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1.
Mil Psychol ; 36(2): 158-167, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377251

RESUMO

The military environment involves stressful situations that may trigger or aggravate suicidal behaviors, such as suicide attempts (SAs), which significantly increase the likelihood of future suicide. This cross-sectional study aims to assess risk factors for severe SAs and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among Israel Defense Forces (IDF) soldiers. Data were retrieved from an IDF computerized self-harm surveillance database and were based on the criteria of the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) and the Suicide Attempt Self-Injury Interview (SASII). The cohort included all 1,238 occurrences of self-harm behavior, during 2017-2021. Other investigated variables included adjustment difficulty (AD, as per IDF definition) and psychiatric diagnosis (PD) as reported by mental health officers (MHOs) during recruitment. Higher rates of adjustment difficulties were found among soldiers who had conducted NSSIs. Higher rates of previous psychiatric diagnoses were found among individuals with SAs, and their risk of dying by suicide during military service was twice as high (OR = 2.356; p < .001). If the latter also served in a combat unit, the risk was almost fourfold (OR = .3.860; p < .001). The current study demonstrates a clear difference between IDF soldiers who conduct NSSI vs. those conducting SA with regard to adjustment difficulty (as per IDF definition) and PD.


Assuntos
Militares , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Militares/psicologia , Israel/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2312773, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334135

RESUMO

Background: Combatants who are exposed to events that transgress deeply held moral beliefs might face lasting psychopathological outcomes, referred to as Moral Injury (MI). However, knowledge about pre-deployment factors that might moderate the negative consequences of MI is sparse. In this prospective study, we examined pre-enlistment characteristics and pre-deployment personality factors as possible moderators in the link between exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) and psychiatric symptomatology among Israeli active-duty combatants.Methods: A sample of 335 active-duty Israeli combatants participated in a 2.5-year prospective study with three waves of measurements (T1: 12 months before enlistment, T2: Six months following enlistment - pre-deployment, and T3: 18 months following enlistment - post-deployment). Participants' characteristics were assessed via semi-structured interviews (T1) and validated self-report measures of personality factors: emotional regulation, impulsivity, and aggression (T2) and combat exposure, PMIEs, psychiatric symptomology and posttraumatic symptoms (T3) between 2019 and 2021.Results: Pre-enlistment psychiatric difficulties and negative life events contributed to higher exposure to PMIEs post-deployment. Higher levels of pre-deployment aggression and lower levels of emotional regulation and impulsivity moderated the association between betrayal, PMIEs and psychiatric symptomology post-deployment, above and beyond pre-enlistment psychiatric difficulties and life events.Conclusions: Our results highlight that pre-deployment emotional regulation, impulsivity and aggressiveness levels should be assessed, screened, and identified among combatants, as they all facilitate psychiatric symptomology (and PTSS) after combatants are exposed to PMIEs of betrayal. Such pre-assessment will enable the identification of at-risk combatants and might provide them with tailor-made preparation regarding moral and ethical situations that should be investigated in future research.


Pre-enlistment psychiatric difficulties contributed to higher exposure to PMIEs post-deployment.Pre-deployment personality moderated the associations between PMIEs and psychiatric symptomatology among combatants.Higher levels of pre-deployment emotional regulation moderated the association between betrayal PMIEs and post-deployment PTSS symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Agressão , Personalidade
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 13151, 2023 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37573400

RESUMO

Psychological resilience, the ability to adapt to adversity, is theorized to rely on intact inhibitory control (IC) mechanisms, which underlie one's ability to maintain goal-directed behavior by inhibiting prepotent responses. However, no study to date has explored daily fluctuations of IC performance in relation to resilience. Here, we examined the association between IC and mood measured daily in relation to psychological resilience in young adults in a stressful situation. Baseline resilience was obtained from 144 female and male soldiers during their basic combat training. Then, participants completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol, in which they reported their momentary mood and completed a short IC assessment twice/day for 2 weeks. A hierarchical linear modeling analysis revealed that psychological resilience moderated the relationship between momentary IC and momentary mood, such that better IC was associated with better mood only for those with higher, but not lower, self-reported psychological resilience at baseline. These results show that psychological resilience is manifested in the everyday association between IC and mood. Furthermore, they lend important support to cognitive models of resilience and may have significant contribution to our understanding of resilient behavior in real life.Trial Registration: MOH_2018-0-13_002451.


Assuntos
Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Afeto/fisiologia , Autorrelato
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37569070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feeling out of control during a traumatic event may evoke behavioral self-blame (BSB) to avoid feeling helpless following trauma by restoring one's sense of control. BSB is a common, persistent, and treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress symptom. The present study investigates the etiology and risk factors of BSB following a traumatic event and the reasons for its persistence over time. METHOD: Subjects were a group of 546 Israeli ex-combat soldiers (M age = 24.93 ± 5.657) registered in an Israel Defense Forces (IDF) combat reaction clinic. All completed the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the PTSD Checklist for the DSM-5 (PCL-5). Item 10 of the PCL-5 served to measure BSB. The PDEQ and BSI measured distress and feeling out of control during the event. We used descriptive analyses of the data, t-test, and linear regression analysis to reveal the relationship between the research variables. RESULTS: Feeling out of control during a traumatic event often increases BSB and post-traumatic stress symptoms. A significant correlation emerged between continuing distress characterizing individuals who experience a persistent lack of control and BSB. Female combat soldiers were at a higher risk of BSB than their male counterparts. CONCLUSION: Loss of control experienced during a traumatic event may result in persistent long-term feelings of lack of control over one's behavior.


Assuntos
Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Dissociativos , Emoções
5.
Psychol Trauma ; 15(8): 1367-1377, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37011152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) during military service is known to be associated with psychiatric symptoms. However, antecedents and outcomes of exposure to PMIEs have only been studied in cross-sectional or retrospective-designed studies. In this prospective study, we examined associations between preenlistment characteristics, predeployment psychological factors, exposure to PMIEs, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychiatric symptoms, and the moderating roles of ethical leadership and ethical preparation, among combatants. METHOD: A sample of 335 active-duty Israeli combatants participated in a 2.5-year prospective study with three waves of measurements. Participants' characteristics were assessed via semistructured interviews and validated self-report measures between 2019 and 2021. RESULTS: Above and beyond preenlistment personal characteristics and psychiatric symptoms, predeployment psychological flexibility predicted higher levels of exposure to PMIEs-Other and Betrayal, and combat exposure predicted higher levels of exposure to PMIEs-Self, Other, and betrayal. Moreover, PMIEs-Betrayal predicted higher levels of PTSD and psychiatric symptoms, and ethical preparation predicted lower PTSD and psychiatric symptoms. Importantly, among combatants who reported high levels of ethical preparation and leadership, the association between exposure to PMIEs and PTSD and psychiatric symptoms following deployment dissolved. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective study of antecedents and outcomes of exposure to PMIEs among active-duty combatants. Clinicians treating combatants should be aware of the putative role of psychological flexibility for exposure to PMIEs, as well as the promising mitigating role of ethical leadership and preparation for moral injury and psychopathological outcomes among combatants. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
J Psychiatr Res ; 161: 158-164, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36931133

RESUMO

Combatants who are exposed to events which transgress deeply held moral beliefs might face lasting psychopathological outcomes such as Moral Injury (MI) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). However, insight about pre-deployment personality factors which might facilitate the MI process and its negative consequences is sparse. In this prospective study, we examined pre-deployment aggressiveness as a possible predictor of exposure to combat and potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs), trauma-related guilt and shame and PTSS among Israeli active-duty combatants. A sample of 335 active-duty Israeli combatants participated in a 2.5-year prospective study with three waves of measurements (T1: 12 months before enlistment, T2: 6 months following enlistment-pre deployment, and T3: 18 months following enlistment-post deployment). Participants' characteristics were assessed via semi-structured interviews (T1) and validated self-report measures of aggressiveness (T2), combat exposure, PMIEs and PTSS (T3) between 2019 and 2021. Results show that higher levels of pre-deployment aggressiveness predicted both combat exposure and PMIEs-'betrayal'. Combat exposure mediated the association between aggressiveness and PTSS post deployment. Importantly, pre-deployment aggressiveness was significantly associated with the PMIEs-'betrayal' that are associated with trauma-related guilt and shame, which in turn were associated with high levels of PTSS post deployment. Our results highlight the implications of pre-deployment aggressiveness for different forms of exposure to potentially traumatic events during military service. Identification of at-risk combatants for PTSS following exposure to PMIEs of betrayal might provide these combatants with a tailor-made type of preparation regarding moral and ethical situations, which should be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Culpa , Autorrelato , Agressão
7.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 69(5): 1134-1144, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36734242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this prospective study, we examined pre-enlistment characteristics and pre-deployment protective factors of exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) among Israeli active-duty combatants, as well as psychiatric symptomatology outcomes of exposure. METHODS: A sample of 335 active-duty Israeli combatants participated in a 2.5-year prospective study with three waves of measurements (T1: 12 months before enlistment, T2: 6 months following enlistment- pre deployment, and T3: 18 months following enlistment- post deployment). Participants' characteristics were assessed via semi-structured interviews (T1) and validated self-report measures (T2-T3) between 2019 and 2021. RESULTS: Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify three classes characterized by unique patterns of exposure to PMIEs (T2): Minimal Exposure (56.6%), Betrayal-Only (25.5%), and High Exposure (17.8%). Higher levels of pre-deployment psychological flexibility (T1) were associated with higher odds for inclusion in the high exposure class (T2). As compared to the minimal exposure class, both high exposure and betrayal-only classes were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms and MI-related psychological outcomes (T2). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective study of antecedents and outcomes of exposure to PMIEs among active-duty combatants. Clinicians treating combatants should be aware of the different types of exposure to PMIEs and their possible psychiatric outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Israel/epidemiologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Fatores de Proteção , Veteranos/psicologia
8.
J Affect Disord ; 324: 624-631, 2023 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) in deployment situations facilitates higher suicide risk among combatants. However, knowledge about pre-deployment factors that may moderate the negative contribution of PMIEs to suicide risk is rare. In this prospective study, we examined pre-enlistment characteristics and pre-deployment personality factors as possible moderators in the link between exposure to self, other, and betrayal dimensions of PMIEs and post-deployment suicide risk among Israeli active-duty combatants. METHODS: A sample of 335 active-duty Israeli combatants participated in a 2.5-year prospective study with three waves of measurements: T1-12 months before enlistment, T2-6 months following enlistment (pre-deployment), and T3-18 months following enlistment (post-deployment). Participants were assessed via semi-structured interviews of personal characteristics (e.g., cognitive index) at T1, validated self-report measures of personality factors for emotional regulation, impulsivity, and aggression at T2, and combat exposure, PMIEs, and suicide risk at T3 between 2019 and 2021. RESULTS: All three dimensions of PMIEs were significantly associated with higher suicidal risk among combatants. Importantly, higher levels of pre-deployment aggression and lower levels of emotional regulation moderated the association between PMIEs and suicide risk post-deployment, above and beyond pre-enlistment psychiatric difficulties and life events. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the roles of pre-deployment factors of emotional regulation and aggressiveness as possible moderators in the PMIEs-suicide risk link. These results emphasize the need for higher awareness of suicide risk among deployed combatants with low emotional regulation and high aggressiveness. Moreover, tailored interventions aiming to decrease emotional dysregulation and aggressiveness levels should be considered, as such interventions may help reduce suicide risk following combat-related transgressive acts.


Assuntos
Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Suicídio , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Suicídio/psicologia , Personalidade , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Clin Psychol ; 79(2): 449-465, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While military settings may increase psychological distress, soldiers frequently avoid seeking professional help. This study aimed to examine barriers and facilitators associated with intentions to seek help and actually seeking help from a mental health officer (MHO) and how these differ among soldiers who had sought help in the past and those who had not. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 263 combat and noncombat soldiers. The Health Belief Model and the Help-Seeking Model were the theoretical framework used to map the potential variables associated with soldiers' decision to seek help. RESULTS: Stigma and administrative barriers were found to be significant barriers to both the intention to seek help and actually consulting an MHO. These findings were more definitive among combat soldiers. The belief in the effectiveness of mental health treatment was positively associated with the intention to seek help. Positive associations were found between well-being, perceived seriousness of one's condition, and belief in the effectiveness of mental health care and intention to seek MHO help. Distress and self-concealment were positively associated with actual consultation with an MHO. Public stigma about seeking help was associated with both the intention to seek mental health assistance and actually consulting an MHO. CONCLUSION: Military commanders should make an effort to make soldiers feel safe to seek mental health assistance by creating a supportive organizational atmosphere to reduce the stigma associated with mental health care.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Militares , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Militares/psicologia , Intenção , Estudos Transversais , Israel , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Estigma Social , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
10.
Mil Med ; 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adjusting to a military environment is a complex process, with unique demands and various stressors placed on conscripts. In this study, we examined the unique and combined contribution of the independent variables that constitute an individual soldier's personal resources-the meaningfulness of the military role and the match between expectations and the job itself; cognitive flexibility; social support; and seeking help from a mental health officer (MHO)-to the adaptation (dependent variable) of noncombat soldiers to military service. METHOD: The study group comprised 200 Israel Defense Forces noncombat soldiers aged 18-23 years (Meanage = 20.046 years, SD = 0.951). Of them, 107 (53.3%) had consulted a MHO. The remaining soldiers who had not consulted an MHO (n = 93, 46.5%) served as the comparison group. Research tools included the work and meaning questionnaire, the Cognitive Flexibility Scale, the Medical Outcomes Study (social support) questionnaire, and adaptation to the army questionnaire. RESULTS: Adaptation to service was found to relate positively to the meaningfulness of the military role, cognitive flexibility, and social support. Social support partially mediated the relation between cognitive flexibility and adaptation to service. Additionally, soldiers who had consulted an MHO had lower levels of cognitive flexibility and social support, and they adapted less well to service compared to the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that soldiers who seek help have lower resources. Additional personal and environmental variables that contribute to the adjustment of soldiers in noncombat positions were also identified.

11.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 52(3): 392-400, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examines the association between a patient's suicide and the therapist's suicide risk assessment (SRA) and suicide risk management (SRM) of patients, following the occurrence. METHOD: SRA values range from "absence of suicidality" to "immediate suicidal intent to die". SRM consists of therapists' written recommendations. Rates of the various SRA and SRM values in therapists' evaluations were assessed 6-months prior to the suicide and at the two three- and six-month time-points thereafter. RESULTS: Of the 150 soldiers who died by suicides, 30 (20%) visited 50 military therapists in the 6 months preceding their deaths. Using Wilcoxon signed rank test, lower SRA rates of "threatens suicide" were found 2 months after a patient's suicide. Regarding SRM, the mean rates for "recommendations for psychotherapy treatment" were higher at the two (p = 0.022) and the 3 month time-points (p = 0.031) after a suicide. CONCLUSIONS: The SRA findings may indicate therapists' fear of treating suicidal patients, causing them to overlook patients' non-prominent suicide-risk indicators. In SRM, the higher rate of recommendations for additional therapy sessions rather than military release or referrals to other therapists may relate to over-caution and attempts to control the patient's therapy ensuring it's done properly.


Assuntos
Militares , Prevenção ao Suicídio , Suicídio , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Psicoterapia , Medição de Risco , Suicídio/psicologia
12.
Mil Med ; 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Severe suicide attempt is a major risk factor for completed suicide. The aim of the present study was to focus on suicide behavior and timing to gain better understanding of these populations. METHOD: The nested case-control retrospective study based on medical records of 246,866 soldiers, who demonstrated suicide attempts of varying severity, including death by suicide were compared with soldiers who did not demonstrate such behavior. RESULTS: Risk for death by suicide was associated with males, military seniority of less than 12 months. High frequency of visits with mental health care professionals was associated with being severe suicide attempters (SAs). Moderate suicide attempts were associated with being a male, visiting a primary care physician frequently, and belonging to one of the two latest immigrant groups in Israel (Ethiopians and former Soviet Union). Mild suicide attempts were associated with having a psychiatric diagnosis on the enlistment day, visiting a mental health care professional at high or average frequency, visiting a primary care physician at high or average frequency, being a male, and being born in the former Soviet Union. While the proportion of males demonstrating suicidal behavior was higher than the females', severe SAs were higher among females. There was a clear tendency of female suicide attempters at all levels to act toward the end of their military service. CONCLUSIONS: Although half of the SAs were females, their characteristics may be similar to those of the male SAs, contrary to the sex differences in suicide behavior among civilians.

13.
Psychol Med ; 52(9): 1746-1754, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personality disorders are prevalent in 6-10% of the population, but their risk for cause-specific mortality is unclear. The aim of the study was to assess the association between personality disorders diagnosed in late adolescence and all-cause as well as cause-specific (cardiovascular-related, external-related) mortality. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal study on a historical prospective cohort based on nationwide screening prior to recruitment to the Israeli army. The study participants were 16-19-year-old persons who attended the army screening (medical and cognitive, including screening for psychiatric disorders) between 1967 and 2006. Participants were followed from 1967 till 2011. RESULTS: The study included 2 051 606 subjects, of whom 1 229 252 (59.9%) were men and 822 354 (40.1%) were women, mean age 17.36 years. There were 55 508 (4.5%) men and 8237 (1.0%) women diagnosed with personality disorders. The adjusted hazard ratio (HRs) for coronary, stroke, cardiovascular, external-related causes and all-cause mortality among men with personality disorders were 1.34 (1.03-1.74), 1.82 (1.20-2.76), 1.45 (1.23-1.71), 1.41 (1.30-1.53) and 1.44 (1.36-1.51), respectively. The absolute rate difference for all-cause mortality was 56.07 and 13.19 per 105 person-years among men and women, respectively. Among women with personality disorders, the adjusted HRs for external-related causes and all-cause mortality were 2.74 (1.87-4.00) and 2.01 (1.56-2.58). Associations were already evident within 10 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Personality disorder in late adolescence is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular, external- and all-cause mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality is evident before the age of 40 years and may point to the importance of lifestyle education already in youth.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Transtornos da Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mortalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 672397, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239462

RESUMO

Multiple internal factors, such as psychological resilience and mental health status, have been shown to contribute to overall quality of life (QoL). However, very few studies to date have examined how these factors contribute to QoL of youth and young adults in a stressful situation. Here, we studied the contribution of these factors, as well as of ecological momentary mood assessment, to QoL of young army recruits during their Basic Training Combat (BCT). To this end, we collected data from 156 male and female soldiers in a mixed-gender unit in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). Using a mobile app installed on participants' phones, participants provided self-reports regarding their mental health status and psychological resilience at baseline, and QoL 2 weeks later. Momentary mood reporting was further collected during the 2-week interval period using a daily self-report mood scale (IMS-12). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the interrelationships among the study variables based on a hypothesized model. We found that a model with all factors (gender, resilience, mental health status and momentary mood) provided a good fit for the data based on its fit indices [χ2(38) = 47.506, p = 0.139, CFI = 0.979, NFI = 0.910, RMSEA = 0.040, TLI = 0.964]. However, the only direct contributors to QoL were gender and momentary mood, accounting together for 61.5% of the variance of QoL. Psychological resilience and mental health status contributed to QoL only indirectly, through their associations with momentary mood. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of ecological momentary assessment of mental-health related factors such as mood to the prediction of QoL in young adults under stress. These findings may have broader implications for monitoring and improvement of well-being in young healthy populations as well as in clinical ones.

15.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(11): 6680-6687, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981010

RESUMO

Childhood adversity (CA) may alter reactivity to stress throughout life, increasing risk for psychiatric and medical morbidity, yet long-term correlates of milder CA levels among high functioning healthy adolescents are less studied. The current study examined the prevalence and impact of CA exposure among a cohort of healthy motivated elite parachute unit volunteers, prospectively assessed at rest and at the height of an intensive combat-simulation exposure. We found significantly reduced gene expression levels in resting mononuclear cell nuclear receptor, subfamily 3, member 1 (NR3C1), and its transactivator spindle and kinetochore-associated protein 2 (SKA2), that predict blunted cortisol reactivity to combat-simulation stress among CA exposed adolescents. Long-term alterations in endocrine immune indices, subjective distress, and executive functions persist among healthy high functioning adolescents following milder CA exposure, and may promote resilience or vulnerability to later real-life combat exposure.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Militares , Adolescente , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466594

RESUMO

Past suicide attempts are a significant risk factor for future suicidality. Therefore, the present military-based study examined the past suicidal behavior of soldiers who recently made a severe suicide attempt. Our sample consisted of 65 active-duty soldiers (61.5% males), between the ages of 18 and 28 years old (M = 20.4, SD ± 1.3). The inclusion criterion was a recent severe suicide attempt, requiring at least a 24 h hospitalization. This sample was divided into two groups, according to previous suicidal behavior, namely whether their first suicide attempt was before or after enlistment (n = 25; 38.5% and n = 40; 61.5%, respectively). We then examined the lethality and intent of the recent event in regard to this division. Four measures were used to assess the subjects' suicidal characteristics: the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale, the Self-Harm Behavior Questionnaire, the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. No significant difference in the severity of the suicide attempts (either actual or potential severity) were found between those who had suicide attempts before enlistment and those who had their first attempt in the service. As a matter of fact, most of the suicide attempts that occurred for the first time during military service had used a violent method (58.3%, n = 21). Finally, using multivariate analyses, we found that current thoughts and behavior, rather than past suicidality, was the strongest predictor for the lethality of suicide attempts.


Assuntos
Militares , Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adulto Jovem
18.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(3): 615-625, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125770

RESUMO

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been acknowledged as risk factors for increased mental health complications in adulthood, specifically increasing susceptibility to developing psychopathology upon exposure to trauma. Yet, little is known regarding the impact of mild ACEs on highly functioning population. In this study forty participants were selected from a group of 366 highly selected military parachute trainees using the self-report "childhood trauma questionnaire," and classified into two groups of 20 each, with and without ACEs. Behavioral measurements were obtained before and at the peak of an intensive combat training period, including anxiety, depression and executive function assessment. Functional MRI including a negative emotional face perception task was conducted at the first time point. Psychometric and cognitive measurements revealed higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and more difficulties in executive functioning in the ACE group at baseline. Slower reaction time to emotional faces presentation was found in the ACE group. Lower activation in response to negative emotional faces stimuli was found in this group in bilateral secondary visual areas, left anterior insula, left parietal cortex and left primary motor and sensory regions. In contrast, higher activation in the ACE group was found in the right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (Vlpfc). No significant differences between groups were detected in the amygdala. To conclude, mild adverse childhood experiences produce long-term sequela on psychological wellbeing and neurocircuitry even in high functioning population. Brain regions modulated by childhood trauma may instigate avoidance mechanisms dampening the emotional and cognitive effects of intensive stress.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Militares , Adolescente , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Expressão Facial , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychol Serv ; 17(2): 151-159, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120293

RESUMO

Under conditions of profound stress, individuals in high-risk occupations may experience an acute stress reaction (ASR). Given that ASRs may interfere with functioning, placing the team in danger, the Israel Defense Forces developed YaHaLOM training to teach service members how to manage ASRs in team members. YaHaLOM is a novel, rapid, peer-based intervention specifically designed for use in the midst of a high-stress event. In all, 904 Israeli combat soldiers participated in the study; 76% reported having received YaHaLOM, and 24% reported that they had not. In addition to measures of knowledge about managing ASRs, confidence in managing ASRs, and stigma-related attitudes toward ASRs, questions also addressed training approach, including the use of a video and instructor type. Participants who reported receiving YaHaLOM also reported more knowledge about managing an ASR, more confidence in managing an ASR, less external stigma, and more normative views of ASRs. Being trained with a video was associated with more confidence and less self-stigma than being trained without a video. Instructor type was not associated with differences in knowledge, confidence, or stigma-related attitudes. The study is limited by cross-sectional self-report data. Nevertheless, results suggest YaHaLOM may prepare soldiers to manage ASRs in team members; future studies are needed to assess intervention efficacy and to expand this research to other high-risk occupational contexts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Militares/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/terapia , Estigma Social , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Grupo Associado , Autorrelato
20.
Psychol Med ; 50(5): 746-753, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combat exposure is associated with elevated risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite considerable research on PTSD symptom clustering, it remains unknown how symptoms of PTSD re-organize following combat. Network analysis provides a powerful tool to examine such changes. METHODS: A network analysis approach was taken to examine how symptom networks change from pre- to post-combat using longitudinal prospective data from a cohort of infantry male soldiers (Mage = 18.8 years). PTSD symptoms measured using the PTSD Checklist (PCL) were assessed after 6 months of combat training but before deployment and again after 6 months of combat (Ns = 910 and 725 at pre-deployment and post-combat, respectively). RESULTS: Stronger connectivity between PTSD symptoms was observed post-combat relative to pre-deployment (global strength values of the networks were 7.54 pre v. 7.92 post; S = .38, p < 0.05). Both the re-experiencing symptoms cluster (1.92 v. 2.12; S = .20, p < 0.03) and the avoidance symptoms cluster (2.61 v. 2.96; S = .35, p < 0.005) became more strongly inter-correlated post-combat. Centrality estimation analyses revealed that psychological reaction to triggers was central and linked the intrusion and avoidance sub-clusters at post-combat. The strength of associations between the arousal and reactivity symptoms cluster remained stable over time (1.85 v. 1.83; S = .02, p = .92). CONCLUSIONS: Following combat, PTSD symptoms and particularly the re-experiencing and avoidance clusters become more strongly inter-correlated, indicating high centrality of trigger-reactivity symptoms.


Assuntos
Destacamento Militar/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Distúrbios de Guerra/psicologia , Humanos , Israel , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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