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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2016): 20232666, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351808

RESUMO

Wildlife is increasingly exposed to sublethal transient cancer risk factors, including mutagenic substances, which activates their anti-cancer defences, promotes tumourigenesis, and may negatively impact populations. Little is known about how exposure to cancer risk factors impacts the behaviour of wildlife. Here, we investigated the effects of a sublethal, short-term exposure to a carcinogen at environmentally relevant concentrations on the activity patterns of wild Girardia tigrina planaria during a two-phase experiment, consisting of a 7-day exposure to cadmium period followed by a 7-day recovery period. To comprehensively explore the effects of the exposure on activity patterns, we employed the double hierarchical generalized linear model framework which explicitly models residual intraindividual variability in addition to the mean and variance of the population. We found that exposed planaria were less active compared to unexposed individuals and were able to recover to pre-exposure activity levels albeit with a reduced variance in activity at the start of the recovery phase. Planaria showing high activity levels were less predictable with larger daily activity variations and higher residual variance. Thus, the shift in behavioural variability induced by an exposure to a cancer risk factor can be quantified using advanced tools from the field of behavioural ecology. This is required to understand how tumourous processes affect the ecology of species.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Neoplasias , Humanos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Animais Selvagens , Fatores de Risco
2.
Am Nat ; 203(3): 347-361, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358809

RESUMO

AbstractClassic evolutionary theory predicts that predation will shift trait means and erode variance within prey species; however, several studies indicate higher behavioral trait variance and trait integration in high-predation populations. These results come predominately from field-sampled animals comparing low- and high-predation sites and thus cannot isolate the role of predation from other ecological factors, including density effects arising from higher predation. Here, we study the role of predation on behavioral trait (co)variation in experimental populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) living with and without a benthic ambush predator (Jaguar cichlid) to better evaluate the role of predation and where density was equalized among replicates twice per year. At 2.5 years after introduction of the predators (∼10 overlapping generations), 40 males were sampled from each of the six replicate populations and extensively assayed for activity rates, water column use, and latency to feed following disturbance. Individual variation was pronounced in both treatments, with substantial individual variation in means, temporal plasticity, and predictability (inverse residual variance). Predators had little effect on mean behavior, although there was some evidence for greater use of the upper water column in predator-exposed fish. There was greater variance among individuals in water column use in predator-exposed fish, and they habituated more quickly over time; individuals higher in the water column fed slower and had a reduced positive correlation with activity, although again this effect was time specific. Predators also affected the integration of personality and plasticity-among-individual variances in water column use increased, and those in activity decreased, through time-which was absent in controls. Our results contrast with the extensive guppy literature showing rapid evolution in trait means, demonstrating either increases or maintenance of behavioral variance under predation.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Poecilia , Animais , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório , Personalidade , Água
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 913: 169491, 2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38154641

RESUMO

The presence of doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) in bivalves represents a unique mode of mitochondrial transmission, whereby paternal (male-transmitted M-type) and maternal (female-transmitted F-type) haplotypes are transmitted to offspring separately. Male embryos retain both haplotypes, but the M-type is selectively removed from females. Due to the presence of heteroplasmy in males, mtDNA can recombine resulting in a 'masculinized' haplotype referred to as Mf-type. While mtDNA recombination is usually rare, it has been recorded in multiple mussel species across the Northern Hemisphere. Given that mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell, different mtDNA haplotypes may have different selective advantages under diverse environmental conditions. This may be particularly important for sperm fitness and fertilization success. In this study we aimed to i) determine the presence, prevalence of the Mf-type in Australian blue mussels (Mytilus sp.) and ii) investigate the effect of Mf-mtDNA on sperm performance (a fitness correlate). We found a high prevalence of recombined mtDNA (≈35 %) located within the control region of the mitochondrial genome, which occurred only in specimens that contained Southern Hemisphere mtDNA. The presence of two female mitotypes were identified in the studied mussels, one likely originating from the Northern Hemisphere, and the other either representing the endemic M. planulatus species or introduced genotypes from the Southern Hemisphere. Despite having recombination events present in a third of the studied population, analysis of sperm performance indicated no difference in fertilization success related to mitotype.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Mytilus edulis , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Austrália , Sêmen , Mitocôndrias , DNA Mitocondrial , Bivalves/genética , Fertilização , Recombinação Genética
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 19825, 2023 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37963956

RESUMO

The inability to control cell proliferation results in the formation of tumors in many multicellular lineages. Nonetheless, little is known about the extent of conservation of the biological traits and ecological factors that promote or inhibit tumorigenesis across the metazoan tree. Particularly, changes in food availability have been linked to increased cancer incidence in humans, as an outcome of evolutionary mismatch. Here, we apply evolutionary oncology principles to test whether food availability, regardless of the multicellular lineage considered, has an impact on tumorigenesis. We used two phylogenetically unrelated model systems, the cnidarian Hydra oligactis and the fish Danio rerio, to investigate the impact of resource availability on tumor occurrence and progression. Individuals from healthy and tumor-prone lines were placed on four diets that differed in feeding frequency and quantity. For both models, frequent overfeeding favored tumor emergence, while lean diets appeared more protective. In terms of tumor progression, high food availability promoted it, whereas low resources controlled it, but without having a curative effect. We discuss our results in light of current ideas about the possible conservation of basic processes governing cancer in metazoans (including ancestral life history trade-offs at the cell level) and in the framework of evolutionary medicine.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Hydra , Neoplasias , Animais , Humanos , Evolução Biológica , Carcinogênese , Neoplasias/etiologia
6.
Ecol Evol ; 13(11): e10615, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38034332

RESUMO

Over the years, theoreticians and empiricists working in a wide range of disciplines, including physiology, ethology, psychology, and behavioral ecology, have suggested a variety of reasons why individual differences in behavior might change over time, such that different individuals become more similar (convergence) or less similar (divergence) to one another. Virtually none of these investigators have suggested that convergence or divergence will continue forever, instead proposing that these patterns will be restricted to particular periods over the course of a longer study. However, to date, few empiricists have documented time-specific convergence or divergence, in part because the experimental designs and statistical methods suitable for describing these patterns are not widely known. Here, we begin by reviewing an array of influential hypotheses that predict convergence or divergence in individual differences over timescales ranging from minutes to years, and that suggest how and why such patterns are likely to change over time (e.g., divergence followed by maintenance). Then, we describe experimental designs and statistical methods that can be used to determine if (and when) individual differences converged, diverged, or were maintained at the same level at specific periods during a longitudinal study. Finally, we describe why the concepts described herein help explain the discrepancy between what theoreticians and empiricists mean when they describe the "emergence" of individual differences or personality, how they might be used to study situations in which convergence and divergence patterns alternate over time, and how they might be used to study time-specific changes in other attributes of behavior, including individual differences in intraindividual variability (predictability), or genotypic differences in behavior.

7.
Evol Med Public Health ; 10(1): 170-176, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498120

RESUMO

Energy expenditure (EE) is generally viewed as tumorigenic, due to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage cells and DNA. On this basis, individuals within a species that sustain high EE should be more likely to develop cancer. Here, we argue the opposite, that high EE may be net protective effect against cancer, despite high ROS production. This is possible because individuals that sustain high EE have a greater energetic capacity (=greater energy acquisition, expenditure and ability to up-regulate output), and can therefore allocate energy to multiple cancer-fighting mechanisms with minimal energetic trade-offs. Our review finds that individuals sustaining high EE have greater antioxidant production, lower oxidative stress, greater immune function and lower cancer incidence. Our hypothesis and literature review suggest that EE may indeed be net protective against cancer, and that individual variation in energetic capacity may be a key mechanism to understand the highly individual nature of cancer risk in contemporary human populations and laboratory animals. Lay summary The process of expending energy generates reactive oxygen species that can lead to oxidative stress, cell and DNA damage, and the accumulation of this damage is thought to be a major contributor to many ageing related diseases that include cancer. Here, we challenge this view, proposing how and why high energy expenditure (EE) may actually be net protective against cancer, and provide literature support for our hypothesis. We find individuals with high sustained EE have greater energetic capacity and thus can invest more in repair to counter oxidative stress, and more in immune function, both of which reduce cancer risk. Our hypothesis provides a novel mechanism to understand the highly individual nature of cancer, why taller individuals are more at risk, why physically active individuals have lower cancer risk, and why regular exercise can reduce cancer risk.

8.
Ecol Evol ; 11(12): 7201-7210, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188806

RESUMO

Behavioral and physiological ecologists have long been interested in explaining the causes and consequences of trait variation, with a focus on individual differences in mean values. However, the majority of phenotypic variation typically occurs within individuals, rather than among individuals (as indicated by average repeatability being less than 0.5). Recent studies have further shown that individuals can also differ in the magnitude of variation that is unexplained by individual variation or environmental factors (i.e., residual variation). The significance of residual variation, or why individuals differ, is largely unexplained, but is important from evolutionary, methodological, and statistical perspectives. Here, we broadly reviewed literature on individual variation in behavior and physiology, and located 39 datasets with sufficient repeated measures to evaluate individual differences in residual variance. We then analyzed these datasets using methods that permit direct comparisons of parameters across studies. This revealed substantial and widespread individual differences in residual variance. The magnitude of individual variation appeared larger in behavioral traits than in physiological traits, and heterogeneity was greater in more controlled situations. We discuss potential ecological and evolutionary implications of individual differences in residual variance and suggest productive future research directions.

9.
iScience ; 23(11): 101716, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241195

RESUMO

Cellular cheating leading to cancers exists in all branches of multicellular life, favoring the evolution of adaptations to avoid or suppress malignant progression, and/or to alleviate its fitness consequences. Ecologists have until recently largely neglected the importance of cancer cells for animal ecology, presumably because they did not consider either the potential ecological or evolutionary consequences of anticancer adaptations. Here, we review the diverse ways in which the evolution of anticancer adaptations has significantly constrained several aspects of the evolutionary ecology of multicellular organisms at the cell, individual, population, species, and ecosystem levels and suggest some avenues for future research.

10.
Trends Cancer ; 6(10): 829-837, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601046

RESUMO

Increased physical activity reduces cancer risk in humans, but why this whole-organism attribute reduces cancer remains unclear. Active individuals tend to have high capacity to generate energy on a sustained basis, which in turn can permit greater immune responses crucial for fighting emerging neoplasia. Thus, we suggest energetic capacity as a potential mechanism to explain the activity-cancer link, given that humans are intrinsically (not externally) energy limited. Human and rodent studies show that individuals with high energetic capacity mount greater immune responses and have lower cancer incidence; these trends persist after controlling for actual physical activity, supporting a direct role of energetic capacity. If true, exercise efforts might best target those that increase one's energetic capacity, which may be both individual and exercise specific.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Exercício Físico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/imunologia
11.
Evol Appl ; 12(6): 1092-1095, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293625

RESUMO

While obesity is widely recognized as a risk factor for cancer, survival among patients with cancer is often higher for obese than for lean individuals. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this "obesity paradox," but no consensus has yet emerged. Here, we propose a novel hypothesis to add to this emerging debate which suggests that lean healthy persons present conditions unfavorable to malignant transformation, due to powerful natural defenses, whereby only rare but aggressive neoplasms can emerge and develop. In contrast, obese persons present more favorable conditions for malignant transformation, because of several weight-associated factors and less efficient natural defenses, leading to a larger quantity of neoplasms comprising both nonaggressive and aggressive ones to regularly emerge and progress. If our hypothesis is correct, testing would require the consideration of the raw quantity, not the relative frequency, of aggressive cancers in obese patients compared with lean ones. We also discuss the possibility that in obese persons, nonaggressive malignancies may prevent the subsequent progression of aggressive cancers through negative competitive interactions between tumors.

12.
J Anim Ecol ; 88(4): 511-520, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516829

RESUMO

The expression of individual behaviour as a function of environmental variation (behavioural plasticity) is recognized as a means for animals to modify their phenotypes in response to changing conditions. Plasticity has been studied extensively in recent years, leading to an accumulation of evidence for behavioural plasticity within natural populations. Despite the recent attention given to studying individual variation in behavioural plasticity, there is still a lack of consensus regarding its causes and constraints. One pressing question related to this is whether individual plasticity carries over across temporal and environmental gradients. That is, are some individuals more plastic (responsive) than others in general? Here, we examined the influence of temporal and environmental gradients on individual behavioural responses in a marine gastropod, Littoraria irrorata. We measured individual boldness repeatedly over time and in response to tidal cycle (high vs. low, an index of risk) and daily temperature fluctuations (known to affect metabolism), in a controlled field experiment. On average, boldness increased from high to low tide and with increasing temperature but decreased marginally over time. Individuals also differed in their responses to variation in tide and temperature, but not over time. Those which were relatively bold at high tide (when predation risk is greater) were similarly bold at low tide, whereas shy individuals became much more "bold" at low tide. Most notably, individuals that were more responsive to tide (and thus risk) were also more responsive to temperature changes, indicating that plasticity was correlated across contexts (r = 0.57) and that bolder individuals were least plastic overall. This study provides a rare and possibly first example of consistency of individual behavioural plasticity across contexts, suggesting underlying physiology as a common mechanism, and raises the possibility of correlational selection on plasticity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Personalidade , Fenótipo , Temperatura
13.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 316(2): R101-R109, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427725

RESUMO

Interest in individual variation in hormone concentrations is rapidly increasing, particularly with regard to the evolutionary and practical implications. A key aspect of studying individual variation in any labile trait is estimating the degree of within- versus among-individual variation, but at present, we do not have a broad consensus on the extent to which hormone levels are repeatable and what factors might influence repeatability. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of hormone levels that included 1,132 estimates of repeatability from 368 studies across three fields of study: agriculture, ecology, and medicine. We assessed the influence of sex, age class, sample type, hormone family, type of hormone measure, assay type, number of subjects, number of samples per subject, and sampling interval on repeatability estimates. Overall mean repeatability was 0.58, but estimates differed substantially among study disciplines, being lowest in ecology (0.34), moderate in agriculture (0.52), and relatively high in medicine (0.68). In addition, repeatability decreased slightly as sampling interval increased, and also tended to be higher for peak hormone levels than baseline levels. Overall, hormone levels are moderately repeatable, suggesting that they can potentially be useful indicators of individual variation. However, estimates of repeatability are quite variable among fields, so caution should be used when relying on single samples to assess individual variation.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hormônios/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Evolution ; 72(10): 2167-2180, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133698

RESUMO

Interactions between genotypes and environments are central to evolutionary genetics, but such interactions are typically described, rather than predicted from theory. Recent Bayesian models of development generate specific predictions about genotypic differences in developmental plasticity (changes in the value of a given trait as a result of a given experience) based on genotypic differences in the value of the trait that is expressed by naïve subjects. We used these models to make a priori predictions about the effects of an aversive olfactory conditioning regime on the response of Drosophila melanogaster larvae to the odor of ethyl acetate. As predicted, across 116 genotypes initial trait values were related to plasticity. Genotypes most strongly attracted to the odor of ethyl acetate when naïve reduced their attraction scores more as a result of the aversive training regime than those less attracted to the same odor when naïve. Thus, as predicted, the variance across genotypes in attraction scores was higher before than after the shared experience. These results support predictions generated by Bayesian models of development and indicate that such models can be successfully used to investigate how variation across genotypes in information derived from ancestors combines with personal experience to differentially affect developmental plasticity in response to specific types of experience.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Genótipo , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Modelos Genéticos , Odorantes/análise , Olfato
15.
Am Nat ; 192(2): 142-154, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016170

RESUMO

Behavioral ecologists have hypothesized that among-individual differences in resting metabolic rate (RMR) may predict consistent individual differences in mean values for costly behaviors or for behaviors that affect energy intake rate. This hypothesis has empirical support and presently attracts considerable attention, but, notably, it does not provide predictions for individual differences in (a) behavioral plasticity or (b) unexplained variation (residual variation from mean individual behavior, here termed predictability). We outline how consideration of aerobic maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and particularly aerobic scope (= MMR - RMR) can be used to simultaneously make predictions about mean and among- and within-individual variation in behavior. We predict that while RMR should be proportional to an individual's mean level of sustained behavioral activity (one aspect of its personality), individuals with greater aerobic scope will also have greater scope to express behavioral plasticity and/or greater unpredictability in behavior (=greater residual variation). As a first step toward testing these predictions, we analyze existing activity data from selectively bred lines of mice that differ in both daily activity and aerobic scope. We find that replicate high-scope mice are more active on average and show greater among-individual variation in activity, greater among-individual variation in plasticity, and greater unpredictability. These data provide some tentative first support for our hypothesis, suggesting that further research on this topic would be valuable.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Atividade Motora , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Aerobiose , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos
16.
Trends Cancer ; 4(3): 169-172, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506667

RESUMO

Age is one of the strongest predictors of cancer and risk of death from cancer. Cancer is therefore generally viewed as a senescence-related malady. However, cancer also exists at subclinical levels in humans and other animals, but its earlier effects on the body are poorly known by comparison. We argue here that cancer is a significant but ignored burden on the body and is likely to be a strong selective force from early during the lifetime of an organism. It is time to adopt this novel view of malignant pathologies to improve our understanding of the ways in which oncogenic phenomena influence the ecology and evolution of animals long before their negative impacts become evident and fatal.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Neoplasias , Animais , Humanos
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 284(1860)2017 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28794220

RESUMO

Despite accumulating evidence for individual variation in behavioural plasticity, there is currently little understanding of the causes and consequences of this variation. An outstanding question is whether individual reaction norm (RN) slopes are consistent across different environmental variables-that is, whether an individual that is highly responsive to one environmental variable will be equally responsive to a second variable. Another important and related question is whether RNs are themselves consistently expressed through time or whether they are simply state dependent. Here, we quantified individual activity rates of zebrafish in response to independent manipulations of temperature and food availability that were repeated in discrete 'bursts' of sampling through time. Individuals that were thermally responsive were not more responsive to food deprivation, but they did exhibit greater unexplained variation. Individual RN slopes were consistent (repeatable) over time for both temperature (Rslope = 0.92) and food deprivation responses (Rslope = 0.4), as were mean activity rates in the standard environment (Rintercept = 0.83). Despite the high potential lability of behaviour, we have demonstrated consistency of behavioural RN components and identified potential energetic constraints leading to high consistency of thermal RNs and low consistency of food deprivation RNs.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Meio Ambiente , Peixe-Zebra , Animais
19.
Evol Appl ; 10(7): 651-657, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28717385

RESUMO

Changes in diet are frequently correlated with the occurrence and progression of malignant tumors (i.e., cancer) in both humans and other animals, but an integrated conceptual framework to interpret these changes still needs to be developed. Our aim is to provide a new perspective on dietary changes in tumor-bearing individuals by adapting concepts from parasitology. Dietary changes may occur alongside tumor progression for several reasons: (i) as a pathological side effect with no adaptive value, (ii) as the result of self-medication by the host to eradicate the tumor and/or to slow down its progression, (iii) as a result of host manipulation by the tumor that benefits its progression, and finally (iv) as a host tolerance strategy, to alleviate and repair damages caused by tumor progression. Surprisingly, this tolerance strategy can be beneficial for the host even if diet changes are beneficial to tumor progression, provided that cancer-induced death occurs sufficiently late (i.e., when natural selection is weak). We argue that more data and a unifying evolutionary framework, especially during the early stages of tumorigenesis, are needed to understand the links between changes in diet and tumor progression. We argue that a focus on dietary changes accompanying tumor progression can offer novel preventive and therapeutic strategies against cancer.

20.
Evol Appl ; 10(3): 215-225, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28250806

RESUMO

Central to evolutionary theory is the idea that living organisms face phenotypic and/or genetic trade-offs when allocating resources to competing life-history demands, such as growth, survival, and reproduction. These trade-offs are increasingly considered to be crucial to further our understanding of cancer. First, evidences suggest that neoplastic cells, as any living entities subject to natural selection, are governed by trade-offs such as between survival and proliferation. Second, selection might also have shaped trade-offs at the organismal level, especially regarding protective mechanisms against cancer. Cancer can also emerge as a consequence of additional trade-offs in organisms (e.g., eco-immunological trade-offs). Here, we review the wide range of trade-offs that occur at different scales and their relevance for understanding cancer dynamics. We also discuss how acknowledging these phenomena, in light of human evolutionary history, may suggest new guidelines for preventive and therapeutic strategies.

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