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1.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 101561, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Italian and the European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines both recommend a systematic serological screening for strongyloidiasis in sub-Saharan migrants (SSA), however, studies on clinical and economic impact of this strategy in the Italian and European settings are lacking. METHODS: A population of 100,000 migrants from SSA to Italy was considered and a Markov decision tree model was developed to assess the clinical and economic impact of two interventions for strongyloidiasis compared with the current practice (passive diagnosis of symptomatic cases): a) universal serological screening and treatment with ivermectin in case of positive test b) universal presumptive treatment with ivermectin. One and 10-year time horizon in the health-care perspective were considered. RESULTS: In the one and 10-year time horizon respectively the costs for passive diagnosis was €1,164,169 and €9,735,908, those for screening option was € 2,856,011 and € 4,959,638 and those for presumptive treatment was €3,538,474 and € 4,883,272. Considering the cost per cured subject in the one-year time horizon, screening appears more favorable (€209.53), than the other two options (€232.55 per presumptive treatment and €10,197.29 per current strategy). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICERs) of screening strategy and presumptive treatment were respectively 265.27 and 333.19. The sensitivity analysis identified strongyloidiasis' prevalence as the main driver of ICER. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the current practice (passive diagnosis) both screening and presumptive treatment strategies are more favorable from a cost-effectiveness point of view, with a slight advantage of the screening strategy in a one-year time horizon.

2.
Eur J Public Health ; 30(1): 132-141, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination is an important public health intervention for controlling disease burden, but coverage rates are still low also in risk groups. In order to identify non-vaccinating subgroups, deprivation and socio-economic indices, i.e. measures used to synthetically describe people's socio-economic status while taking into account several dimensions, may be used. We aimed to synthetize evidence from studies investigating association between deprivation/socio-economic indices and influenza vaccination coverage in population at risk-persons ≥65 years of age, individuals with comorbidities, pregnant women and health-care workers. METHODS: We searched PubMed, ISI WoS, CINAHL and Scopus to identify observational studies published up to October 10th 2017 in English or Italian. Studies reporting quantitative estimates of the association between deprivation/socio-economic indices and influenza vaccination coverage in populations at risk were included. RESULTS: A total of 1474 articles were identified and 12 were eventually included in the final review. Studies were mostly cross-sectional, performed in European countries, from 2004 to 2017. Seven studies focussed on deprivation and five on socio-economic indices. Studies on deprivation indices and vaccination coverage showed that people from the most deprived areas had lower coverage. Regarding socio-economic condition, results were contrasting, even though it may also be concluded that people from lower groups have lower vaccination coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Our work supports the possibility to identify people likely to have lower influenza vaccination coverage based on deprivation/socio-economic indices. Efforts should be performed in order to further strengthen robustness, transferability and suitability of these indices in addressing public health problems.

3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810408

RESUMO

Simultaneous administration of different vaccines is a strategy to increase the possibility to receive vaccines at appropriate age, safely and effectively, reducing the number of sessions and allowing a more acceptable integration of new vaccines into National Immunization Programs (NIPs). Co-administration can be performed when there are specific indications in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) of the vaccines; but, in absence of these indications, the practice is possible if there are no specific contraindications nor scientific evidence to discourage simultaneous administration.The aim of this work is to review the safety and efficacy of co-administration of the tetravalent measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) and the meningococcal C (Men C) conjugate vaccines after 12 months of age.Several studies demonstrated that MMRV and Men C conjugate vaccines can be administered concomitantly without a negative impact on the safety and immunogenicity of either vaccines, inducing highly immunogenic responses.

4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-6, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634048

RESUMO

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are considered high-risk subjects for Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection due to occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Vaccination represents the core strategy for HBV infection prevention. Following our previous publication on this topic, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of booster vaccine doses in eliciting the immunological response in seronegative (<10 mIU/mL) HCWs and students of Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence (Italy). All subjects received primary vaccination course, and they were tested for serum anti-HBs antibodies. In seronegative subjects, a challenge dose of vaccine was administered and the test was repeated 1 month later. Six hundred and ninety-eight (87.8%) of 795 HCWs and students tested responded to the challenge dose. After this challenge dose, males more often had negative anti-HBs titer compared with females (15.9% vs 10.2%; p < .05). The completion of the second vaccination course was offered to subjects with persistently negative anti-HBs titer. 76.2% (32) of those who accepted the fifth dose, and 3 of the 5 who accepted the sixth dose seroconverted. This report shows the importance to convey a strong message to negative subjects at the initial anti-HBs dosage: accepting all the three additional vaccine doses allows the vast majority of them to obtain protection.

5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-8, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442095

RESUMO

Herpes Zoster (HZ) presents a considerable public health burden in Italy among people aged ≥50 years. This study aimed to assess the clinical and economic impact of HZ vaccination in the 65 years of age (YOA) cohort in Italy, by comparing the new Adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine (RZV) with the currently available Zoster Vaccine Live (ZVL). A static Markov model was developed to follow all 65 YOA subjects from the year of vaccination over their lifetime by comparing three different HZ vaccination strategies: no vaccination, vaccination with ZVL and vaccination with RZV. In the base-case scenario, three 65 YOA cohorts were assumed to be vaccinated within three years, with a vaccine coverage rate of 20%, 35% and 50% at Year 1, 2 and 3 respectively, as recommended by the National Immunization Plan. The three 65 YOA Italian cohorts accounted altogether for 2,290,340 individuals. Of these, it was assumed that 564,178 subjects could be vaccinated with either RZV or ZVL in three years. The vaccination with RZV could prevent an additional total number of 35,834 HZ and 8,131 postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) cases over ZVL, leading to additional total savings of €12.4 million for the national healthcare and social systems. The introduction of RZV can be expected to have higher impact on the burden of HZ disease in the 65 YOA cohort in Italy. The avoided HZ and PHN cases can lead to an associated reduction in economic burden to the healthcare and social systems.

6.
Eur Radiol ; 29(12): 6762-6771, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264015

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess whether virtual non-contrast (VNC) images derived from contrast dual-layer dual-energy computed tomography (DL-DECT) images could replace true non-contrast (TNC) images for aortic intramural hematoma (IMH) diagnosis in acute aortic syndrome (AAS) imaging protocols by performing quantitative as well as qualitative phantom and clinical studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with confirmed IMH were included retrospectively in two centers. For in vitro imaging, a custom-made phantom of IMH was placed in a semi-anthropomorphic thorax phantom (QRM GmbH) and imaged on a DL-DECT at 120 kVp under various conditions of patient size, radiation exposure, and reconstruction modes. For in vivo imaging, 21 patients (70 ± 13 years) who underwent AAS imaging protocols at 120 kVp were included. In both studies, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between hematoma and lumen was compared using a paired t test. Diagnostic confidence (1 = non-diagnostic, 4 = exemplary) for VNC and TNC images was rated by two radiologists and compared. Effective radiation doses for each acquisition were calculated. RESULTS: In both the phantom and clinical studies, we observed that the CNRs were similar between the VNC and TNC images. Moreover, both methods allowed differentiating the hyper-attenuation within the hematoma from the blood. Finally, we obtained equivalent high diagnostic confidence with both VNC and TNC images (VNC = 3.2 ± 0.7, TNC = 3.1 ± 0.7; p = 0.3). Finally, by suppressing TNC acquisition and using VNC, the mean effective dose reduction would be 40%. CONCLUSION: DL-DECT offers similar performances with VNC and TNC images for IMH diagnosis without compromise in diagnostic image quality. KEY POINTS: • Dual-layer dual-energy CT enables virtual non-contrast imaging from a contrast-enhanced acquisition. • Virtual non-contrast imaging with dual-layer dual-energy CT reduces the number of acquisitions and radiation exposure in acute aortic syndrome imaging protocol. • Dual-layer dual-energy CT has the potential to become a suitable imaging tool for acute aortic syndrome.

7.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 18(7): 693-701, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268739

RESUMO

Introduction: Vaccination is a crucial tool for the primary prevention of infectious diseases. Thanks to widespread vaccination, in the last century smallpox has been eradicated, and the Americas and Europe have become polio-free. Areas covered: The aim of our study was to assess vaccination coverage in childhood up to booster preschool age in order to update the analysis on European trends of immunization coverage in the last nine years (2009-2017) and to assess the impact of different national policies on vaccine uptake. Expert opinion: Despite the good results, several EU countries are going through unprecedented outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases due to insufficient coverage. The increase of vaccine hesitancy has made it difficult to reach and maintain high rates of vaccination coverage. Enforcing mandatory vaccinations is one of the strategies adopted by some countries, like Italy and France, to increase coverage. However, each country should find the most suitable way to keep up with vaccination coverages according to own cultural and organizational background.

8.
Epidemiol Prev ; 43(1): 71-75, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111716

RESUMO

ESCULAPIO Project, funded by the Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM) of the Italian Ministry of Health, for the program 2013, aims at increasing awareness on vaccine preventable infectious diseases (VPID) and vaccination in different targets of population and at spreading the culture of prevention by the development of information/training interventions on VPID. In Tuscany Region (Central Italy), educational courses on VPID in high schools were organized and students were stimulated to prepare informative materials on VPID for lower grade school pupils. Educational games for school pupils were realized in Liguria Region (Northern Italy) with the aim to increase awareness and knowledge of vaccination among primary school children, their families, and teachers. The Sicilian Operative Unit (OU) developed and validated a questionnaire to collect data on the main factors influencing vaccine uptake in a population from Southern Italy and spreading information on vaccines to the general population. Aim of the activities performed in Apulia Region (Southern Italy) was to collect, directly from the public, a set of issues to which people were more "sensitive," in order to perceive the dimension of informative needs and the misinformation in the field of vaccinations. A toll-free telephone line to answer questions on VPID was also the aim of the Apulian activities. The objective of the OU of Sardinia (Southern Italy) was to increase knowledge on VPID and adherence to immunization campaigns in health care workers (HCW) by realizing traditional and e-learning training courses and initiatives of health promotion in healthcare and hospital setting. Interventions to promote vaccinations in maternal and child health services and outreach interventions in case of parental non-compliance with vaccination schedules were performed in the Veneto Region (Northern Italy), with the aim to reach a particular subgroup of the general population: new or future parents. The activities of Veneto Region aimed also at realizing individual interviews with parents and/or home visit, if considered useful, for families not respondents to the active ordinary call.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Comunicação em Saúde , Cobertura Vacinal , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Itália
9.
Eur J Public Health ; 29(5): 900-905, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The elderly, defined here as subjects aged ≥ 65 years, are among at-risk subjects for whom annual influenza vaccination is recommended. For the 2018/19 season, three vaccine types are available for the elderly in Italy: trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV), adjuvanted TIV (aTIV) and quadrivalent inactivated vaccines (QIV). No health technology assessment (HTA) of seasonal influenza vaccination in the elderly has previously been conducted in Italy. METHODS: An HTA was conducted in 2017 to analyze the burden of influenza illness, the characteristics, efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of available vaccines and the related organizational and ethical implications. This was then contextualized to the 2018/19 influenza season. Comprehensive literature reviews/analyses were performed and a static mathematical model developed in order to address the above issues. RESULTS: In Italy, influenza is usually less common in the elderly than in other age-classes, but the burden of disease is the highest; >10% of infected elderly subjects develop complications, and about 90% of all influenza-related deaths occur in this age-class. All available vaccines are effective, safe and acceptable from an ethical standpoint. However, aTIV has proved more immunogenic and effective in the elderly. Furthermore, from the third payer's perspective, aTIV is highly cost-effective and cost-saving in comparison with TIV and QIV, respectively. Nevertheless, vaccination coverage needs to be improved. CONCLUSIONS: According to this HTA, aTIV appeared the vaccine of choice in the elderly. HTA should be reapplied whenever new relevant data become available.

10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(10): 2416-2422, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883258

RESUMO

Introduction: Influenza vaccination is recommended for caregivers of elderly people. In a study aimed at assessing the level of health literacy (HL) in a sample non-familial caregivers in the Florence Health District (Tuscany), data were collected regarding access and adherence to the flu vaccination campaigns. Methods: The sample consists of 47 non-familial paid caregivers. We collected information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, services provided and daily work time, whether or not influenza vaccination was administered for the 2016/2017 season and in the previous three years. The level of HL was assessed through the Newest Vital Sign. Results: 63.8% of non-familial caregivers have not joined the flu campaigns over the last four years, 14.9% have been vaccinated only sometimes (in some epidemic seasons), and 21.3% have received a flu shot in all the seasons investigated. Most of the non-familial caregivers who do not get vaccinated (27.7%) do not perceive that they are in direct contact with a person at-risk; those who get the vaccine regularly (12.8%) reported they want to protect the assisted person as motivation for vaccine uptake. Vaccination was not associated with HL. Conclusion: Adhesion to anti-flu vaccination campaigns for these homecare workers has been resulted rather poor. Coverage does not seem to be related with HL level. It seems appropriate to promote extensively flu vaccination among family carers by actively offering the vaccination in appropriate forms, places and times, to avoid serious consequences on elderly people with higher risk of comorbidity and frailty.

11.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(4): 711-723, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552522

RESUMO

A dedicated software package that could semi-automatically assess differences in aortic maximal cross-sectional diameters from consecutive CT scans would most likely reduce the post-processing time and effort by the physicians. The aim of this study was to present and assess the quality of a new tool for the semi-automatic quantification of thoracic aorta dilation dimensions. Twenty-nine patients with two CTA scans of the thoracic aorta for which the official clinical report indicated an increase in aortic diameters were included in the study. Aortic maximal cross-sectional diameters of baseline and follow-up studies generated semi-automatically by the software were compared with corresponding manual measurements. The semi-automatic measurements were performed at seven landmarks defined on the baseline scan by two operators. Bias, Bland-Altman plots and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated between the two methods and, for the semi-automatic software, also between two observers. The average time difference between the two scans of a single patient was 1188 ± 622 days. For the semi-automatic software, in 2 out of 29 patients, manual interaction was necessary; in the remaining 27 patients (93.1%), semi-automatic results were generated, demonstrating excellent intraclass correlation coefficients (all values ≥ 0.91) and small differences, especially for the proximal aortic arch (baseline: 0.19 ± 1.30 mm; follow-up: 0.44 ± 2.21 mm), the mid descending aorta (0.37 ± 1.64 mm; 0.37 ± 2.06 mm), and the diaphragm (0.30 ± 1.14 mm; 0.37 ± 1.80 mm). The inter-observer variability was low with all errors in diameters ≤ 1 mm, and intraclass correlation coefficients all ≥ 0.95. The semi-automatic tool decreased the processing time by 40% (13 vs. 22 min). In this work, a semi-automatic software package that allows the assessment of thoracic aorta diameters from baseline and follow-up CTs (and their differences), was presented, and demonstrated high accuracy and low inter-observer variability.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aortografia/métodos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Software , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Automação , Dilatação Patológica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Fluxo de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Cardiol ; 276: 230-235, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No established reference-standard technique is available for ascending aortic diameter measurements. The aim of this study was to determine agreement between modalities and techniques. METHODS: In patients with aortic pathology transthoracic echocardiography, computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were performed. Aortic diameters were measured at the sinus of Valsalva (SoV), sinotubular junction (STJ) and tubular ascending aorta (TAA) during mid-systole and end-diastole. In echocardiography both the inner edge-to-inner edge (I-I edge) and leading edge-to­leading edge (L-L edge) methods were applied, and the length of the aortic annulus to the most cranial visible part of the ascending aorta was measured. In CTA and MRA the I-I method was used. RESULTS: Fifty patients with bicuspid aortic valve (36 ±â€¯13 years, 26% female) and 50 Turner patients (35 ±â€¯13 years) were included. Comparison of all aortic measurements showed a mean difference of 5.4 ±â€¯2.7 mm for the SoV, 5.1 ±â€¯2.0 mm for the STJ and 4.8 ±â€¯2.1 mm for the TAA. The maximum difference was 18 mm. The best agreement was found between echocardiography L-L edge and CTA during mid-systole. CTA and MRA showed good agreement. A mean difference of 1.5 ±â€¯1.3 mm and 1.8 ±â€¯1.5 mm was demonstrated at the level of the STJ and TAA comparing mid-systolic with end-diastolic diameters. The visible length of the aorta increased on average 5.3 ±â€¯5.1 mmW during mid-systole. CONCLUSIONS: MRA and CTA showed best agreement with L-L edge method by echocardiography. In individual patients large differences in ascending aortic diameter were demonstrated, warranting measurement standardization. The use of CTA or MRA is advised at least once.


Assuntos
Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/normas , Ecocardiografia/normas , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome de Turner/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Turner/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 27(5): e12905, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178893

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the cervical cancer burden and performance of screening programme over the last decade in Apulia, Italy. Data from Hospital Discharge, Causes of Death and of Outpatient Services registries were analysed to estimate the disease burden, and data collected by the screening information system were used to evaluate the performance of the programme. We computed annual hospitalisation, incidence and mortality rates and number of outpatient services prescriptions for the follow-up of preneoplastic/neoplastic lesions. Indicators as proposed by the National Centre for Screening Monitoring were computed to describe the screening performance. Hospitalisation rates declined from 47 in 2001 to 28 per 100,000 in 2014, incidence from 10.3 in 2004 to 6.0 per 100,000 in 2014 and mortality from 1.4 in 2001 to 1.0 per 100,000 in 2010. Prescriptions increased from 3,333 in 2006 to 4,968 in 2010, then decreased to 3,634/year in 2012-2014. Actual extension of screening increased from 10.8% in 2007 to 62% in 2014; compliance with the invitation was 32%/year. In the last decade, we observed a reduction in the cervical cancer burden as early effect of screening implementation.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Br J Radiol ; : 20180226, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048155

RESUMO

Following a Bentall procedure, which comprises a composite replacement of both the aortic valve and the ascending aorta, the imaging modality of choice to depict known or suspected complications is CT angiography. An update and extension of the literature regarding complications after the Bentall procedure is provided. The wider availability of ECG-gating has allowed for a clearer depiction of the aortic valve and ascending aorta. This resulted not only in the identification of previously undetectable complications, but also in a more precise assessment of the pathophysiology and morphology of known ones, reducing the need for additional imaging modalities. Moreover, the possibility to combine positron emission tomography images with CT angiography offers new insights in case of suspected infection. Due to the complexity of the operation itself and concomitant or subsequent additional procedures, as well as the wide spectrum of underlying pathology, new scenarios with multiple complications can be expected.

16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 14(9): 2248-2253, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Periodical assessments of population susceptibility to polioviruses (PV) is essential for evaluating population protection and planning appropriate vaccination strategies. The aim of the current work was to assess serological protective titers against all three polioviruses in the general population of Florence. METHODS: A convenience sample of 328 sera, collected in 2009 in Florence (Central Italy) was analyzed. Samples were considered protective if neutralizing antibodies were detected at dilutions ≥1:8, according to the WHO protocols. RESULTS: The immune coverage was 75.3%, 69.2% and 46% for PV1, PV2 and PV3, respectively. The protective titers of neutralizing antibodies were generally higher in children up to 14 years of age, with 74.4% (PV1), 75.6% (PV2) and 56.7% (PV3) of seroprevalence. From the age of 11 years, most of the study subjects were seronegative for PV3. CONCLUSIONS: In a polio-free country with strong migration pressures, such as Italy, our results bring clear support to the recent recommendation of Italian health authorities to introduce a fifth dose of IPV vaccine in adolescence all over the country.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Poliovirus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 14(6): 1331-1341, 2018 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425079

RESUMO

ABSRACT In the perspective of reaching at least 75% influenza vaccination coverage in the elderly and substantial budget constraints, Italian decision makers are facing important challenges in determining an optimal immunization strategy for this growing and particularly vulnerable population. Four different influenza vaccines are currently available for Italian older adults aged 65 years or above, namely trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIVs), MF59-adjuvanted TIV (MF59-TIV), intradermal TIV (ID-TIV) and quadrivalent inactivated vaccines (QIVs). The present study is the first to compare the cost-effectiveness profiles of virtually all possible public health strategies, including the aforementioned four vaccine formulations as well non-vaccination. For this purpose, a decision tree model was built ex novo; the analysis was conducted from the third-payer perspective in the timeframe of one year. All available vaccines were cost-effective compared with non-vaccination. However, MF59-TIV had the most favorable economic profile in the Italian elderly population. Indeed, compared with non-vaccination, it was deemed highly cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €10,750 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). The ICER was much lower (€4,527/QALY) when MF59-TIV was directly compared with TIV. ID-TIV and QIV were dominated by MF59-TIV as the former comparators were associated with greater total costs and lower health benefits. Both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed robustness of the base case results. From the economic perspective, MF59-TIV should be considered as a preferential choice for Italian older adults aged 65 years or above.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/economia , Influenza Humana/economia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos
18.
Vaccine ; 36(8): 1072-1077, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358055

RESUMO

Since 2013, World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) should be evaluated by a standardized algorithm for causality assessment, however the use of WHO procedure is rarely adopted. In Italy, AEFIs (classified only by temporal criteria) are registered in the National Drug Authority (AIFA) database, but causality assessment is not mandatory. Every year AIFA publishes the AEFIs report, that doesn't contain information about causal correlation between events and vaccines. From AIFA database, we selected AEFIs following human papillomavirus vaccination (HPV) reported in Apulia (about 4,000,000 inhabitants) during 2008-2016. For serious AEFIs, we applied WHO causality assessment criteria; for cases hospitalized, we repeated the assessment getting additional information from health documentation. In 2008-2016, 100 HPV AEFIs (reporting rate: 17.8 per 100,000 doses) were registered of which 19 were serious (rate: 3.4 per 100,000 doses) and 12 led to hospitalization. After causality assessment, for 9 AEFIs the classification was "consistent causal association to immunization", for 3 indeterminate, for 5 "inconsistent causal association to immunization" and for 2 not-classifiable. Among hospitalized patients, 5 AEFIs were consistent, 5 inconsistent, 1 not-classifiable and 1 indeterminate; adding information from health documentation, the results were similar except for indeterminate and not classifiable AEFIs that turned into "not consistent". Only half of severe AEFIs could be associated with vaccination and this suggests that AIFA report provides a incomplete picture of HPV vaccine safety, with a risk for readers to confound "post hoc" and "propter hoc" approach without considering the causality assessment results. In the view of the systematic use of WHO causality assessment algorithm in the AEFI surveillance, the efforts of Public Health must be focused on the improvement of the quality of the information provided to reduce conclusions inter-observer variability; the routine follow-up of reports, also to collect additional information, must be guaranteed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Causalidade , Criança , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 14(2): 478-488, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29048987

RESUMO

This systematic review describes the current relationship between health literacy (HL) and vaccination (including attitude to vaccines, intention to vaccinate, and vaccine uptake). The aim is to comprehend the role of HL as a determinant of vaccine hesitancy. For this purpose, the following databases were explored from 1 January 2007 to 15 January 2017: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, ERIC, Health Evidence, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Nine studies were included in the final synthesis. The role of HL in predicting vaccine hesitancy or acceptance seems to be influenced by a few key factors. These include country, age, and type of vaccine. However, the relationship between HL and vaccination remains unclear. New research studies are needed-particularly longitudinal ones that use multiple measurement tools. This would facilitate a better understanding of the role of HL in predicting vaccine uptake.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento , Vacinação , Humanos
20.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 14(3): 699-705, 2018 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059004

RESUMO

Influenza is one of the major infectious causes of excess mortality, hospitalization, and an increase in healthcare expenditure in all countries. In an increasingly ageing population, many members are exposed to flu-related complications. Vaccination coverage rates for the elderly in most European countries, such as Italy, are not satisfactory, and have been decreasing with time due to a sense of skepticism toward vaccination. Nowadays, many types of vaccines are available on the Italian market to prevent influenza illness. Many studies have proven their effectiveness in preventing influenza-related complications in specific risk groups. Any vaccine can be crucial to avoid complications, hospitalizations and death, but use of the most appropriate vaccine could optimize the result at a very modest cost. General practitioners (GPs) should encourage their patients to take the influenza vaccination to prevent complications or deaths. Health authorities should give GPs the opportunity to choose the appropriate vaccines tailored to specific patients.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , Clínicos Gerais , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália , Estações do Ano , Vacinação/métodos
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