensitic transformation within NiTi structures with uniform and nonuniform geometries. This article is related to the research paper entitled "Computational and experimental analyses of martensitic transformation propagation in shape memory alloys" [1]. The heterogeneous transformation evolutions within geometrically graded NiTi structures are presented by thermal images recorded by a high-resolution infrared camera during tensile loading. The modelling of transformation and deformation behaviours of those structures is presented by finite element computational method.

16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 23(10): 4354-4359, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive technique for brain stimulation often used as a diagnostic and therapeutic therapy in neuroscience and psychiatry for different diseases including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and treatment-resistant major depressive disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recent studies have shown the enhanced benefits of using TMS for its potential to provoke changes in the physiological processing of the human brain. RESULTS: In the current review article, emphasis will be placed on both the applications of TMS as well as the different types of TMS used to benefit subjects with epilepsy, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, we aim at discussing the potential of using TMS for the treatment of neurological diseases. CONCLUSIONS: By paying special consideration to a Middle Eastern context, we aimed at illustrating the possibilities that TMS could bring for clinicians and patients in this nationally prioritized research field.


Assuntos
Neurologia/tendências , Neurociências/tendências , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/tendências , Animais , Humanos , Oriente Médio
17.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(3)2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30960478

RESUMO

Luminescent polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) films were prepared by the solvent-casting technique from polymer solution doped with different concentrations of red perylene dyestuffs (KREMER 94720 and KREMER 94739). The effect of the dye concentration on the structure and spectroscopic properties was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) optical absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The optimum dye concentration of photoselective PMMA films was determined by the fluorescence spectroscopy measurements and showed the best emission properties for the doping concentration 10-3 wt % of the investigated dyes. The accelerated photostability tests showed promising stability of the prepared films towards terrestrial solar ultraviolet radiation (UVA). The results endorsed a promising application of the investigated films in photoselective greenhouse cladding applications as the optimized film fluoresces at the action spectra of special chlorophyll a.

18.
J Hosp Infect ; 101(4): 461-466, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has identified antimicrobial resistance (AMR) as one of the most significant global risks facing modern medicine. Interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing have so far had limited impact. AIM: To understand the barriers to effective antibiotic prescribing. METHODS: Mixed methodologies were used to investigate prescribing behaviours to identify the critical points in the antibiotic prescribing pathway for hospital inpatients. We assessed knowledge, experience or empowerment of prescribers, organizational factors, and use of the laboratory. Phase 1 was an online survey to map barriers and facilitators to antibiotic prescribing (56 participants). Phase 2 consisted of focus groups and interviews to gain more understanding of prescribing behaviours (10 participants). Phase 3 was an online survey to obtain opinions on possible solutions (22 participants). FINDINGS: Barriers to prescribing were: laboratory factors 71.6%, resource issues 40%, time constraints 17.5%, pressure from others 52%. Ninety-three percent of prescribers were concerned about AMR. In three scenarios only 9% were confident not to prescribe antibiotics for a patient without bacterial infection; 53% would prescribe unnecessarily broad-spectrum antibiotics for pneumonia. Only 5% would de-escalate antibiotics in a microbiologically confirmed bacteraemia. Despite concerns about AMR, prescribers did not perceive that continuing antibiotics for individual patients might promote resistance. Prescribers were unwilling to change antibiotics out of hours and reported that they preferred professional support for antibiotic prescribing. CONCLUSION: There was a marked disparity between prescribers, self-reporting of prescribing behaviour and responses to clinical scenarios. It was not clear whether training alone would change behaviours. Prescribers desired a directive mechanism to support antibiotic prescribing and stewardship.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/organização & administração , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Uso de Medicamentos/normas , Hospitais Pediátricos , Prescrições/normas , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/organização & administração , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/organização & administração , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 22(21): 7385-7392, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468485

RESUMO

The field of neuromodulation encompasses a wide spectrum of interventional technologies that modify pathological activity within the nervous system to achieve a therapeutic effect. Therapy including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has all shown promising results across a range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. This article reviews the state-of-the-art of neuromodulation for stroke and discusses the opportunities and challenges available for clinicians and researchers interested in advancing neuromodulation therapy. The annual worldwide incidence of stroke ranges from 27.5 to 63 individuals per 100,000. Stroke, a major cause of adult disability, has devastating effects on patients and their caregivers, which has a tremendous socioeconomic impact on families and healthcare systems around the world. There are only a few treatments available for the improvement of motor function in stroke patients. The majority of these treatments are based on functional motor learning (ML) strategies. Both the mechanisms underlying stroke recovery and the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation interventions still remain poorly understood for widespread implementation, although it strongly depends on the quality of rehabilitation service to reach maximal post-stroke recovery.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Desempenho Psicomotor , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Humanos , Aprendizagem
20.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 16(1): 71, 2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In vivo studies involving molecular markers of the follicle wall associated with follicular fluid (FF) milieu are crucial for a better understanding of follicle dynamics. The inability to obtain in vivo samples of antral follicle wall (granulosa and theca cells) without jeopardizing ovarian function has restricted advancement in knowledge of folliculogenesis in several species. The purpose of this study in mares was to develop and validate a novel, minimally invasive in vivo technique for simultaneous collection of follicle wall biopsy (FWB) and FF samples, and repeated collection from the same individual, during different stages of antral follicle development. We hypothesized that the in vivo FWB technique provides samples that maintain the normal histological tissue structure of the follicle wall layers, offers sufficient material for various cellular and molecular techniques, and allows simultaneous retrieval of FF. METHODS: In Experiment 1 (ex vivo), each follicle was sampled using two techniques: biopsy forceps and scalpel blade (control). In Experiment 2 (in vivo), FWB and FF samples from 10-, 20-, and 30-mm follicles were repeatedly and simultaneously obtained through transvaginal ultrasound-guided technique. RESULTS: In Experiment 1, the thickness of granulosa, theca interna, and theca externa layers was not influenced (P > 0.05) by the harvesting techniques. In Experiment 2, the overall recovery rates of FWB and FF samples were 97 and 100%, respectively. However, the success rate of obtaining samples with all layers of the follicle wall and clear FF varied according to follicle size. The expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) was mostly confined in the theca interna layer, with the estradiol-related receptor alpha (ERRα) in the granulosa and theca interna layers. The 30-mm follicle group had greater (P < 0.05) LHR expression in the theca interna and ERRα in the granulosa layer compared to the other groups. The overall expression of LHR and ERRα, and the intrafollicular estradiol were higher (P < 0.05 - P < 0.0001) in the 30-mm follicle group. CONCLUSION: The in vivo technique developed in this study can be repeatedly and simultaneously used to provide sufficient FWB and FF samples for various cellular and molecular studies without jeopardizing the ovarian function, and has the potential to be translated to other species, including humans.


Assuntos
Biópsia/veterinária , Cavalos , Folículo Ovariano/cirurgia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biópsia/instrumentação , Biópsia/métodos , Feminino , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Ovário/cirurgia
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