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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3823, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360784

RESUMO

Zebrafish have been utilized for many years as a model animal for pharmacological studies on diabetes and obesity. High-fat diet (HFD), streptozotocin and alloxan injection, and glucose immersion have all been used to induce diabetes and obesity in zebrafish. Currently, studies commonly used both male and female zebrafish, which may influence the outcomes since male and female zebrafish are biologically different. This study was designed to investigate the difference between the metabolites of male and female diabetic zebrafish, using limonene - a natural product which has shown several promising results in vitro and in vivo in treating diabetes and obesity-and provide new insights into how endogenous metabolites change following limonene treatment. Using HFD-fed male and female zebrafish, we were able to develop an animal model of T2D and identify several endogenous metabolites that might be used as diagnostic biomarkers for diabetes. The endogenous metabolites in males and females were different, even though both genders had high blood glucose levels and a high BMI. Treatment with limonene prevented high blood glucose levels and improved in diabesity zebrafish by limonene, through reversal of the metabolic changes caused by HFD in both genders. In addition, limonene was able to reverse the elevated expression of AKT during HFD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperglicemia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Limoneno , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hiperglicemia/complicações
2.
Foods ; 12(10)2023 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37238789

RESUMO

Fermentation of milk enhances its nutritional and biological activity through the improvement of the bioavailability of nutrients and the production of bioactive compounds. Coconut milk was fermented with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ngue16. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fermentation and cold storage for 28 days on physicochemical characteristics, shelf life, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of coconut milk as well as its proximate and chemical compositions. The pH of fermented milk decreased from 4.26 to 3.92 on the 28th day during cold storage. The viable cell count of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented coconut milk was significantly increased during fermentation and cold storage period (1 to 14 days), reaching 6.4 × 108 CFU/mL, and then decreased significantly after 14 days to 1.6 × 108 CFU/mL at 28 days. Yeast and molds in fermented coconut milk were only detected on the 21st and 28th days of cold storage, which ranged from 1.7 × 102 to 1.2 × 104 CFU/mL, respectively. However, the growth of coliforms and E. coli was observed on the 14th until the 28th day of cold storage. The fermented coconut milk demonstrated strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Cronobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium compared to fresh coconut milk. Fermented coconut milk had the greatest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values, with 67.1% and 61.961 mmol/g at day 14 of cold storage, respectively. Forty metabolites were detected in fermented and pasteurized coconut milk by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) metabolomics. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear difference between the fermented and pasteurized coconut milk as well as the studied cold storage days. The metabolites responsible for this variation were ethanol, valine, GABA, arginine, lactic acid, acetoin, alanine, phenylalanine, acetic acid, methionine, acetone, pyruvate, succinic acid, malic acid, tryptophan, uridine, uracil, and cytosin, which were higher in fermented coconut milk. However, sugars and other identified compounds were higher in fresh coconut milk. The findings of this study show that fermentation of coconut milk with L. plantarum ngue16 had high potential benefits to extending its shelf life and improved biological activities as well as other beneficial nutrients.

3.
J Cell Commun Signal ; 17(1): 25-34, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35551607

RESUMO

The increase in blood glucose causes a myriad of pathways and molecular components to malfunction, leading to diabetes. Diabetes affects each organ differently by activating distinct pathways. It has an impact on the liver, pancreas, kidney (nephropathy), eyes (retinopathy), and nervous system (neuropathy). Understanding the effects of diabetes on each organ is the first step in developing a sustained treatment for the disease. Among the many cellular molecules impacted by diabetes is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a complex Ca2+/calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase. When intracellular [Ca2+] rises, it binds to calmodulin (CaM) to produce Ca2+/CaM, which activates CaMKIIs. This factor is involved in the pancreas, liver, heart, muscles, and various organs. Thus, Understanding CaMKII action in each organ is critical for gaining a complete picture of diabetic complications. Therefore, this review covers CaMKII's functions in many organs and how it affects and has been affected by diabetes.

4.
Metabolomics ; 18(2): 12, 2022 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35092490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Today, obesity affects over one-third of the global population and is hugely considered the Industrial Revolution's side effect. This multi-factorial disease is continuously spreading across developing countries, including the Middle East and Southeast Asia region, where Malaysia and Darussalam Brunei are the most affected. The sedentary lifestyle and availability of surplus foods have dramatically increased the number of individuals with type 2 diabetes in these countries. Thus, an adequate medical strategy must be developed urgently to address and remedy these diseases. Natural sources have been attracting attention, especially in Malaysia, where most land areas are under plant cover. Metabolomics, as a prophylactic technique, has been used extensively in Malaysia to investigate the potential use and benefits of herbs to combat obesity and diabetes. AIM OF REVIEW: This review aims to explain the application of the metabolomics approach in the study of anti-diabetes and anti-obesity activity of Malaysian herbs to identify the stand-up point for future advancement in using these herbs as a primary source for drug exploration. KEY SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS OF REVIEW: This review provides an overview of using metabolomics technique in studying the anti-diabetes and anti-obesity activity of Malaysian herbs. Specific emphasis is given to the changed metabolites in both in vivo and in vitro treatment of Malaysia herbs that might be future drugs for treating diabetes and obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Biomarcadores , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malásia , Metabolômica , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 915: 174611, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798121

RESUMO

Obesity is a major health crisis affecting over a third of the global population. This multifactorial disease is regulated via interoceptive neural circuits in the brain, whose alteration results in excessive body weight. Certain central neuronal populations in the brain are recognised as crucial nodes in energy homeostasis; in particular, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) region contains two peptide microcircuits that control energy balance with antagonistic functions: agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide-Y (AgRP/NPY) signals hunger and stimulates food intake; and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) signals satiety and reduces food intake. These neuronal peptides levels react to energy status and integrate signals from peripheral ghrelin, leptin, and insulin to regulate feeding and energy expenditure. To manage obesity comprehensively, it is crucial to understand cellular and molecular mechanisms of information processing in ARC neurons, since these regulate energy homeostasis. Importantly, a specific strategy focusing on ARC circuits needs to be devised to assist in treating obese patients and maintaining weight loss with minimal or no side effects. The aim of this review is to elucidate the recent developments in the study of AgRP-, NPY- and POMC-producing neurons, specific to their role in controlling metabolism. The impact of ghrelin, leptin, and insulin signalling via action of these neurons is also surveyed, since they also impact energy balance through this route. Lastly, we present key proteins, targeted genes, compounds, drugs, and therapies that actively work via these neurons and could potentially be used as therapeutic targets for treating obesity conditions.


Assuntos
Pró-Opiomelanocortina
6.
Pharmacol Res ; 172: 105855, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461221

RESUMO

Obesity is an indication of an imbalance between energy expenditure and food intake. It is a complicated disease of epidemic proportions as it involves many factors and organs. Sedentary lifestyles and overeating have caused a substantial rise in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Thus, the discovery of successful and sustainable therapies for these chronic illnesses is critical. However, the mechanisms of obesity and diabetes and the crosstalk between these diseases are still ambiguous. Numerous studies are being done to study these mechanisms, with updates made frequently. VGF peptide and its derivatives are anticipated to have a role in the development of obesity and diabetes. However, contradictory studies have produced conflicting findings on the function of VGF. Therefore, in this review, we attempt to clarify and explain the role of VGF peptides in the brain, pancreas, and adipose tissue in the development of obesity.


Assuntos
Apetite , Insulina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Pâncreas/metabolismo
7.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 188: 114531, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773975

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder diagnosed by elevated blood glucose levels and a defect in insulin production. Blood glucose, an energy source in the body, is regenerated by two fundamental processes: glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These two processes are the main mechanisms used by humans and many other animals to maintain blood glucose levels, thereby avoiding hypoglycaemia. The released insulin from pancreatic ß-cells activates glycolysis. However, the glucagon released from the pancreatic α-cells activates gluconeogenesis in the liver, leading to pyruvate conversion to glucose-6-phosphate by different enzymes such as fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase. These enzymes' expression is controlled by the glucagon/ cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)/ proteinkinase A (PKA) pathway. This pathway phosphorylates cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus to bind it to these enzyme promoters and activate their expression. During fasting, this process is activated to supply the body with glucose; however, it is overactivated in diabetes. Thus, the inhibition of this process by blocking the expression of the enzymes via CREB is an alternative strategy for the treatment of diabetes. This review was designed to investigate the association between CREB activity and the treatment of diabetes and diabetes complications. The phosphorylation of CREB is a crucial step in regulating the gene expression of the enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Many studies have proven that CREB is over-activated by glucagon and many other factors contributing to the elevation of fasting glucose levels in people with diabetes. The physiological function of CREB should be regarded in developing a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications. However, the accessible laboratory findings for CREB activity of the previous research still not strong enough for continuing to the clinical trial yet.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Animais , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Glucagon/metabolismo , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 891: 173758, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249079

RESUMO

Glucose production and the consumption of high levels of carbohydrate increase the chance of insulin resistance, especially in cases of obesity. Therefore, maintaining a balanced glucose homeostasis might form a strategy to prevent or cure diabetes and obesity. The activation and inhibition of glucose production is complicated due to the presence of many interfering pathways. These pathways can be viewed at the downstream level because they activate certain transcription factors, which include the Forkhead-O1 (FoxO1). This has been identified as a significant agent in the pancreas, liver, and adipose tissue, which is significant in the regulation of lipids and glucose. The objective of this review is to discuss the intersecting portrayal of FoxO1 and its parallel cross-talk which highlights obesity-induced insulin susceptibility in the discovery of a targeted remedy. The review also analyses current progress and provides a blueprint on therapeutics, small molecules, and extracts/phytochemicals which are explored at the pre-clinical level.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 698: 108743, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382998

RESUMO

Hyperglycaemia causes pancreatic ß-cells to release insulin that then attaches to a specific expression of receptor isoform and reverses high glucose concentrations. It is well known that insulin is capable of initiating insulin-receptor substrate (IRS)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) signaling pathways in target cells; such as liver, adipose tissues, and muscles. However, recent discoveries indicate that many other pathways, such as the Hedgehog (Hh) and growth factor-stimulating Wingless-related integration (Wnt) signaling pathways; are activated in hyperglycaemia as well. Although these two pathways are traditionally thought to have a decisive role in cellular growth and differentiation only, recent reports show that they are involved in regulating cellular homeostasis and energy balance. While insulin-activated IRS/PI3K/PKB pathway cascades are primarily known to reduce glucose production, it was recently discovered to increase the Hh signaling pathway's stability, thereby activating the PI3K/PKB/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling pathway. The Hh signaling pathway not only plays a role in lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory response, diabetes-related complications, but crosstalks with the Wnt signaling pathway resulting in improved insulin sensitivity and decrease inflammatory response in diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Complicações do Diabetes/fisiopatologia , Humanos
10.
Infect Genet Evol ; 85: 104583, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035643

RESUMO

The emergence of a new coronavirus, in around late December 2019 which had first been reported in Wuhan, China has now developed into a massive threat to global public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has named the disease caused by the virus as COVID-19 and the virus which is the culprit was renamed from the initial novel respiratory 2019 coronavirus to SARS-CoV-2. The person-to-person transmission of this virus is ongoing despite drastic public health mitigation measures such as social distancing and movement restrictions implemented in most countries. Understanding the source of such an infectious pathogen is crucial to develop a means of avoiding transmission and further to develop therapeutic drugs and vaccines. To identify the etiological source of a novel human pathogen is a dynamic process that needs comprehensive and extensive scientific validations, such as observed in the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases. In this context, this review is devoted to understanding the taxonomic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV. Herein, we discuss the emergence and molecular mechanisms of both viral infections. Nevertheless, no vaccine or therapeutic drug is yet to be approved for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, although it is highly likely that new effective medications that target the virus specifically will take years to establish. Therefore, this review reflects the latest repurpose of existing antiviral therapeutic drug choices available to combat SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/virologia , China , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , HIV/genética , HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19
11.
Exp Anim ; 68(4): 407-416, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118344

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster including hyperglycaemia, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridaemia as a result of biochemical and physiological alterations and can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Fundamental research on this disease requires validated animal models. One potential animal model that is rapidly gaining in popularity is zebrafish (Danio rerio). The use of zebrafish as an animal model conveys several advantages, including high human genetic homology, transparent embryos and larvae that allow easier visualization. This review discusses how zebrafish models contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome studies. Different diseases in the cluster of metabolic syndrome, such as hyperglycaemia, obesity, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridaemia, have been successfully studied using zebrafish; and the model is promising for hypertension and cardiovascular metabolic-related diseases due to its genetic similarity to mammals. Genetic mutation, chemical induction, and dietary alteration are among the tools used to improve zebrafish models. This field is expanding, and thus, more effective and efficient techniques are currently developed to fulfil the increasing demand for thorough investigations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Peixe-Zebra , Animais
12.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999617

RESUMO

A standard protocol to develop type 1 diabetes in zebrafish is still uncertain due to unpredictable factors. In this study, an optimized protocol was developed and used to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of Psychotria malayana leaf. The aims of this study were to develop a type 1 diabetic adult zebrafish model and to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the plant extract on the developed model. The ability of streptozotocin and alloxan at a different dose to elevate the blood glucose levels in zebrafish was evaluated. While the anti-diabetic activity of P. malayana aqueous extract was evaluated through analysis of blood glucose and LC-MS analysis fingerprinting. The results indicated that a single intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg/kg alloxan was the optimal dose to elevate the fasting blood glucose in zebrafish. Furthermore, the plant extract at 1, 2, and 3 g/kg significantly reduced blood glucose levels in the diabetic zebrafish. In addition, LC-MS-based fingerprinting indicated that 3 g/kg plant extract more effective than other doses. Phytosterols, sugar alcohols, sugar acid, free fatty acids, cyclitols, phenolics, and alkaloid were detected in the extract using GC-MS. In conclusion, P. malayana leaf aqueous extract showed anti-diabetic activity on the developed type 1 diabetic zebrafish model.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Psychotria/química , Peixe-Zebra/sangue , Animais , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética
13.
Toxicol Rep ; 6: 1148-1154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993329

RESUMO

Clinacanthus nutans, an herbal shrub belonging to the Acanthaceae family, is traditionally used as a functional food to treat various ailments in Malaysia and Indonesia. Although the polar fraction of this plant shows non-toxic effect, the toxicity of the non-polar extract is not reported so far. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effect and determine the lethal concentration of this non-polar fraction using zebrafish embryos. The n-hexane fraction was partitioned from the crude extract of C. nutans obtained using 80% methanolic solution. After spawning of the adult male and female zebrafish, the eggs were collected, transferred into a 96-well plate and incubated with the n-hexane fraction at concentrations of 15.63 µg/ml, 31.25 µg/ml, 62.5 µg/ml, 125 µg/ml, 250 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml in 2% DMSO. The survival and sublethal endpoint were assessed, the mortality and hatchability rates were calculated based on microscopic observation, while the heartbeat rate was measured using DanioScope software. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the C. nutans n-hexane fraction, which was determined using probit analysis, was calculated to be 75.49 µg/mL, which is harmful. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid, 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol and stigmasterol in the n-hexane fraction.

14.
Acta Pol Pharm ; 73(6): 1587-1592, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634113

RESUMO

The present study describes the in vitro cytotoxic effects of soft coral (Sarcophyton tiocheliophorum). Soft corals of genus Sarcophyton were reported to contain compounds that are active against brine shrimp and promote paclitaxel cytotoxicity in the human colon cancer Caco-2 cell line. The n-hexane extract of the soft coral Sarcophyton tiocheliophorum induced significant dose-dependent toxicity (LC50 96.7 ppm) compared with ethyl acetate (LC50. 120 ppm). We reported the most active cytotoxic level to be correspondence to LC50 values of 20.2, 59.2 ppm and 18.9 and 26 ppm. Accordingly, bio-assay guided fractionation was conducted to identi- fy the bioactive compounds. Arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were characterized based on GC-MS analyses. Our results demonstrate the value of marine products as a natural source of medicinally interesting cytotoxic compounds.


Assuntos
Antozoários/metabolismo , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Acetatos/química , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/toxicidade , Células CACO-2 , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hexanos/química , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Dose Letal Mediana
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