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1.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 45(3): e26627, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376166

RESUMO

The hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus have been implicated as part of a tinnitus network by a number of studies. These structures are usually considered in the context of a "limbic system," a concept typically invoked to explain the emotional response to tinnitus. Despite this common framing, it is not apparent from current literature that this is necessarily the main functional role of these structures in persistent tinnitus. Here, we highlight a different role that encompasses their most commonly implicated functional position within the brain-that is, as a memory system. We consider tinnitus as an auditory object that is held in memory, which may be made persistent by associated activity from the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. Evidence from animal and human studies implicating these structures in tinnitus is reviewed and used as an anchor for this hypothesis. We highlight the potential for the hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus to facilitate maintenance of the memory of the tinnitus percept via communication with auditory cortex, rather than (or in addition to) mediating emotional responses to this percept.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo , Zumbido , Animais , Humanos , Zumbido/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro Para-Hipocampal/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Límbico
2.
J Neurosci Res ; 102(2): e25298, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361410

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that speech and limb movement inhibition are subserved by common neural mechanisms, particularly within the right prefrontal cortex. In a recent study, we found that cathodal stimulation of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) differentially modulated P3 event-related potentials for speech versus limb inhibition. In the present study, we further analyzed these data to examine the effects of cathodal high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) over rDLPFC on frontal theta - an oscillatory marker of cognitive control - in response to speech and limb inhibition, during a Go/No-Go task in 21 neurotypical adults. Electroencephalography data demonstrated that both speech and limb No-Go elicited prominent theta activity over right prefrontal electrodes, with stronger activity for speech compared to limb. Moreover, we found that cathodal stimulation significantly increased theta power over right prefrontal electrodes for speech versus limb No-Go. Source analysis revealed that cathodal, but not sham, stimulation increased theta activity within rDLPFC and bilateral premotor cortex for speech No-Go compared to limb movement inhibition. These findings complement our previous report and suggest (1) right prefrontal theta activity is an amodal oscillatory mechanism supporting speech and limb inhibition, (2) larger theta activity in prefrontal electrodes for speech versus limb following cathodal stimulation may reflect allocation of additional neural resources for a more complex motor task, such as speech compared to limb movement. These findings have translational implications for conditions such as Parkinson's disease, wherein both speech and limb movement are impaired.


Assuntos
Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Córtex Pré-Frontal Dorsolateral , Fala/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
3.
J Assoc Res Otolaryngol ; 24(6): 607-617, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38062284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cochlear implant (CI) users exhibit large variability in understanding speech in noise. Past work in CI users found that spectral and temporal resolution correlates with speech-in-noise ability, but a large portion of variance remains unexplained. Recent work on normal-hearing listeners showed that the ability to group temporally and spectrally coherent tones in a complex auditory scene predicts speech-in-noise ability independently of the audiogram, highlighting a central mechanism for auditory scene analysis that contributes to speech-in-noise. The current study examined whether the auditory grouping ability also contributes to speech-in-noise understanding in CI users. DESIGN: Forty-seven post-lingually deafened CI users were tested with psychophysical measures of spectral and temporal resolution, a stochastic figure-ground task that depends on the detection of a figure by grouping multiple fixed frequency elements against a random background, and a sentence-in-noise measure. Multiple linear regression was used to predict sentence-in-noise performance from the other tasks. RESULTS: No co-linearity was found between any predictor variables. All three predictors (spectral and temporal resolution plus the figure-ground task) exhibited significant contribution in the multiple linear regression model, indicating that the auditory grouping ability in a complex auditory scene explains a further proportion of variance in CI users' speech-in-noise performance that was not explained by spectral and temporal resolution. CONCLUSION: Measures of cross-frequency grouping reflect an auditory cognitive mechanism that determines speech-in-noise understanding independently of cochlear function. Such measures are easily implemented clinically as predictors of CI success and suggest potential strategies for rehabilitation based on training with non-speech stimuli.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Percepção da Fala , Fala , Ruído
5.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 6264, 2023 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37805497

RESUMO

The human brain extracts meaning using an extensive neural system for semantic knowledge. Whether broadly distributed systems depend on or can compensate after losing a highly interconnected hub is controversial. We report intracranial recordings from two patients during a speech prediction task, obtained minutes before and after neurosurgical treatment requiring disconnection of the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL), a candidate semantic knowledge hub. Informed by modern diaschisis and predictive coding frameworks, we tested hypotheses ranging from solely neural network disruption to complete compensation by the indirectly affected language-related and speech-processing sites. Immediately after ATL disconnection, we observed neurophysiological alterations in the recorded frontal and auditory sites, providing direct evidence for the importance of the ATL as a semantic hub. We also obtained evidence for rapid, albeit incomplete, attempts at neural network compensation, with neural impact largely in the forms stipulated by the predictive coding framework, in specificity, and the modern diaschisis framework, more generally. The overall results validate these frameworks and reveal an immediate impact and capability of the human brain to adjust after losing a brain hub.


Assuntos
Diásquise , Semântica , Humanos , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia
6.
Ear Hear ; 44(5): 1107-1120, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37144890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Understanding speech-in-noise (SiN) is a complex task that recruits multiple cortical subsystems. Individuals vary in their ability to understand SiN. This cannot be explained by simple peripheral hearing profiles, but recent work by our group ( Kim et al. 2021 , Neuroimage ) highlighted central neural factors underlying the variance in SiN ability in normal hearing (NH) subjects. The present study examined neural predictors of SiN ability in a large cohort of cochlear-implant (CI) users. DESIGN: We recorded electroencephalography in 114 postlingually deafened CI users while they completed the California consonant test: a word-in-noise task. In many subjects, data were also collected on two other commonly used clinical measures of speech perception: a word-in-quiet task (consonant-nucleus-consonant) word and a sentence-in-noise task (AzBio sentences). Neural activity was assessed at a vertex electrode (Cz), which could help maximize eventual generalizability to clinical situations. The N1-P2 complex of event-related potentials (ERPs) at this location were included in multiple linear regression analyses, along with several other demographic and hearing factors as predictors of SiN performance. RESULTS: In general, there was a good agreement between the scores on the three speech perception tasks. ERP amplitudes did not predict AzBio performance, which was predicted by the duration of device use, low-frequency hearing thresholds, and age. However, ERP amplitudes were strong predictors for performance for both word recognition tasks: the California consonant test (which was conducted simultaneously with electroencephalography recording) and the consonant-nucleus-consonant (conducted offline). These correlations held even after accounting for known predictors of performance including residual low-frequency hearing thresholds. In CI-users, better performance was predicted by an increased cortical response to the target word, in contrast to previous reports in normal-hearing subjects in whom speech perception ability was accounted for by the ability to suppress noise. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate a neurophysiological correlate of SiN performance, thereby revealing a richer profile of an individual's hearing performance than shown by psychoacoustic measures alone. These results also highlight important differences between sentence and word recognition measures of performance and suggest that individual differences in these measures may be underwritten by different mechanisms. Finally, the contrast with prior reports of NH listeners in the same task suggests CI-users performance may be explained by a different weighting of neural processes than NH listeners.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Fala , Individualidade , Ruído , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
7.
Cereb Cortex ; 33(14): 9105-9116, 2023 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37246155

RESUMO

The perception of pitch is a fundamental percept, which is mediated by the auditory system, requiring the abstraction of stimulus properties related to the spectro-temporal structure of sound. Despite its importance, there is still debate as to the precise areas responsible for its encoding, which may be due to species differences or differences in the recording measures and choices of stimuli used in previous studies. Moreover, it was unknown whether the human brain contains pitch neurons and how distributed such neurons might be. Here, we present the first study to measure multiunit neural activity in response to pitch stimuli in the auditory cortex of intracranially implanted humans. The stimulus sets were regular-interval noise with a pitch strength that is related to the temporal regularity and a pitch value determined by the repetition rate and harmonic complexes. Specifically, we demonstrate reliable responses to these different pitch-inducing paradigms that are distributed throughout Heschl's gyrus, rather than being localized to a particular region, and this finding was evident regardless of the stimulus presented. These data provide a bridge across animal and human studies and aid our understanding of the processing of a critical percept associated with acoustic stimuli.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo , Animais , Humanos , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção da Altura Sonora/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Mapeamento Encefálico , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva
8.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 17: 962909, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36875233

RESUMO

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which consistently improves limb motor functions, shows mixed effects on speech functions in Parkinson's disease (PD). One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that STN neurons may differentially encode speech and limb movement. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested. We examined how STN is modulated by limb movement and speech by recording 69 single- and multi-unit neuronal clusters in 12 intraoperative PD patients. Our findings indicated: (1) diverse patterns of modulation in neuronal firing rates in STN for speech and limb movement; (2) a higher number of STN neurons were modulated by speech vs. limb movement; (3) an overall increase in neuronal firing rates for speech vs. limb movement; and (4) participants with longer disease duration had higher firing rates. These data provide new insights into the role of STN neurons in speech and limb movement.

9.
Psychophysiology ; 60(8): e14289, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36883294

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that planning and execution of speech and limb movement are subserved by common neural substrates. However, less is known about whether they are supported by a common inhibitory mechanism. P3 event-related potentials (ERPs) is a neural signature of motor inhibition, which are found to be generated by several brain regions including the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC). However, the relative contribution of rDLPFC to the P3 response associated with speech versus limb inhibition remains elusive. We investigated the contribution of rDLPFC to the P3 underlying speech versus limb movement inhibition. Twenty-one neurotypical adults received both cathodal and sham high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) over rDLPFC. ERPs were subsequently recorded while subjects were performing speech and limb Go/No-Go tasks. Cathodal HD-tDCS decreased accuracy for speech versus limb No-Go. Both speech and limb No-Go elicited a similar topographical distribution of P3, with significantly larger amplitudes for speech versus limb at a frontocentral location following cathodal HD-tDCS. Moreover, results showed stronger activation in cingulate cortex and rDLPFC for speech versus limb No-Go following cathodal HD-tDCS. These results indicate (1) P3 is an ERP marker of amodal inhibitory mechanisms that support both speech and limb inhibition, (2) larger P3 for speech versus limb No-Go following cathodal HD-tDCS may reflect the recruitment of additional neural resources-particularly within rDLPFC and cingulate cortex-as compensatory mechanisms to counteract the temporary stimulation-induced decline in speech inhibitory process. These findings have translational implications for neurological conditions that concurrently affect speech and limb movement.


Assuntos
Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adulto , Humanos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal Dorsolateral , Fala , Potenciais Evocados , Encéfalo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
10.
World Neurosurg ; 173: e168-e179, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36773808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is essential that treatment effects reported from retrospective observational studies are as reliable as possible. In a retrospective analysis of spine surgery patients, we obtained a spurious result: tranexamic acid (TXA) had no effect on intraoperative blood loss. This statistical tutorial explains how this result occurred and why statistical analyses of observational studies must consider the effects of individual surgeons. METHODS: We used an observational database of 580 elective adult spine surgery patients, supplemented with a review of perioperative medication records. We tested whether common statistical methods (multivariable regression or propensity score-based methods) could adjust for surgeons' selection bias in TXA administration. RESULTS: Because TXA administration (frequency, timing, and dose) and surgeon were linked (collinear), estimating and testing the independent effect of TXA on outcome using multivariable regression without including surgeon as a variable would provide biased (spurious) results. Likewise, because of surgeon/TXA linkage, assumptions of propensity score-based analysis were violated, statistical methods to improve comparability between groups failed, and spurious blood loss results were worsened. Others numerous differences among surgeons existed in intraoperative and postoperative practices and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In observational studies in which individual surgeons determine whether their patients receive the treatment of interest, consideration must be given to inclusion of surgeon as an independent variable in all analyses. Failure to include the surgeon in an analysis of observational data carries a substantial risk of obtaining spurious results, either creating a spurious treatment effect or failing to detect a true treatment effect.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Cirurgiões , Ácido Tranexâmico , Adulto , Humanos , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viés de Seleção , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica
11.
Hear Res ; 428: 108667, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566642

RESUMO

The startle reflex (SR), a robust, motor response elicited by an intense auditory, visual, or somatosensory stimulus has been widely used as a tool to assess psychophysiology in humans and animals for almost a century in diverse fields such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, hearing loss, and tinnitus. Previously, SR waveforms have been ignored, or assessed with basic statistical techniques and/or simple template matching paradigms. This has led to considerable variability in SR studies from different laboratories, and species. In an effort to standardize SR assessment methods, we developed a machine learning algorithm and workflow to automatically classify SR waveforms in virtually any animal model including mice, rats, guinea pigs, and gerbils obtained with various paradigms and modalities from several laboratories. The universal features common to SR waveforms of various species and paradigms are examined and discussed in the context of each animal model. The procedure describes common results using the SR across species and how to fully implement the open-source R implementation. Since SR is widely used to investigate toxicological or pharmaceutical efficacy, a detailed and universal SR waveform classification protocol should be developed to aid in standardizing SR assessment procedures across different laboratories and species. This machine learning-based method will improve data reliability and translatability between labs that use the startle reflex paradigm.


Assuntos
Reflexo de Sobressalto , Zumbido , Humanos , Ratos , Camundongos , Animais , Cobaias , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gerbillinae
12.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 17: 1334742, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38318272

RESUMO

Introduction: Cochlear implants (CIs) are the treatment of choice for severe to profound hearing loss. Variability in CI outcomes remains despite advances in technology and is attributed in part to differences in cortical processing. Studying these differences in CI users is technically challenging. Spectrally degraded stimuli presented to normal-hearing individuals approximate input to the central auditory system in CI users. This study used intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) to investigate cortical processing of spectrally degraded speech. Methods: Participants were adult neurosurgical epilepsy patients. Stimuli were utterances /aba/ and /ada/, spectrally degraded using a noise vocoder (1-4 bands) or presented without vocoding. The stimuli were presented in a two-alternative forced choice task. Cortical activity was recorded using depth and subdural iEEG electrodes. Electrode coverage included auditory core in posteromedial Heschl's gyrus (HGPM), superior temporal gyrus (STG), ventral and dorsal auditory-related areas, and prefrontal and sensorimotor cortex. Analysis focused on high gamma (70-150 Hz) power augmentation and alpha (8-14 Hz) suppression. Results: Chance task performance occurred with 1-2 spectral bands and was near-ceiling for clear stimuli. Performance was variable with 3-4 bands, permitting identification of good and poor performers. There was no relationship between task performance and participants demographic, audiometric, neuropsychological, or clinical profiles. Several response patterns were identified based on magnitude and differences between stimulus conditions. HGPM responded strongly to all stimuli. A preference for clear speech emerged within non-core auditory cortex. Good performers typically had strong responses to all stimuli along the dorsal stream, including posterior STG, supramarginal, and precentral gyrus; a minority of sites in STG and supramarginal gyrus had a preference for vocoded stimuli. In poor performers, responses were typically restricted to clear speech. Alpha suppression was more pronounced in good performers. In contrast, poor performers exhibited a greater involvement of posterior middle temporal gyrus when listening to clear speech. Discussion: Responses to noise-vocoded speech provide insights into potential factors underlying CI outcome variability. The results emphasize differences in the balance of neural processing along the dorsal and ventral stream between good and poor performers, identify specific cortical regions that may have diagnostic and prognostic utility, and suggest potential targets for neuromodulation-based CI rehabilitation strategies.

13.
Neuroimage ; 263: 119642, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150607

RESUMO

Bush et al. (2022) highlight that brain recordings examining speech production can be significantly affected by microphonic artifact, which would change the interpretation of these kinds of data. While these findings are vital in determining whether data are artifactual or physiological in origin, frequencies were only examined up to 250 Hz (i.e., local field potentials), which would imply that spike-related data (single or multi-neuron recordings) are unaffected. We highlight here that this type of contamination may also be present in unit recordings, with the same aim to understand genuine neural mechanisms rather than mis-interpreting artifactual data.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Fala , Humanos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Encéfalo , Cabeça
14.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 219: 107318, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify perioperative risk factors for postoperative delirium (POD) in patients aged 65 or older undergoing lumbar spinal fusion procedures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion over an approximately three-year period at a single institution. Demographic and perioperative data were obtained from electronic medical records. The primary outcome was the presence of postoperative delirium assayed by the Delirium Observation Screening Scale (DOSS) and Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the data. RESULTS: Of the 702 patients included in the study, 173 (24.6%) developed POD. Our analysis revealed that older age (p < 0.001), lower preoperative hemoglobin (p < 0.001), and higher ASA status (p < 0.001), were significant preoperative risk factors for developing POD. The only significant intraoperative risk factor was a higher number of spinal levels that were instrumented (p < 0.001). Higher pain scores on postoperative day 1 (p < 0.001), and lower postoperative hemoglobin (p < 0.001) were associated with increased POD; as were ICU admission (p < 0.001) and increased length of ICU stay (p < 0.001). Patients who developed POD had a longer hospital stay (p < 0.001) with lower rates of discharge to home as opposed to an inpatient facility (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Risk factors for POD in older adults undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery include advanced age, diabetes, lower preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin, higher ASA grade, greater extent of surgery, and higher postoperative pain scores. Patients with delirium had a higher incidence of postoperative ICU admission, increased length of stay, decreased likelihood of discharge to home and increased mortality, all consistent with prior studies. Further studies may determine whether adequate management of anemia and pain lead to a reduction in the incidence of postoperative delirium in these patients.


Assuntos
Delírio , Fusão Vertebral , Idoso , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/etiologia , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos
15.
Cereb Cortex ; 33(2): 469-485, 2022 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35297483

RESUMO

Novelty detection is a primitive subcomponent of cognitive control that can be deficient in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Here, we studied the corticostriatal mechanisms underlying novelty-response deficits. In participants with PD, we recorded from cortical circuits with scalp-based electroencephalography (EEG) and from subcortical circuits using intraoperative neurophysiology during surgeries for implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes. We report three major results. First, novel auditory stimuli triggered midfrontal low-frequency rhythms; of these, 1-4 Hz "delta" rhythms were linked to novelty-associated slowing, whereas 4-7 Hz "theta" rhythms were specifically attenuated in PD. Second, 32% of subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons were response-modulated; nearly all (94%) of these were also modulated by novel stimuli. Third, response-modulated STN neurons were coherent with midfrontal 1-4 Hz activity. These findings link scalp-based measurements of neural activity with neuronal activity in the STN. Our results provide insight into midfrontal cognitive control mechanisms and how purported hyperdirect frontobasal ganglia circuits evaluate new information.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Doença de Parkinson , Núcleo Subtalâmico , Humanos , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Eletroencefalografia , Neurônios/fisiologia
16.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(3): 2131, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598595

RESUMO

Speech perception (especially in background noise) is a critical problem for hearing-impaired listeners and an important issue for cognitive hearing science. Despite a plethora of standardized measures, few single-word closed-set tests uniformly sample the most frequently used phonemes and use response choices that equally sample phonetic features like place and voicing. The Iowa Test of Consonant Perception (ITCP) attempts to solve this. It is a proportionally balanced phonemic word recognition task designed to assess perception of the initial consonant of monosyllabic consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words. The ITCP consists of 120 sampled CVC words. Words were recorded from four different talkers (two female) and uniformly sampled from all four quadrants of the vowel space to control for coarticulation. Response choices on each trial are balanced to equate difficulty and sample a single phonetic feature. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of ITCP by examining reliability (test-retest) and validity in a sample of online normal-hearing participants. Ninety-eight participants completed two sessions of the ITCP along with standardized tests of words and sentence in noise (CNC words and AzBio sentences). The ITCP showed good test-retest reliability and convergent validity with two popular tests presented in noise. All the materials to use the ITCP or to construct your own version of the ITCP are freely available [Geller, McMurray, Holmes, and Choi (2020). https://osf.io/hycdu/].


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Feminino , Humanos , Iowa , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Fonética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Neurosci Lett ; 747: 135705, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548408

RESUMO

Tinnitus has similarities to chronic neuropathic pain where there are changes in the firing rate of different types of afferent neurons. We postulated that one possible cause of tinnitus is a change in the distribution of spontaneous firing rates in at least one type of afferent auditory nerve fibre in anaesthetised guinea pigs. In control animals there was a bimodal distribution of spontaneous rates, but the position of the second mode was different depending upon whether the fibres responded best to high (> 4 kHz) or low (≤4 kHz) frequency tonal stimulation. The simplest and most reliable way of inducing tinnitus in experimental animals is to administer a high dose of sodium salicylate. The distribution of the spontaneous firing rates was different when salicylate (350 mg/kg) was administered, even when the sample was matched for the distribution of characteristic frequencies in the control population. The proportion of medium spontaneous rate fibres (MSR, 1≤ spikes/s ≤20) increased while the proportion of the highest, high spontaneous firing rate fibres (HSR, > 80 spikes/s) decreased following salicylate. The median rate fell from 64.7 spikes/s (control) to 35.4 spikes/s (salicylate); a highly significant change (Kruskal-Wallis test p < 0.001). When the changes were compared with various models of statistical probability, the most accurate model was one where most HSR fibres decreased their firing rate by 32 spikes/s. Thus, we have shown a reduction in the firing rate of HSR fibres that may be related to tinnitus.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Limiar Auditivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Coclear/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Cobaias
19.
Neuropsychologia ; 150: 107691, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227284

RESUMO

This work examines how sounds are held in auditory working memory (AWM) in humans by examining oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs) in candidate brain regions. Previous fMRI studies by our group demonstrated blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response increases during maintenance in auditory cortex, inferior frontal cortex and the hippocampus using a paradigm with a delay period greater than 10s. The relationship between such BOLD changes and ensemble activity in different frequency bands is complex, and the long delay period raised the possibility that long-term memory mechanisms were engaged. Here we assessed LFPs in different frequency bands in six subjects with recordings from all candidate brain regions using a paradigm with a short delay period of 3 s. Sustained delay activity was demonstrated in all areas, with different patterns in the different areas. Enhancement in low frequency (delta) power and suppression across higher frequencies (beta/gamma) were demonstrated in primary auditory cortex in medial Heschl's gyrus (HG) whilst non-primary cortex showed patterns of enhancement and suppression that altered at different levels of the auditory hierarchy from lateral HG to superior- and middle-temporal gyrus. Inferior frontal cortex showed increasing suppression with increasing frequency. The hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed low frequency increases and high frequency decreases in oscillatory activity. This work demonstrates sustained activity patterns during AWM maintenance, with prominent low-frequency increases in medial temporal lobe regions.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo , Eletrocorticografia , Estimulação Acústica , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Memória de Curto Prazo , Lobo Temporal
20.
Eur J Neurosci ; 52(9): 4057-4080, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686192

RESUMO

Previous work has led to the hypothesis that, during the production of noise-induced tinnitus, higher levels of nitric oxide (NO), in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), increase the gain applied to a reduced input from the cochlea. To test this hypothesis, we noise-exposed 26 guinea pigs, identified evidence of tinnitus in 12 of them and then compared the effects of an iontophoretically applied NO donor or production inhibitor on VCN single unit activity. We confirmed that the mean driven firing rate for the tinnitus and control groups was the same while it had fallen in the non-tinnitus group. By contrast, the mean spontaneous rate had increased for the tinnitus group relative to the control group, while it remained the same for the non-tinnitus group. A greater proportion of units responded to exogenously applied NO in the tinnitus (56%) and non-tinnitus groups (71%) than a control population (24%). In the tinnitus group, endogenous NO facilitated the driven firing rate in 37% (7/19) of neurons and appeared to bring the mean driven rate back up to control levels by a mechanism involving N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. By contrast, in the non-tinnitus group, endogenous NO only facilitated the driven firing rate in 5% (1/22) of neurons and there was no facilitation of driven rate in the control group. The effects of endogenous NO on spontaneous activity were unclear. These results suggest that NO is involved in increasing the gain applied to driven activity, but other factors are also involved in the increase in spontaneous activity.


Assuntos
Núcleo Coclear , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Zumbido , Animais , Cobaias , Óxido Nítrico , Ruído
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