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1.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 75: 103909, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308946

RESUMO

AIM: This project explored whether a nurse practitioner led mobile paediatric screening service in early learning centres could incorporate allied health and nursing students and develop their confidence in interprofessional collaboration. BACKGROUND: Interprofessional collaboration is essential for health professionals across all contexts of care, including early childhood screening and intervention that enables children to thrive. METHODS: This multi-methods study (pre-test/post-test design) was conducted with nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and nutrition and dietetics students attending clinical placement within the nurse practitioner led mobile paediatric service. Data were collected via pre and post placement surveys (ISVS-21) and post placement semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Twelve students participated from July to December 2022. Survey findings demonstrated students improved inter-professional socialisation and readiness, supported by qualitative findings that uncovered unique mechanisms for how positive experiences were achieved. Unique pedagogical elements included 1) the nurse practitioner's professional attributes and 2) the mobile nature of the service leveraging learning opportunities within the shared commute. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides proof-of-concept of a placement model that facilitates interprofessional collaboration in nursing and allied health students. Further research should explore longer-term outcomes and scalability.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Humanos , Educação Interprofissional , Aprendizagem , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Relações Interprofissionais
2.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 23: e16, 2022 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307050

RESUMO

AIM: This article documents the impact of a Nurse Practitioner-led primary health service for disadvantaged children living in housing instability or homelessness. It identifies that First Nations children miss out on essential primary care, particularly immunisation, but have less severe health conditions than non-First Nations children living in housing insecurity. BACKGROUND: Health services for homeless populations focus on the 11% of rough sleepers, little is done for the 22% of children in Australia living in housing instability; many of whom are from First Nations families. Little is known of the health status of these children or their connections to appropriate primary health care. METHODS: This research implemented an innovative model of extended health care delivery, embedding a Nurse Practitioner in a homeless service to work with families providing health assessments and referrals, using clinically validated assessment tools. This article reports on proof of concept findings on the service that measured immunisation rates, developmental, medical, dental and mental health needs of children, particularly First Nations children, using a three-point severity level scale with Level 3 being the most severe and in need of immediate referral to a specialist medical service. FINDINGS: Forty-three children were referred by the service to the Nurse Practitioner over a 6-month period, with nine identifying as First Nations children. Differences in severity levels between First Nations/non-First Nations children were Level 1, First Nations/non-First Nations 0/15%; Level 2, 10/17%; and Level 3, 45/29%. Forty-five percent of First Nations children had no health problems, as compared to 29% on non-First Nations children. Immunisation rates were low for both cohorts. No First Nations child was immunised and only 9% of the non-First Nations children. While numbers for both cohorts are too low for valid statistical analysis, the lower levels of severity for First Nations children suggest stronger extended family support and the positive impact of cultural norms of reciprocity.


Assuntos
Habitação , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Criança , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
3.
MedEdPORTAL ; 14: 10710, 2018 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800910

RESUMO

Introduction: Electrical injuries are rare but potentially life-threatening medical emergencies that require providers to manage a critically ill patient while recognizing and treating the unique sequelae associated with the diagnosis. This simulation case is designed to give pediatric and emergency medicine residents, fellows, attendings, and nurses the opportunity to practice these skills in a realistic setting. Methods: This simulation-based curriculum was designed for a high-fidelity mannequin in an emergency department resuscitation room but can be adapted to fit a variety of learning environments. The case featured a 16-year-old boy presenting to the emergency department after arresting in the field after sustaining an electrical injury. He developed ventricular tachycardia during the simulation and had significant hyperkalemia, requiring emergent management. The included debriefing tools assisted instructors in providing formative feedback to learners. Results: A total of 40 residents, medical students, and fellows participated in this scenario and provided overwhelmingly positive feedback about the learning experience. Mean Likert scores for participant confidence related to learning objectives after the simulation were 4 or greater on a 5-point scale. Discussion: This case was developed to help learners at various levels of training recognize and manage a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario in a standardized environment. Participants specifically had the opportunity to perform airway management, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation, and management of hyperkalemia, which may present in real life from a multitude of etiologies. The included materials helped prepare and assist facilitators with debriefing, supplemental education, and bidirectional feedback.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Eletricidade/terapia , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica/métodos , Currículo/tendências , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/fisiopatologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 167(3-4): 513-22, 2013 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24012135

RESUMO

The long term survival of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is at risk due to a range of threatening processes. A major contributing factor is disease caused by infection with Chlamydia pecorum, which has been detected in most mainland koala populations and is associated with ocular and genital tract infections. A critical aspect for the development of vaccines against koala chlamydial infections is a thorough understanding of the prevalence and strain diversity of C. pecorum infections across wild populations. In this study, we describe the largest survey (403 koalas from eight wild populations and three wildlife hospitals) examining the diversity of C. pecorum infections. 181 of the 403 koalas tested (45%) positive for C. pecorum by species-specific quantitative PCR with infection rates ranging from 20% to 61% in the eight wild populations sampled. The ompA gene, which encodes the chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP), has been the major target of several chlamydial vaccines. Based on our analysis of the diversity of MOMP amino types in the infected koalas, we conclude that, (a) there exists significant diversity of C. pecorum strains in koalas, with 10 distinct, full length C. pecorum MOMP amino types identified in the 11 koala locations sampled, (b) despite this diversity, there are predicted T and B cell epitopes in both conserved as well as variable domains of MOMP which suggest cross-amino type immune responses, and (c) a recombinant MOMP-based vaccine consisting of MOMP "F" could potentially induce heterotypic protection against a range of C. pecorum strains.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Vacinas Bacterianas , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/genética , Variação Genética , Phascolarctidae/microbiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Austrália , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Chlamydia/classificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/metabolismo , Epitopos de Linfócito T/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Phascolarctidae/imunologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Seleção Genética , Homologia de Sequência , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
6.
PLoS Med ; 8(3): e1000425, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21423581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even after the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) found that the risks of menopausal hormone therapy (hormone therapy) outweighed benefit for asymptomatic women, about half of gynecologists in the United States continued to believe that hormones benefited women's health. The pharmaceutical industry has supported publication of articles in medical journals for marketing purposes. It is unknown whether author relationships with industry affect promotional tone in articles on hormone therapy. The goal of this study was to determine whether promotional tone could be identified in narrative review articles regarding menopausal hormone therapy and whether articles identified as promotional were more likely to have been authored by those with conflicts of interest with manufacturers of menopausal hormone therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed tone in opinion pieces on hormone therapy published in the four years after the estrogen-progestin arm of the WHI was stopped. First, we identified the ten authors with four or more MEDLINE-indexed reviews, editorials, comments, or letters on hormone replacement therapy or menopausal hormone therapy published between July 2002 and June 2006. Next, we conducted an additional search using the names of these authors to identify other relevant articles. Finally, after author names and affiliations were removed, 50 articles were evaluated by three readers for scientific accuracy and for tone. Scientific accuracy was assessed based on whether or not the findings of the WHI were accurately reported using two criteria: (1) Acknowledgment or lack of denial of the risk of breast cancer diagnosis associated with hormone therapy, and (2) acknowledgment that hormone therapy did not benefit cardiovascular disease endpoints. Determination of promotional tone was based on the assessment by each reader of whether the article appeared to promote hormone therapy. Analysis of inter-rater consistency found moderate agreement for scientific accuracy (κ=0.57) and substantial agreement for promotional tone (κ=0.65). After discussion, readers found 86% of the articles to be scientifically accurate and 64% to be promotional in tone. Themes that were common in articles considered promotional included attacks on the methodology of the WHI, arguments that clinical trial results should not guide treatment for individuals, and arguments that observational studies are as good as or better than randomized clinical trials for guiding clinical decisions. The promotional articles we identified also implied that the risks associated with hormone therapy have been exaggerated and that the benefits of hormone therapy have been or will be proven. Of the ten authors studied, eight were found to have declared payment for speaking or consulting on behalf of menopausal hormone manufacturers or for research support (seven of these eight were speakers or consultants). Thirty of 32 articles (90%) evaluated as promoting hormone therapy were authored by those with potential financial conflicts of interest, compared to 11 of 18 articles (61%) by those without such conflicts (p=0.0025). Articles promoting the use of menopausal hormone therapy were 2.41 times (95% confidence interval 1.49-4.93) as likely to have been authored by authors with conflicts of interest as by authors without conflicts of interest. In articles from three authors with conflicts of interest some of the same text was repeated word-for-word in different articles. CONCLUSION: There may be a connection between receiving industry funding for speaking, consulting, or research and the publication of promotional opinion pieces on menopausal hormone therapy.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conflito de Interesses , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Médicos/psicologia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher
7.
Acad Med ; 86(5): 649-54, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21436662

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the extent and type of interactions U.S. family medicine residencies permit industry to have with medical students and residents. METHOD: In 2008, the authors e-mailed a four-question survey to residency directors or coordinators at all 460 accredited U.S. family medicine residencies concerning the types of industry support and interaction permitted. The authors conducted quantitative and qualitative analyses of survey responses and written comments. Residencies that did not permit any industry food, gifts, samples, or support of residency activities were designated "pharma-free." RESULTS: The survey response rate was 62.2% (286/460). Among responding family medicine residencies, 52.1% refused drug samples, 48.6% disallowed industry gifts or food, 68.5% forbade industry-sponsored residency activities, and 44.1% denied industry access to students and residents at the family medicine center. Seventy-five residencies (26.2%) were designated as "pharma-free." Medical-school-based and medical-school-administered residencies were no more likely than community-based residencies to be pharma-free. Among the 211 programs that permitted interaction, 68.7% allowed gifts or food, 61.1% accepted drug samples, 71.1% allowed industry representatives access to trainees in the family medicine center, and 37.9% allowed industry-sponsored residency activities. Respondents commented on challenges inherent to limiting industry interactions. Many programs noted recent changes in plans or practices. CONCLUSIONS: Most family medicine residencies limit industry interaction with trainees. Because industry interactions can have adverse effects on rational prescribing, residency programs should assess the benefits and harms of these relationships.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Relações Interprofissionais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/tendências , Feminino , Previsões , Doações , Humanos , Masculino , Controle de Qualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
8.
J Contin Educ Health Prof ; 30(3): 197-204, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20872775

RESUMO

Many studies have shown that pharmaceutical marketing affects prescribing choices. Studies that have assessed the effects of educational interventions on perceptions of pharmaceutical promotion have found mixed results. This study assesses the short-term effects of an educational intervention about marketing tactics on the attitudes and fund of knowledge of residents, medical students, and attending physicians. A 1-hour slide show that covered detailing, prescription tracking, drug samples, medical meetings, and journals was developed by PharmedOut and presented at a total of 14 grand rounds and seminars at departments of family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics, psychiatry, cardiology, and neurology. Pre- and posttests included attitudinal and fact questions addressing the influence of drug reps, gifts, pharmaceutical advertising and drug samples on prescribing behavior. The posttest asked whether attendees intended to change their prescribing behavior. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for Likert-scale questions and the Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of pre- and posttest correct answers for the multiple choice and true/false questions. Three hundred seventy-three participants completed pre- and posttests. Significant attitudinal shifts were seen overall, particularly in questions addressing influence of salespeople on physicians in general and on the respondent individually. Some participants commented that they intended to stop seeing drug reps or stop attending industry-funded meals. A new educational presentation can substantially shift attitudes toward perceived susceptibility to pharmaceutical marketing activities. Further research is needed to see if attitude change persists.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Indústria Farmacêutica , Relações Interprofissionais , Médicos/psicologia , Educação Médica Continuada , Humanos , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde , Percepção , Comunicação Persuasiva , Padrões de Prática Médica
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 51(1-4): 297-307, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15757729

RESUMO

Mangroves are sensitive to the root application of Photosystem II inhibiting herbicides and Avicennia marina is more sensitive than other mangroves tested. Seedlings of four mangrove species, including two salt-excreting species (A. marina and Aegiceras corniculatum) and two salt-excluding species (Rhizophora stylosa and Ceriops australis) were treated with a range of concentrations of the herbicides diuron, ametryn and atrazine. Assessment of responses required the separation of seedlings into two groups: those that had only their roots exposed to the herbicides through the water (A. marina and R. stylosa) and those that had both roots and leaves exposed to herbicides through the water (A. corniculatum and C. australis). Salt-excreting species in each group were more susceptible to all herbicide treatments than salt-excluding species, indicating that root physiology was a major factor in the uptake of toxic pollutants in mangroves. Submergence of leaves appeared to facilitate herbicide uptake, having serious implications for seedling recruitment in the field. Each herbicide was ranked by its toxicity to mangrove seedlings from most damaging to least effective, with diuron>ametryn>atrazine. The relative sensitivity of A. marina found in these pot trials was consistent with the observed sensitivity of this species in the field, notably where severe dieback had specifically affected A. marina in the Mackay region, north eastern Australia.


Assuntos
Avicennia/fisiologia , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Rhizophoraceae/fisiologia , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade , Adaptação Fisiológica , Ecossistema , Dinâmica Populacional , Queensland , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacocinética
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 51(1-4): 308-24, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15757730

RESUMO

Herbicides, particularly diuron, were correlated with severe and widespread dieback of the dominant mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. var. eucalyptifolia (Val.) N.C. Duke (Avicenniaceae), its reduced canopy condition, and declines in seedling health within three neighbouring estuaries in the Mackay region of NE Australia. This unusual species-specific dieback, first observed in the early 1990s, had gotten notably worse by 2002 to affect >30 km(2) of mangroves in at least five adjacent estuaries in the region. Over the past century, agricultural production has responded well to the demands of increasing population with improvements in farm efficiency assisted by significant increases in the use of agricultural chemicals. However, with regular and episodic river flow events, these chemicals have sometimes found their way into estuarine and nearshore water and sediments where their effects on marine habitats have been largely unquantified. Investigations over the last three years in the Mackay region provide compelling evidence of diuron, and possibly other agricultural herbicides, as the most likely cause of the severe and widespread mangrove dieback. The likely consequences of such dieback included declines in coastal water quality with increased turbidity, nutrients and sediment deposition, as well as further dispersal of the toxic chemicals. The implications of such findings are immense since they describe not only the serious deterioration of protected and beneficial mangrove habitat but also the potential for significant direct and indirect effects on other highly-valued estuarine and marine habitats in the region, including seagrass beds and coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. This article reviews all key findings and observations to date and describes the essential correlative and causative evidence.


Assuntos
Avicennia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antozoários , Ecossistema , Mortalidade , Dinâmica Populacional , Queensland
11.
J Exp Med ; 200(3): 331-43, 2004 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15280419

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is associated with loss of CD4(+) T cells, chronic immune activation, and progressive immune dysfunction. HIV-specific responses, particularly those of CD4(+) T cells, become impaired early after infection, before the loss of responses directed against other antigens; the basis for this diminution has not been elucidated fully. The potential role of CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells), previously shown to inhibit immune responses directed against numerous pathogens, as suppressors of HIV-specific T cell responses was investigated. In the majority of healthy HIV-infected individuals, CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells significantly suppressed cellular proliferation and cytokine production by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in response to HIV antigens/peptides in vitro; these effects were cell contact dependent and IL-10 and TGF-beta independent. Individuals with strong HIV-specific CD25(+) T reg cell function in vitro had significantly lower levels of plasma viremia and higher CD4(+): CD8(+) T cell ratios than did those individuals in whom this activity could not be detected. These in vitro data suggest that CD25(+)CD4(+) T reg cells may contribute to the diminution of HIV-specific T cell immune responses in vivo in the early stages of HIV disease.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD4/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-2/análise , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Antígenos CD4/análise , Citocinas/biossíntese , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Interleucina-10/fisiologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia
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