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1.
Soft Matter ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724987

RESUMO

While thermal treatment of paper can lead to the formation of aromatic structures via hydrothermal treatment (low temperature) or pyrolysis (high temperature), neither of these approaches allow patterning the substrates. Somewhere in between these two extremes, a handful of research groups have used CO2 lasers to pattern paper and induce carbonization. However, none of the previously reported papers have focused on the possibility to form fluorescent derivatives via laser-thermal engraving. Exploring this possibility, this article describes the possibility of using a CO2 laser engraver to selectively treat paper, resulting in the formation of fluorescent compounds, similar to those present on the surface of carbon dots. To determine the most relevant variables controlling this process, 3 MM chromatography paper was treated using a standard 30 W CO2 laser engraver. Under selected experimental conditions, a blue fluorescent pattern was observed when the substrate was irradiated with UV light (365 nm). The effect of various experimental conditions (engraving speed, engraving power, and number of engraving steps) was investigated to maximize the fluorescence intensity. Through a comprehensive characterization effort, it was determined that 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural and a handful of related compounds were formed (varying in amount) under all selected experimental conditions. To illustrate the potential advantages of this strategy, that could complement those applications traditionally developed from carbon dots (sensors, currency marking, etc.), a redox-based optical sensor for sodium hypochlorite was developed.

2.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; : e8635, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677291

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Methods for isomer discrimination by mass spectroscopy are of increasing interest. Here we describe the development of a three-dimensional ion trap for infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy that enables the acquisition of the infrared spectrum of selected ions in the gas phase. This system is suitable for the study of a myriad of chemical systems, including isomer mixtures. METHODS: A modified three-dimensional ion trap was coupled to a CO2 laser and an optical parametric oscillator/optical parametric amplifier (OPO/OPA) system operating in the range 2300 to 4000 cm-1 . Density functional theory vibrational frequency calculations were carried out to support spectral assignments. RESULTS: Detailed descriptions of the interface between the laser and the mass spectrometer, the hardware to control the laser systems, the automated system for IRMPD spectrum acquisition and data management are presented. The optimization of the crystal position of the OPO/OPA system to maximize the spectroscopic response under low-power laser radiation is also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: OPO/OPA and CO2 laser-assisted dissociation of gas-phase ions was successfully achieved. The system was validated by acquiring the IRMPD spectra of model species and comparing with literature data. Two isomeric alkaloids of high economic importance were characterized to demonstrate the potential of this technique, which is now available as an open IRMPD spectroscopy facility in Brazil.

3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(7)2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337048

RESUMO

Betalains are water-soluble natural pigments of increasing importance as antioxidants for pharmaceutical use. Although non-phenolic betalains have lower capacity to scavenge radicals compared to their phenolic analogues, both classes perform well as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents in vivo. Here we show that meta-hydroxyphenyl betalain (m-OH-pBeet) and phenylbetalain (pBeet) show higher radical scavenging capacity compared to their N-methyl iminium analogues, in which proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) from the imine nitrogen atom is precluded. The 1,7-diazaheptamethinium system was found to be essential for the high radical scavenging capacity of betalains and concerted PCET is the most thermodynamically favorable pathway for their one-electron oxidation. The results provide useful insights for the design of nature-derived redox mediators based on the betalain scaffold.

4.
Catal Sci Technol ; 9(6): 1365-1371, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131076

RESUMO

The use of enzymes for synthetic applications is a powerful and environmentally-benign approach to increase molecular complexity. Oxidoreductases selectively introduce oxygen and hydrogen atoms into myriad substrates, catalyzing the synthesis of chemical and pharmaceutical building blocks for chemical production. However, broader application of this class of enzymes is limited by the requirements of expensive cofactors and low operational stability. Herein, we show that morpholine-based buffers, especially 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), promote photoinduced flavoenzyme-catalyzed asymmetric redox transformations by regenerating the flavin cofactor via sacrificial electron donation and by increasing the operational stability of flavin-dependent oxidoreductases. The stabilization of the active forms of flavin by MOPS via formation of the spin correlated ion pair 3[flavin˙--MOPS˙+] ensemble reduces the formation of hydrogen peroxide, circumventing the oxygen dilemma under aerobic conditions detrimental to fragile enzymes.

5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 90(1 Suppl 1): 681-695, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29742202

RESUMO

An overview is provided of the status of research at the frontiers of investigation of the chemistry and photochemistry of two classes of natural plant pigments, the anthocyanins and the betalains, as well as of the pyranoanthocyanin pigments formed from anthocyanins during the maturation of red wine. Together, anthocyanins and betalains are responsible for almost all of the red, purple and blue colors of fruits and flowers and anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins are major contributors to the color of red wines. All three types of pigments are cationic below about pH 3, highly colored, non-toxic, reasonably soluble in water or alcohol and fairly stable to light. They exhibit good antioxidant or antiradical activity and, as part of our diet, confer a number of important health benefits. Systematic studies of model compounds containing the basic chromophoric groups of these three types of pigments are providing a deeper understanding of the often complex chemistry and photochemistry of these pigments and their relationship to the roles in vivo of these pigments in plants. These natural pigments are currently being exploited as starting materials for the preparation of novel semi-synthetic dyes, pigments and fluorescence probes.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Betalaínas/química , Flores/química , Frutas/química , Pigmentação , Vinho , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Betalaínas/isolamento & purificação , Cor
6.
Photochem Photobiol ; 94(5): 853-864, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412460

RESUMO

Betanin (betanidin 5-O-ß-D-glucoside) is a water-soluble plant pigment used as a color additive in food, drugs and cosmetic products. Despite its sensitivity to light and heat, betanin maintains appreciable tinctorial strength in low acidic and neutral conditions, where the color of other plant pigments, such as anthocyanins, quickly fades. However, betanin is an iminium natural product that experiences acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis to form the fairly stable betalamic acid and cyclo-DOPA-5-O-ß-D-glucoside. Here, we show that the decomposition of betanin in aqueous phosphate solution pH 2-11 is subject to general base catalysis by hydrogen phosphate ion and intramolecular general acid and base catalysis, providing new insights on the mechanism of betanin hydrolysis. UV/Vis absorption spectrophotometry, 1 H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used to investigate product formation. Furthermore, theoretical calculations support the hypothesis that the nitrogen atom of the tetrahydropyridine ring of betanin is doubly protonated, as observed for structurally simpler amino dicarboxylic acids. Our results contribute to the study of betanin and other pigments belonging to the class of betalains and to deepen the knowledge on the chemical properties of imino acids as well as on iminium-catalyzed modifications of carbonyl compounds in water.

7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1,supl.1): 681-695, 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-886931

RESUMO

ABSTRACT An overview is provided of the status of research at the frontiers of investigation of the chemistry and photochemistry of two classes of natural plant pigments, the anthocyanins and the betalains, as well as of the pyranoanthocyanin pigments formed from anthocyanins during the maturation of red wine. Together, anthocyanins and betalains are responsible for almost all of the red, purple and blue colors of fruits and flowers and anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins are major contributors to the color of red wines. All three types of pigments are cationic below about pH 3, highly colored, non-toxic, reasonably soluble in water or alcohol and fairly stable to light. They exhibit good antioxidant or antiradical activity and, as part of our diet, confer a number of important health benefits. Systematic studies of model compounds containing the basic chromophoric groups of these three types of pigments are providing a deeper understanding of the often complex chemistry and photochemistry of these pigments and their relationship to the roles in vivo of these pigments in plants. These natural pigments are currently being exploited as starting materials for the preparation of novel semi-synthetic dyes, pigments and fluorescence probes.

8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 8670, 2017 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819324

RESUMO

The efficient conversion of light energy into chemical energy is key for sustainable human development. Several photocatalytic systems based on photovoltaic electrolysis have been used to produce hydrogen via water reduction. However, in such devices, light harvesting and proton reduction are carried separately, showing quantum efficiency of about 10-12%. Here, we report a nano-hybrid photocatalytic assembly that enables concomitant reductive hydrogen production and pollutant oxidation with solar-to-fuel efficiencies up to 20%. The modular architecture of this plasmonic material allows the fine-tuning of its photocatalytic properties by simple manipulation of a reduced number of basic components.

9.
Sci Adv ; 3(4): e1602847, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28508049

RESUMO

Bioluminescent fungi are spread throughout the globe, but details on their mechanism of light emission are still scarce. Usually, the process involves three key components: an oxidizable luciferin substrate, a luciferase enzyme, and a light emitter, typically oxidized luciferin, and called oxyluciferin. We report the structure of fungal oxyluciferin, investigate the mechanism of fungal bioluminescence, and describe the use of simple synthetic α-pyrones as luciferins to produce multicolor enzymatic chemiluminescence. A high-energy endoperoxide is proposed as an intermediate of the oxidation of the native luciferin to the oxyluciferin, which is a pyruvic acid adduct of caffeic acid. Luciferase promiscuity allows the use of simple α-pyrones as chemiluminescent substrates.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Fungos/química , Indóis/química , Luciferases/química , Luminescência , Pirazinas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Indóis/metabolismo , Luciferases/metabolismo , Pirazinas/metabolismo , Pironas/química
10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(5): 3955-3962, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28106183

RESUMO

Almost all chemiluminescent and bioluminescent reactions involve cyclic peroxides. The structure of the peroxide and reaction conditions determine the quantum efficiency of light emission. Oxidizable fluorophores, the so-called activators, react with 1,2-dioxetanones promoting the former to their first singlet excited state. This transformation is inefficient and does not occur with 1,2-dioxetanes; however, they have been used as models for the efficient firefly bioluminescence. In this work, we use the SA-CASSCF/CASPT2 method to investigate the activated chemiexcitation of the parent 1,2-dioxetane and 1,2-dioxetanone. Our findings suggest that ground state decomposition of the peroxide competes efficiently with the chemiexcitation pathway, in agreement with the available experimental data. The formation of non-emissive triplet excited species is proposed to explain the low emission efficiency of the activated decomposition of 1,2-dioxetanone. Chemiexcitation is rationalized considering a peroxide/activator supermolecule undergoing an electron-transfer reaction followed by internal conversion.

11.
J Biol Chem ; 290(12): 7767-90, 2015 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25623067

RESUMO

Proline is crucial for energizing critical events throughout the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. The proline breakdown pathway consists of two oxidation steps, both of which produce reducing equivalents as follows: the conversion of proline to Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), and the subsequent conversion of P5C to glutamate. We have identified and characterized the Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase from T. cruzi (TcP5CDH) and report here on how this enzyme contributes to a central metabolic pathway in this parasite. Size-exclusion chromatography, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and small angle x-ray scattering analysis of TcP5CDH revealed an oligomeric state composed of two subunits of six protomers. TcP5CDH was found to complement a yeast strain deficient in PUT2 activity, confirming the enzyme's functional role; and the biochemical parameters (Km, kcat, and kcat/Km) of the recombinant TcP5CDH were determined, exhibiting values comparable with those from T. cruzi lysates. In addition, TcP5CDH exhibited mitochondrial staining during the main stages of the T. cruzi life cycle. mRNA and enzymatic activity levels indicated the up-regulation (6-fold change) of TcP5CDH during the infective stages of the parasite. The participation of P5C as an energy source was also demonstrated. Overall, we propose that this enzymatic step is crucial for the viability of both replicative and infective forms of T. cruzi.


Assuntos
1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Trypanosoma/patogenicidade , 1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Primers do DNA , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Regulação para Cima
12.
Molecules ; 18(9): 11100-30, 2013 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24025458

RESUMO

The iodine-catalyzed Prins cyclization of homoallylic alcohols and aldehydes was investigated under metal-free conditions and without additives. Anhydrous conditions and inert atmosphere are not required. The reaction of 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl)propan-1-ol and 21 aldehydes (aliphatic and aromatic) in CH2Cl2 in the presence of 5 mol % of iodine gave 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[f]isochromenes in 54%-86% yield. Under similar conditions, the Prins cyclization of six alcohols containing an endocyclic double bond (primary, secondary, or tertiary) led to dihydropyrans in 52%-91% yield. The acyclic homoallylic alcohols gave 4-iodo-tetrahydropyran in 29%-41% yield in the presence of 50 mol % of iodine. This type of substrate is the main limitation of the methodology. The relative configuration of the products was assigned by NMR and X-ray analysis. The mechanism and the ratio of the products are discussed, based on DFT calculations.


Assuntos
Iodo/química , Piranos/síntese química , Álcoois/química , Aldeídos/química , Catálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ciclização , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Estereoisomerismo
13.
J Pept Sci ; 19(9): 575-80, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23893516

RESUMO

Controlling the dissemination of malaria requires the development of new drugs against its etiological agent, a protozoan of the Plasmodium genus. Angiotensin II and its analog peptides exhibit activity against the development of immature and mature sporozoites of Plasmodium gallinaceum. In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of angiotensin II linear and cyclic analogs with anti-plasmodium activity. The peptides were synthesized by a conventional solid-phase method on Merrifield's resin using the t-Boc strategy, purified by RP-HPLC and characterized by liquid chromatography/ESI (+) MS (LC-ESI(+)/MS), amino acid analysis, and capillary electrophoresis. Anti-plasmodium activity was measured in vitro by fluorescence microscopy using propidium iodine uptake as an indicator of cellular damage. The activities of the linear and cyclic peptides are not significantly different (p < 0.05). Kinetics studies indicate that the effects of these peptides on plasmodium viability overtime exhibit a sigmoidal profile and that the system stabilizes after a period of 1 h for all peptides examined. The results were rationalized by partial least-square analysis, assessing the position-wise contribution of each amino acid. The highest contribution of polar amino acids and a Lys residue proximal to the C-terminus, as well as that of hydrophobic amino acids in the N-terminus, suggests that the mechanism underlying the anti-malarial activity of these peptides is attributed to its amphiphilic character.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/análogos & derivados , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Plasmodium gallinaceum/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Angiotensina II/química , Animais , Antimaláricos/química , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Esporozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Org Chem ; 78(9): 4432-9, 2013 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23551289

RESUMO

The induced decomposition of 1,2-dioxetanes results in the efficient formation of singlet-excited carbonyl compounds. This transformation has been assumed to involve two sequential electron-transfer steps, and the viscosity dependence of the chemiexcitation efficiency (solvent cage effect) has been considered as evidence for the occurrence of an intermolecular electron back-transfer, despite the very high chemiexcitation quantum yields observed. However, all other chemiluminescent reactions assumed to occur according to the entirely intermolecular mechanism, referred to as CIEEL, are inefficient, except for the peroxyoxalate system. Therefore, we have investigated the solvent cage effect on the singlet quantum yields in both the induced decomposition of 1,2-dioxetanes and the peroxyoxalate reaction. Analysis of the viscosity effect observed for both systems, using a collisional as well as a free-volume model, indicates a very distinct behavior, which was interpreted as the occurrence of intramolecular chemiexcitation in the induced 1,2-dioxetane decomposition. We propose a general mechanism for efficient chemiluminescence in which the required electron back-transfer and C-C bond cleavage are concerted and compete with conformational changes that compromise the chemiexcitation. This mechanism is in agreement with both experimental and theoretical data available on the induced 1,2-dioxetane decomposition as well as with the high quantum efficiency of this transformation.

15.
Langmuir ; 29(13): 4193-203, 2013 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23473070

RESUMO

Specific ion effects in surfactant solutions affect the properties of micelles. Dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), bromide (DTAB), and methanesulfonate (DTAMs) micelles are typically spherical, but some organic anions can induce shape or phase transitions in DTA(+) micelles. Above a defined concentration, sodium triflate (NaTf) induces a phase separation in dodecyltrimethylammonium triflate (DTATf) micelles, a phenomenon rarely observed in cationic micelles. This unexpected behavior of the DTATf/NaTf system suggests that DTATf aggregates have unusual properties. The structural properties of DTATf micelles were analyzed by time-resolved fluorescence quenching, small-angle X-ray scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron paramagnetic resonance and compared with those of DTAC, DTAB, and DTAMs micelles. Compared to the other micelle types, the DTATf micelles had a higher average number of monomers per aggregate, an uncommon disk-like shape, smaller interfacial hydration, and restricted monomer chain mobility. Molecular dynamic simulations supported these observations. Even small water-soluble salts can profoundly affect micellar properties; our data demonstrate that the -CF3 group in Tf(-) was directly responsible for the observed shape changes by decreasing interfacial hydration and increasing the degree of order of the surfactant chains in the DTATf micelles.


Assuntos
Mesilatos/química , Micelas , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Cátions/química , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Tensoativos/química
16.
J Org Chem ; 74(23): 8974-9, 2009 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19711973

RESUMO

A high-energy intermediate in the peroxyoxalate reaction can be accumulated at room temperature under specific reaction conditions and in the absence of any reducing agent in up to micromolar concentrations. Bimolecular interaction of this intermediate, accumulated in the reaction of oxalyl chloride with hydrogen peroxide, with an activator (highly fluorescent aromatic hydrocarbons with low oxidation potential) added in delay shows unequivocally that this intermediate is responsible for chemiexcitation of the activator. Activation parameters for the unimolecular decomposition of this intermediate (DeltaH(double dagger) = 11.2 kcal mol(-1); DeltaS(double dagger) = -23.2 cal mol(-1) K(-1)) and for its bimolecular reaction with 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DeltaH(double dagger) = 4.2 kcal mol(-1); DeltaS(double dagger) = -26.9 cal mol(-1) K(-1)) show that this intermediate is much less stable than typical 1,2-dioxetanes and 1,2-dioxetanones and demonstrate its highly favored interaction with the activator. Therefore, it can be inferred that structural characterization of the high-energy intermediate in the presence of an activator must be highly improbable. The observed linear free-energy correlation between the catalytic rate constants and the oxidation potentials of several activators definitely confirms the occurrence of the chemically initiated electron-exchange luminescence (CIEEL) mechanism in the chemiexcitation step of the peroxyoxalate system.

17.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 282(1): 132-9, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18355288

RESUMO

Herein we describe a procedure for measuring the total light emission of the naturally bioluminescent tropical fungus Gerronema viridilucens and the optimization of culture conditions using multivariate factorial anova. Cultures growing on an agar surface in 35 mm Petri dishes at 90% humidity show optimal bioluminescence emission at 25 degrees C in the presence of 1.0% sugar cane molasses, 0.10% yeast extract and pH 6.0 (nonbuffered). Temperature and pH are the most important factors for both mycelial growth and bioluminescence.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Brasil , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Micélio/metabolismo , Temperatura
18.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 313(1): 296-304, 2007 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17509607

RESUMO

A series of surface-active ionic liquids, RMeImCl, has been synthesized by the reaction of purified 1-methylimidazole and 1-chloroalkanes, RCl, R=C(10),C(12),C(14), and C(16), respectively. Adsorption and aggregation of these surfactants in water have been studied by surface tension measurement. Additionally, solution conductivity, electromotive force, fluorescence quenching of micelle-solubilized pyrene, and static light scattering have been employed to investigate micelle formation. The following changes resulted from an increase in the length of R: an increase of micelle aggregation number; a decrease of: minimum area/surfactant molecule at solution/air interface; critical micelle concentration, and degree of counter-ion dissociation. Theoretically-calculated aggregation numbers and those based on quenching of pyrene are in good agreement. Gibbs free energies of adsorption at solution/air interface, DeltaG(ads)(0), and micelle formation in water, DeltaG(mic)(0), were calculated, and compared to those of three surfactant series, alkylpyridinium chlorides, RPyCl, alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides, RBzMe(2)Cl, and benzyl(3-acylaminoethyl)dimethylammonium chlorides, R(')AEtBzMe(2)Cl, respectively. Contributions to the above-mentioned Gibbs free energies from surfactant methylene groups (in the hydrophobic tail) and the head-group were calculated. For RMeImCl, the former energy is similar to that of other cationic surfactants. The corresponding free energy contribution of the head-group to DeltaG(mic)(0) showed the following order: RPyCl approximately RBzMe(2)Cl>RMeImCl>R(')AEtBzMe(2)Cl. The head-groups of the first two surfactant series are more hydrophobic than the imidazolium ring of RMeImCl, this should favor their aggregation. Micellization of RMeImCl, however, is driven by a relatively strong hydrogen-bonding between the chloride ion and the hydrogens in the imidazolium ring, in particular the relatively acidic H2. This interaction more than compensates for the relative hydrophilic character of the diazolium ring. As indicated by the corresponding DeltaG(mic)(0), micellization of R(')AEtBzMe(2)Cl is more favorable than that of RMeImCl because the CONH group of the former surfactant series forms hydrogen bonds to both the counter-ion and the neighboring molecules in the micelle.


Assuntos
Cloretos/química , Cloretos/síntese química , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/síntese química , Micelas , Adsorção , Cátions , Eletroquímica/métodos , Íons , Luz , Modelos Químicos , Espalhamento de Radiação , Soluções , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Propriedades de Superfície , Tensoativos/química , Termodinâmica
19.
J Phys Chem B ; 111(22): 6173-80, 2007 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17503801

RESUMO

Thermo-solvatochromism of two polarity probes, 2,6-diphenyl-4-(2,4,6-triphenyl- pyridinium-1-yl)phenolate, RB, and 2,6-dichloro-4-(2,4,6-triphenylpyridinium-1-yl) phenolate, WB, in aqueous acetone, Me2CO, and aqueous dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO, has been studied. The data obtained have been analyzed according to a recently introduced solvation model that explicitly considers the presence of 1:1 organic solvent-water hydrogen-bonded species, S-W, in the bulk binary mixture and its exchange equilibria with (S) and (W) in the solvation shell of the probe. Calculations require reliable values of Kdissoc, the dissociation constant of S-W. Previously, this has been calculated from the dependence of the densities of binary solvent mixtures on their composition. Using iteration, the volume of the hydrogen-bonded species, VS-W, and Kdissoc were obtained simultaneously from the same set of experimental data. This approach may be potentially suspect because Kdissoc, and VS-W are highly correlated. Therefore, we extended a recently introduced approach for the calculation of Valcohol-W to binary mixtures of water with acetone, acetonitrile, N,N-dimethylformamide, DMSO, and pyridine. This approach includes: Determination of VS-W from ab initio calculations by the COSMO solvation model; correction of these volumes for the nonideal behavior of the binary solvent mixtures at different temperatures; use of corrected VS-W as a constant (not an adjustable parameter) in the equation that is employed to calculate Kdissoc (from density versus binary solvent composition). Solvation of RB and WB by Me2CO-W showed different behavior from that of aqueous DMSO. Thus, water is able to displace Me2CO more efficiently than DMSO from the probe solvation shell. Me2CO-W and DMSO-W displace their corresponding precursor solvents; this is more efficient for the former case because the strong DMSO-W interactions attenuate the solvation capacity of this species. Temperature increase resulted in desolvation of both probes, due to concomitant decrease of the structures of the component solvents.

20.
Langmuir ; 22(21): 8718-26, 2006 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17014109

RESUMO

The interfacial localization and the ion pair formation of the positively charged dye crystal violet (CV) in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate reverse micelles (AOT RMs) were studied by several structural and spectroscopic techniques and by quantum chemical calculations. The size and shape of the AOT RMs in the presence of CV were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering, showing that CV does not significantly change the RM structure. CV localization as a function of the water to surfactant molar ratio (w(0)) was characterized by H(1) and (13)C NMR, indicating the close proximity of CV to the sulfosuccinate group of AOT at small and large w(0) values. These results were confirmed by calculation of magnetic shielding constants using the gauge-independent atomic orbital method with the HF/6-31G(d) basis set. Two different types of ion pairs between AOT and CV, i.e., contact ion pair (CIPs) and solvent-separated ion pair (SSIPs), were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations using the semiempirical ZINDO-CI method. In nonpolar isotropic solvents CIPs are formed with an association constant (K(ASSOC)) of 2 x 10(4) mol(-1) L in isooctane and 750 mol(-1) L in chloroform. In AOT RMs at low w(0), CV-AOT CIPs are also formed. By increasing w(0), there is a sharp decrease in the CIP association free energy, and SSIPs are formed. (CV(+))(H(2)O)(AOT(-)) SSIPs are stable in the AOT RM up to the largest w(0) tested (w(0) = 33).


Assuntos
Violeta Genciana/química , Íons/química , Micelas , Succinatos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Difração de Raios X
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