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1.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 28(2): 103742, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670166

RESUMO

A substantial number of zoonotic diseases are caused by viral pathogens, representing a significant menace to public health, particularly to susceptible populations, such as pregnant women, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Individuals who have undergone solid organ transplantation frequently experience immunosuppression, to prevent organ rejection, and, thus are more prone to opportunistic infections. Furthermore, the reactivation of dormant viruses can threaten transplant recipients and organ viability. This mini-review examines the up-to-date literature covering potential zoonotic and organ rejection-relevant viruses in solid organ transplant recipients. A comprehensive list of viruses with zoonotic potential is highlighted and the most important clinical outcomes in patients undergoing transplantation are described. Moreover, this mini-review calls attention to complex multifactorial events predisposing viral coinfections and the need for continuous health surveillance and research to understand better viral pathogens' transmission and pathophysiology dynamics in transplanted individuals.

2.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 162(4): 163-169, Feb. 2024. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230572

RESUMO

Objectives: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has spread around the world since 2019. In severe cases, COVID-19 can lead to hospitalization and death. Systemic arterial hypertension and other comorbidities are associated with serious COVID-19 infection. Literature is unclear whether antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors affect COVID-19 outcomes. We aim to assess whether ACEI/ARB therapy is a risk factor for worse respiratory outcomes related to COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. Methods: Retrospective study enrolling admitted COVID-19-diagnosed patients by RT-PCR at the Hospital Geral de Fortaleza, Brazil, during 2021. Patient medical records, sociodemographic, and clinical data were analyzed. Chest CT images were analyzed using CAD4COVID-CT/Thirona™ software. Results: A total of 294 patients took part in the study. A cut-off point of 66% of pulmonary involvement was found by ROC curve, with patients having higher risk of death and intubation and lower 60-day survival. Advanced age (RR 1.025, P=0.001) and intubation (RR 16.747, P<0.001) were significantly associated with a higher risk of death. Advanced age (RR 1.023, P=0.001) and the use of noninvasive ventilation (RR 1.548, P=0.037) were associated with a higher risk of intubation. Lung involvement (>66%) increased the risk of death by almost 2.5-fold (RR 2.439, P<0.001) and by more than 2.3-fold the risk of intubation (RR 2.317, P<0.001). Conclusions: Altogether, our findings suggest that ACEI or ARB therapy does not affect the risk of death and disease course during hospitalization.(AU)


Objetivos: La COVID-19, causada por el SARS-CoV-2, se ha extendido por todo el mundo desde 2019. En casos graves, la COVID-19 puede provocar hospitalización y muerte. La hipertensión arterial sistémica y otras comorbilidades se asocian con una infección grave por COVID-19. La literatura no está clara si la terapia antihipertensiva con bloqueadores de los receptores de angiotensina (BRA) e inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (ECA) afecta los resultados de la COVID-19. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar si la terapia BRA/ECA es un factor de riesgo de peores resultados respiratorios relacionados con COVID-19 en pacientes hospitalizados. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes ingresados con diagnóstico de COVID-19 mediante RT-PCR en el Hospital General de Fortaleza, Brasil, durante 2021. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de los pacientes, datos sociodemográficos y clínicos. Las imágenes de TC de tórax se analizaron utilizando el software CAD4COVID-CT/ThironaTM. Resultados: Participaron en el estudio un total de 294 pacientes. Mediante curva ROC se encontró un punto de corte del 66% de afectación pulmonar, teniendo los pacientes mayor riesgo de muerte e intubación y menor supervivencia a 60 días. La edad avanzada (RR 1,025; P=0,001) y la intubación (RR 16,747; P<0,001) se asociaron significativamente con un mayor riesgo de muerte. La edad avanzada (RR 1,023; P=0,001) y el uso de ventilación no invasiva (RR 1,548; P=0,037) se asociaron con un mayor riesgo de intubación. La afectación pulmonar (>66%) aumentó el riesgo de muerte casi 2,5 veces (RR 2,439; P<0,001) y más de 2,3 veces el riesgo de intubación (RR 2,317, P<0,001). Conclusiones: Se concluyó que el tratamiento con BRA o ECA no afecta el riesgo de muerte y el curso de la enfermedad durante la hospitalización.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , /diagnóstico , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão , Comorbidade , /epidemiologia , Medicina Clínica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Brasil , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Inteligência Artificial
3.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 162(4): 163-169, 2024 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has spread around the world since 2019. In severe cases, COVID-19 can lead to hospitalization and death. Systemic arterial hypertension and other comorbidities are associated with serious COVID-19 infection. Literature is unclear whether antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors affect COVID-19 outcomes. We aim to assess whether ACEI/ARB therapy is a risk factor for worse respiratory outcomes related to COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. METHODS: Retrospective study enrolling admitted COVID-19-diagnosed patients by RT-PCR at the Hospital Geral de Fortaleza, Brazil, during 2021. Patient medical records, sociodemographic, and clinical data were analyzed. Chest CT images were analyzed using CAD4COVID-CT/Thirona™ software. RESULTS: A total of 294 patients took part in the study. A cut-off point of 66% of pulmonary involvement was found by ROC curve, with patients having higher risk of death and intubation and lower 60-day survival. Advanced age (RR 1.025, P=0.001) and intubation (RR 16.747, P<0.001) were significantly associated with a higher risk of death. Advanced age (RR 1.023, P=0.001) and the use of noninvasive ventilation (RR 1.548, P=0.037) were associated with a higher risk of intubation. Lung involvement (>66%) increased the risk of death by almost 2.5-fold (RR 2.439, P<0.001) and by more than 2.3-fold the risk of intubation (RR 2.317, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our findings suggest that ACEI or ARB therapy does not affect the risk of death and disease course during hospitalization.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Retrospectivos , Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-696422

RESUMO

Congenital syphilis is a systemic infectious disease of chronic evolution caused by the Treponema pallidum bacterium dissemination to the fetus through the placenta of infected pregnant women untreated or treated improperly, occurring at any stage of pregnancy or clinical stage of the disease. Objective: epidemiological analysis of congenital syphilis in the State of Ceará from 2007 to 2010. Methods: documentary study conducted in March, 2013, through the database available at the Center for Information and Analysis in Health which keep the information about the National System of Notifiable Diseases records. There were 1,577 notifications of congenital syphilis cases. Results: the following results were observed: 71.78% (n = 1,132) of women who had their children diagnosed with congenital syphilis attented to prenatal consultation; 46.16% (n = 728) had a diagnosis of syphilis identified only during delivery/curettage; about 69.5% (n = 1,096) of pregnant women partners did not undergo any treatment for congenital syphilis. It was noted that over 90% of children were diagnosed with congenital syphilis until the sixth day of birth, and the most prevalent final classification was recent syphilis with 83.83% (n = 1,322) of cases. The most common clinical evolution for children had a favorable outcome, as more than 75% of them underwent treatment and remained alive during the studied period. Conclusion: the thorough analysis of congenital syphilis cases and the factors involved in the process are of fundamental importance to support the actions to prevent and control the disease.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Serviços de Vigilância Epidemiológica , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Brasil , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/terapia , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum
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