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1.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 251, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698424

RESUMO

Anticancer immune surveillance and immunotherapies trigger activation of cytotoxic cytokine signaling, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) pathways. The pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α may be secreted by stromal cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and by cancer cells, indicating a prominent role in the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, tumors manage to adapt, escape immune surveillance, and ultimately develop resistance to the cytotoxic effects of TNF-α. The mechanisms by which cancer cells evade host immunity is a central topic of current cancer research. Resistance to TNF-α is mediated by diverse molecular mechanisms, such as mutation or downregulation of TNF/TRAIL receptors, as well as activation of anti-apoptotic enzymes and transcription factors. TNF-α signaling is also mediated by sphingosine kinases (SphK1 and SphK2), which are responsible for synthesis of the growth-stimulating phospholipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Multiple studies have demonstrated the crucial role of S1P and its transmembrane receptors (S1PR) in both the regulation of inflammatory responses and progression of cancer. Considering that the SphK/S1P/S1PR axis mediates cancer resistance, this sphingolipid signaling pathway is of mechanistic significance when considering immunotherapy-resistant malignancies. However, the exact mechanism by which sphingolipids contribute to the evasion of immune surveillance and abrogation of TNF-α-induced apoptosis remains largely unclear. This study reviews mechanisms of TNF-α-resistance in cancer cells, with emphasis on the pro-survival and immunomodulatory effects of sphingolipids. Inhibition of SphK/S1P-linked pro-survival branch may facilitate reactivation of the pro-apoptotic TNF superfamily effects, although the role of SphK/S1P inhibitors in the regulation of the TME and lymphocyte trafficking should be thoroughly assessed in future studies.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Neoplasias , Transdução de Sinais , Esfingolipídeos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/patologia , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
J Nutr Biochem ; 131: 109670, 2024 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768871

RESUMO

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a multipurpose dietary and medicinal plant known for its ability to promote various health benefits. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex metabolic disorder driving health and socioeconomic challenges worldwide. It may be characterized by insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This study aims to conduct a review of pomegranate's effects on MetS parameters using a mechanistic approach relying on pre-clinical studies. The peel, juice, roots, bark, seeds, flowers, and leaves of the fruit present several bioactive compounds that are related mainly to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as well as cardioprotective, antidiabetic, and antiobesity effects. The use of the juice extract can work as a potent inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme activities, consequently regulating blood pressure. The major bioactive compounds found within the fruit are phenolic compounds (hydrolysable tannins and flavonoids) and fatty acids. Alkaloids, punicalagin, ellagitannins, ellagic acid, anthocyanins, tannins, flavonoids, luteolin, and punicic acid are also present. The antihyperglycemia, antihyperlipidemia, and weight loss promoting effects are likely related to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. When considering clinical application, pomegranate extracts are found to be frequently well-tolerated, further supporting its efficacy as a treatment modality. We suggest that pomegranate fruit, extract, or processed products can be used to counteract MetS-related risk factors. This review represents an important step towards exploring potential avenues for further research in this area.

3.
J Evid Based Med ; 17(1): 172-186, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488211

RESUMO

Chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) are debilitating and potentially lethal illnesses that affect a large proportion of the global population. Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is a manual therapy technique developed and performed by osteopathic physicians that facilitates the body's innate healing processes. Therefore, OMT may prove a beneficial anti-inflammatory modality useful in the management and treatment of CIDs. This work aims to objectively evaluate the therapeutic benefits of OMT in patients with various CIDs. In this review, a structured literature search was performed. The included studies involving asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, irritable bowel syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis, and peripheral arterial disease were selected for this work. Various OMT modalities, including lymphatic, still, counterstain, and muscle energy techniques, were utilized. Control treatments included sham techniques, routine care, or no treatment. OMT utilization led to variable patient outcomes in individuals with pathologies linked to CID.


Assuntos
Osteopatia , Humanos , Osteopatia/métodos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299535

RESUMO

Significance: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have a moderately preserved amino-terminal domain, an extremely preserved DNA-binding domain, an integral hinge region, and a distinct ligand-binding domain that are frequently encountered with the other nuclear receptors. PPAR-ß/δ is among the three nuclear receptor superfamily members in the PPAR group. Recent Advances: Emerging studies provide an insight on natural compounds that have gained increasing attention as potential anticancer agents due to their ability to target multiple pathways involved in cancer development and progression. Critical Issues: Modulation of PPAR-ß/δ activity has been suggested as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer management. This review focuses on the ability of bioactive phytocompounds to impact reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox signaling by targeting PPAR-ß/δ for cancer therapy. The rise of ROS in cancer cells may play an important part in the initiation and progression of cancer. However, excessive levels of ROS stress can also be toxic to the cells and cancer cells with increased oxidative stress are likely to be more vulnerable to damage by further ROS insults induced by exogenous agents, such as phytocompounds and therapeutic agents. Therefore, redox modulation is a way to selectively kill cancer cells without causing significant toxicity to normal cells. However, use of antioxidants together with cancer drugs may risk the effect of treatment as both act through opposite mechanisms. Future Directions: It is advisable to employ more thorough and detailed methodologies to undertake mechanistic explorations of numerous phytocompounds. Moreover, conducting additional clinical studies is recommended to establish optimal dosages, efficacy, and the impact of different phytochemicals on PPAR-ß/δ.

5.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 43(1): 261-292, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38169011

RESUMO

Plasticity of phenotypic traits refers to an organism's ability to change in response to environmental stimuli. As a result, the response may alter an organism's physiological state, morphology, behavior, and phenotype. Phenotypic plasticity in cancer cells describes the considerable ability of cancer cells to transform phenotypes through non-genetic molecular signaling activities that promote therapy evasion and tumor metastasis via amplifying cancer heterogeneity. As a result of metastable phenotypic state transitions, cancer cells can tolerate chemotherapy or develop transient adaptive resistance. Therefore, new findings have paved the road in identifying factors and agents that inhibit or suppress phenotypic plasticity. It has also investigated novel multitargeted agents that may promise new effective strategies in cancer treatment. Despite the efficiency of conventional chemotherapeutic agents, drug toxicity, development of resistance, and high-cost limit their use in cancer therapy. Recent research has shown that small molecules derived from natural sources are capable of suppressing cancer by focusing on the plasticity of phenotypic responses. This systematic, comprehensive, and critical review analyzes the current state of knowledge regarding the ability of phytocompounds to target phenotypic plasticity at both preclinical and clinical levels. Current challenges/pitfalls, limitations, and future perspectives are also discussed.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias , Humanos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Adaptação Fisiológica , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico
6.
Phytother Res ; 38(3): 1191-1223, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176910

RESUMO

Cancer profoundly influences morbidity and fatality rates worldwide. Patients often have dismal prognoses despite recent improvements in cancer therapy regimens. However, potent biomolecules derived from natural sources, including medicinal and dietary plants, contain biological and pharmacological properties to prevent and treat various human malignancies. Capsaicin is a bioactive phytocompound present in red hot chili peppers. Capsaicin has demonstrated many biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticarcinogenic capabilities. This review highlights the cellular and molecular pathways through which capsaicin exhibits antineoplastic activities. Our work also depicts the synergistic anticancer properties of capsaicin in conjunction with other natural bioactive components and approved anticancer drugs. Capsaicin inhibits proliferation in various cancerous cells, and its antineoplastic actions in numerous in vitro and in vivo carcinoma models impact oncogenesis, tumor-promoting and suppressor genes, and associated signaling pathways. Capsaicin alone or combined with other phytocompounds or approved antineoplastic drugs triggers cell cycle progression arrest, generating reactive oxygen species and disrupting mitochondrial membrane integrity, ultimately stimulating caspases and promoting death. Furthermore, capsaicin alone or in combination can promote apoptosis in carcinoma cells by enhancing the p53 and c-Myc gene expressions. In conclusion, capsaicin alone or in combination can have enormous potential for cancer prevention and intervention, but further high-quality studies are needed to firmly establish the clinical efficacy of this phytocompound.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Capsicum , Carcinoma , Humanos , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Cânfora/farmacologia , Mentol , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
7.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 43(1): 501-574, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37792223

RESUMO

Tumor cells employ multiple signaling mediators to escape the hypoxic condition and trigger angiogenesis and metastasis. As a critical orchestrate of tumorigenic conditions, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is responsible for stimulating several target genes and dysregulated pathways in tumor invasion and migration. Therefore, targeting HIF-1 pathway and cross-talked mediators seems to be a novel strategy in cancer prevention and treatment. In recent decades, tremendous efforts have been made to develop multi-targeted therapies to modulate several dysregulated pathways in cancer angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. In this line, natural compounds have shown a bright future in combating angiogenic and metastatic conditions. Among the natural secondary metabolites, we have evaluated the critical potential of phenolic compounds, terpenes/terpenoids, alkaloids, sulfur compounds, marine- and microbe-derived agents in the attenuation of HIF-1, and interconnected pathways in fighting tumor-associated angiogenesis and invasion. This is the first comprehensive review on natural constituents as potential regulators of HIF-1 and interconnected pathways against cancer angiogenesis and metastasis. This review aims to reshape the previous strategies in cancer prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia , Neoplasias , Humanos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Hipóxia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Phytomedicine ; 123: 155170, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVDs) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The main risk factors are hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and increased serum lipids. The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), also known as the groundnut, goober, pindar, or monkey nut, belongs to the Fabaceae family and is the fourth most cultivated oilseed in the world. The seeds and skin of peanuts possess a rich phytochemical profile composed of antioxidants, such as phenolic acids, stilbenes, flavonoids, and phytosterols. Peanut consumption can provide numerous health benefits, such as anti-obesity, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and hypolipidemic effects. Accordingly, peanuts have the potential to treat CVD and counteract its risk factors. PURPOSE: This study aims to critically evaluate the effects of peanuts on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and CVD risk factors based on clinical studies. METHOD: This review includes studies indexed in MEDLINE-PubMed, COCHRANE, and EMBASE, and the Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines were adhered to. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were included and indicated that the consumption of raw peanuts or differing forms of processed foods containing peanut products and phytochemicals could improve metabolic parameters, such as glycemia, insulinemia, glycated hemoglobin, lipids, body mass index, waist circumference, atherogenic indices, and endothelial function. CONCLUSION: We propose that this legume and its products be used as a sustainable and low-cost alternative for the prevention and treatment of MetS and CVD. However, further research with larger sample sizes, longer intervention durations, and more diverse populations is needed to understand the full benefit of peanut consumption in MetS and CVD.


Assuntos
Arachis , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Síndrome Metabólica , Nozes , Humanos , Arachis/química , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Lipídeos , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Nozes/química , Sementes/química , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto
9.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1879(1): 189034, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38040268

RESUMO

The gene p63 has two isoforms -a full length transactivated isoform (TA) p63 and an amino-terminally truncated isoform, ∆Np63. DeltaNp63 alpha (∆Np63α) is the predominant splice variant of the isoform, ∆Np63 and is expressed in the basal layer of stratified epithelia. ∆Np63α that is normally essential for the epithelial lineage maintenance may be dysregulated in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). The pro-tumorigenic or antitumorigenic role of ∆Np63 is a highly contentious arena. ∆Np63α may act as a double-edged sword. It may either promote tumor progression, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, chemoresistance, and immune-inflammatory responses, or inhibit the aforementioned phenomena depending upon cell type and tumor microenvironment. Several signaling pathways, transforming growth factor-ß, Wnt and Notch, as well as epigenetic alterations involving microRNAs, and long noncoding RNAs are regulated by ∆Np63α. This review has attempted to provide an in-depth insight into the role of ∆Np63α in the development of SCCs during different stages of tumor formation and how it may be targeted for therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Fatores de Transcrição , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Transativadores/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
10.
Med Res Rev ; 44(2): 457-496, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37589457

RESUMO

Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), a versatile evergreen tree recognized for its ethnopharmacological value, is a rich source of limonoids of the triterpenoid class, endowed with potent medicinal properties. Extracts of neem have been documented to display anticancer effects in diverse malignant cell lines as well as in preclinical animal models that has largely been attributed to the constituent limonoids. Of late, neem limonoids have become the cynosure of research attention as potential candidate agents for cancer prevention and therapy. Among the various limonoids found in neem, azadirachtin, epoxyazadiradione, gedunin, and nimbolide, have been extensively investigated for anticancer activity. Azadirachtin, a potent biodegradable pesticide, exhibits profound antiproliferative effects by preventing mitotic spindle formation and cell division. The antiproliferative activity of gedunin has been demonstrated to be mediated primarily via inhibition of heat shock protein90 and its client proteins. Epoxyazadiradione inhibits pro-inflammatory and kinase-driven signaling pathways to block tumorigenesis. Nimbolide, the most potent cytotoxic neem limonoid, inhibits the growth of cancer cells by regulating the phosphorylation of keystone kinases that drive oncogenic signaling besides modulating the epigenome. There is overwhelming evidence to indicate that neem limonoids exert anticancer effects by preventing the acquisition of hallmark traits of cancer, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis evasion, inflammation, invasion, angiogenesis, and drug resistance. Neem limonoids are value additions to the armamentarium of natural compounds that target aberrant oncogenic signaling to inhibit cancer development and progression.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Azadirachta , Limoninas , Animais , Humanos , Limoninas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais
11.
Molecules ; 28(22)2023 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38005325

RESUMO

Swietenia macrophylla King is a plant commonly known as Brazilian mahogany. The wood from its stem is highly prized for its exceptional quality, while its leaves are valued for their high content of phragmalin-type limonoids, a subclass of compounds known for their significant biological activities, including antimalarial, antitumor, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this context, twelve isolated limonoids from S. macrophylla leaves were employed as standards in mass spectrometry-based molecular networking to unveil new potential mass spectrometry signatures for phragmalin-type limonoids. Consequently, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry was utilized for data acquisition. Subsequently, the obtained data were analyzed using the Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking platform based on spectral similarity. In summary, this study identified 24 new putative phragmalin-type limonoids for the first time in S. macrophylla. These compounds may prove valuable in guiding future drug development efforts, leveraging the already established biological activities associated with limonoids.


Assuntos
Limoninas , Meliaceae , Limoninas/química , Meliaceae/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Brasil , Estrutura Molecular
12.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-21, 2023 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37830928

RESUMO

Dietary compounds, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and spices, have been shown to exhibit anticancer properties due to their high concentrations of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and secondary metabolites, known as phytochemicals. Although emerging studies suggest that avocado (Persea americana Mill) displays antineoplastic properties in addition to numerous other health benefits, current literature lacks an updated comprehensive systematic review dedicated to the anticancer effects of avocado. This review aims to explore the cancer-preventive effects of avocados and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The in vitro studies suggest the various avocado-derived products and phytochemicals induced cytotoxicity, reduced cell viability, and inhibited cell proliferation. The in vivo studies revealed reduction in tumor number, size, and volume as well. The clinical studies demonstrated that avocado leaf extract increased free oxygen radical formation in larynx carcinoma tissue. Various avocado products and phytochemicals from the avocado fruit, including avocatin-B, persin, and PaDef defensin, may serve as viable cancer prevention and treatment options based on current literature. Despite many favorable outcomes, past research has been limited in scope, and more extensive and mechanism-based in vivo and randomized clinical studies should be performed before avocado-derived bioactive phytochemicals can be developed as cancer preventive agents.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(20)2023 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37894468

RESUMO

Nanotechnology has proven advantageous in numerous scientific applications, one being to enhance the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. This present study aims to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive action of naringin-dextrin nanocomposites (Nar-Dx-NCs) against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)/2-acetylaminofluorene (2AAF)-induced lung carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. DEN was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) (150 mg/kg/week) for two weeks, followed by the oral administration of 2AAF (20 mg/kg) four times a week for three weeks. Rats receiving DEN/2AAF were concurrently treated with naringin or Nar-Dx-NCs orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg every other day for 24 weeks. Naringin and Nar-Dx-NCs treatments prevented the formation of tumorigenic cells within the alveoli of rats exposed to DEN/2AAF. These findings were associated with a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, upregulation of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) activity, and enhanced glutathione and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 expression in the lungs. Naringin and Nar-Dx-NCs exerted anti-inflammatory actions manifested by a decrease in lung protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß and mRNA expression of interleukin-6, interferon-γ, nuclear factor-κB, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, with a concurrent increase in interleukin-10 expression. The anti-inflammatory effect of Nar-Dx-NCs was more potent than naringin. Regarding the effect on apoptosis, both naringin and Nar-Dx-NCs significantly reduced Bcl-2 and increased Bax and P53 expressions. Moreover, naringin or Nar-Dx-NCs induced a significant decrease in the expression of the proliferator marker, Ki-67, and the effect of Nar-Dx-NCs was more marked. In conclusion, Nar-Dx-NCs improved naringin's preventive action against DEN/2AAF-induced lung cancer and exerted anticarcinogenic effects by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation and improving apoptotic signal induction and propagation.

14.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2023 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37740585

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, owing to its aggressive nature and suboptimal treatment options, emphasizing the need for novel therapeutic approaches. Emerging studies have exhibited promising results regarding the therapeutic utility of plant-derived compounds (phytochemicals) in pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the potential of phytochemicals in the treatment and prevention of pancreatic cancer. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses was applied to collect articles for this review. Scholarly databases, including PubMed, Scopus and ScienceDirect, were queried for relevant studies using the following keywords: phytochemicals, phenolics, terpenoids, alkaloids, sulfur-containing compounds, in vitro, in vivo, clinical studies, pancreatic cancer, tumour, treatment and prevention. Aggregate results pooled from qualified studies indicate phytochemicals can inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth or decrease tumour size and volume in animal models. These effects have been attributed to various mechanisms, such as increasing proapoptotic factors, decreasing antiapoptotic factors, or inducing cell death and cell cycle arrest. Notable signalling pathways modulated by phytochemicals include the rat sarcoma/mitogen activated protein kinase, wingless-related integration site/ß-catenin and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin signal transduction pathways. Clinically, phytochemicals have been found to increase survival while being well-tolerated and safe, though research is scarce. While these promising results have produced great interest in this field, further in-depth studies are required to characterize the anticancer activities of phytochemicals before they can be utilized to prevent or treat pancreatic cancer in clinical practice.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(15)2023 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37568796

RESUMO

Lung cancer is a heterogeneous group of malignancies with high incidence worldwide. It is the most frequently occurring cancer in men and the second most common in women. Due to its frequent diagnosis and variable response to treatment, lung cancer was reported as the top cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide in 2020. Many aberrant signaling cascades are implicated in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, including those involved in apoptosis (B cell lymphoma protein, Bcl-2-associated X protein, first apoptosis signal ligand), growth inhibition (tumor suppressor protein or gene and serine/threonine kinase 11), and growth promotion (epidermal growth factor receptor/proto-oncogenes/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase). Accordingly, these pathways and their signaling molecules have become promising targets for chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. Recent research provides compelling evidence for the use of plant-based compounds, known collectively as phytochemicals, as anticancer agents. This review discusses major contributing signaling pathways involved in the pathophysiology of lung cancer, as well as currently available treatments and prospective drug candidates. The anticancer potential of naturally occurring bioactive compounds in the context of lung cancer is also discussed, with critical analysis of their mechanistic actions presented by preclinical and clinical studies.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(13)2023 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37444493

RESUMO

Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the world, and it represents a major health challenge [...].

17.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 42(3): 959-1020, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37505336

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a pivotal role in cancer development and progression. In this line, revealing the precise mechanisms of the TME and associated signaling pathways of tumor resistance could pave the road for cancer prevention and efficient treatment. The use of nanomedicine could be a step forward in overcoming the barriers in tumor-targeted therapy. Novel delivery systems benefit from enhanced permeability and retention effect, decreasing tumor resistance, reducing tumor hypoxia, and targeting tumor-associated factors, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Emerging evidence also indicates the engagement of multiple dysregulated mediators in the TME, such as matrix metalloproteinase, vascular endothelial growth factor, cytokines/chemokines, Wnt/ß-catenin, Notch, Hedgehog, and related inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. Hence, investigating novel multitargeted agents using a novel delivery system could be a promising strategy for regulating TME and drug resistance. In recent years, small molecules from natural sources have shown favorable anticancer responses by targeting TME components. Nanoformulations of natural compounds are promising therapeutic agents in simultaneously targeting multiple dysregulated factors and mediators of TME, reducing tumor resistance mechanisms, overcoming interstitial fluid pressure and pericyte coverage, and involvement of basement membrane. The novel nanoformulations employ a vascular normalization strategy, stromal/matrix normalization, and stress alleviation mechanisms to exert higher efficacy and lower side effects. Accordingly, the nanoformulations of anticancer monoclonal antibodies and conventional chemotherapeutic agents also improved their efficacy and lessened the pharmacokinetic limitations. Additionally, the coadministration of nanoformulations of natural compounds along with conventional chemotherapeutic agents, monoclonal antibodies, and nanomedicine-based radiotherapy exhibits encouraging results. This critical review evaluates the current body of knowledge in targeting TME components by nanoformulation-based delivery systems of natural small molecules, monoclonal antibodies, conventional chemotherapeutic agents, and combination therapies in both preclinical and clinical settings. Current challenges, pitfalls, limitations, and future perspectives are also discussed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Humanos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/patologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos
18.
Front Pharmacol ; 14: 1176819, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37305533

RESUMO

Constitutive activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is pivotal in bestowing therapy resistance in cancer cells. Several phytochemicals have been reported with the potential of modulating NRF2. Therefore, it was hypothesized that NRF2-deregulated chemoresistance in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) may be counteracted by theaflavin-rich black tea (BT). A non-responsive LUAD cell line, A549, was the best sensitized towards cisplatin upon pre-treatment with BT. BT-mediated NRF2 reorientation was observed to be dependent on concentration and duration of treatment as well as on the mutational profile of NRF2 in A549 cells. Transient exposure of low-concentration BT hormetically downregulated NRF2, its downstream antioxidants, and drug transporter. BT also influenced the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (KEAP1)-dependent cullin 3 (Cul3) and KEAP-1-independent signaling through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) - rat sarcoma virus (RAS) - rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF) - extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) - matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. The realignment of NRF2 in KEAP1-suppressed A549 cells enhanced the chemotherapeutic outcome. But a higher concentration of the same BT surprisingly upregulated NRF2 and its transcriptional targets with a subsequent decrease in the NRF2-regulatory machinery in NCI-H23 cells (a KEAP1-overexpressed LUAD cell line), ultimately resulting in a better anticancer response. The BT-mediated bidirectional NRF2 modulation was reconfirmed upon comparison with the action of a pharmacological NRF2 inhibitor, ML-385, in A549 and a known NRF2 activator, tertiary-butylhydroquinone, in NCI-H23 respectively. BT-mediated regulation of NRF2-KEAP1 and their upstream networks (EGFR/RAS/RAF/ERK) sufficed as a better anticancer agent than synthetic NRF2 modulators. Therefore, BT may be indicated as a potent multi-modal small molecule for increasing drug responsiveness in LUAD cells by maintaining NRF2/KEAP1 axis at an optimum level.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(10)2023 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37345145

RESUMO

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are enzymes that remove or add acetyl groups to lysine residues of histones, respectively. Histone deacetylation causes DNA to more snugly encircle histones and decreases gene expression, whereas acetylation has the opposite effect. Through these small alterations in chemical structure, HATs and HDACs regulate DNA expression. Recent research indicates histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) may be used to treat malignancies, including leukemia, B-cell lymphoma, virus-associated tumors, and multiple myeloma. These data suggest that HDACis may boost the production of immune-related molecules, resulting in the growth of CD8-positive T-cells and the recognition of nonreactive tumor cells by the immune system, thereby diminishing tumor immunity. The argument for employing epigenetic drugs in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients is supported by evidence that both epigenetic changes and mutations in the epigenetic machinery contribute to AML etiology. Although hypomethylating drugs have been licensed for use in AML, additional epigenetic inhibitors, such as HDACis, are now being tested in humans. Preclinical studies evaluating the efficacy of HDACis against AML have shown the ability of specific agents, such as anobinostat, vorinostat, and tricostatin A, to induce growth arrest, apoptosis, autophagy and cell death. However, these inhibitors do not seem to be successful as monotherapies, but instead achieve results when used in conjunction with other medications. In this article, we discuss the mounting evidence that HDACis promote extensive histone acetylation, as well as substantial increases in reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in hematological malignant cells. We also evaluate the potential of various natural product-based HDACis as therapeutic agents to combat hematological malignancies.

20.
Pharmacol Ther ; 248: 108479, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37330112

RESUMO

Ocular cancers represent a rare pathology. The American Cancer Society estimates that 3,360 cases of ocular cancer occur annually in the United States. The major types of cancers of the eye include ocular melanoma (also known as uveal melanoma), ocular lymphoma, retinoblastoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. While uveal melanoma is one of the primary intraocular cancers with the highest occurrence in adults, retinoblastoma remains the most common primary intraocular cancer in children, and squamous cell carcinoma presents as the most common conjunctival cancer. The pathophysiology of these diseases involves specific cell signaling pathways. Oncogene mutations, tumor suppressor mutations, chromosome deletions/translocations and altered proteins are all described as causal events in developing ocular cancer. Without proper identification and treatment of these cancers, vision loss, cancer spread, and even death can occur. The current treatments for these cancers involve enucleation, radiation, excision, laser treatment, cryotherapy, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy. These treatments present a significant burden to the patient that includes a possible loss of vision and a myriad of side effects. Therefore, alternatives to traditional therapy are urgently needed. Intercepting the signaling pathways for these cancers with the use of naturally occurring phytochemicals could be a way to relieve both cancer burden and perhaps even prevent cancer occurrence. This research aims to present a comprehensive review of the signaling pathways involved in various ocular cancers, discuss current therapeutic options, and examine the potential of bioactive phytocompounds in the prevention and targeted treatment of ocular neoplasms. The current limitations, challenges, pitfalls, and future research directions are also discussed.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Oculares , Neoplasias da Retina , Retinoblastoma , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Retinoblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Retinoblastoma/genética , Retinoblastoma/patologia , Neoplasias Oculares/genética , Neoplasias Oculares/patologia , Neoplasias Oculares/terapia , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias da Retina/patologia
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