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2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2762, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553447

RESUMO

The significance of transient neuropeptide expression during postnatal brain development is unknown. Here, we show that galanin expression in the ventrobasal thalamus of infant mice coincides with whisker map development and modulates subcortical circuit wiring. Time-resolved neuroanatomy and single-nucleus RNA-seq identified complementary galanin (Gal) and galanin receptor 1 (Galr1) expression in the ventrobasal thalamus and the principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (Pr5), respectively. Somatodendritic galanin release from the ventrobasal thalamus was time-locked to the first postnatal week, when Gal1R+ Pr5 afferents form glutamatergic (Slc17a6+) synapses for the topographical whisker map to emerge. RNAi-mediated silencing of galanin expression disrupted glutamatergic synaptogenesis, which manifested as impaired whisker-dependent exploratory behaviors in infant mice, with behavioral abnormalities enduring into adulthood. Pharmacological probing of receptor selectivity in vivo corroborated that target recognition and synaptogenesis in the thalamus, at least in part, are reliant on agonist-induced Gal1R activation in inbound excitatory axons. Overall, we suggest a neuropeptide-dependent developmental mechanism to contribute to the topographical specification of a fundamental sensory neurocircuit in mice.


Assuntos
Galanina , Vibrissas , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Axônios/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Galanina/metabolismo , Tálamo/metabolismo , Vibrissas/fisiologia
3.
FASEB J ; 38(3): e23448, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305779

RESUMO

Diabetes causes a range of complications that can affect multiple organs. Hyperglycemia is an important driver of diabetes-associated complications, mediated by biological processes such as dysfunction of endothelial cells, fibrosis, and alterations in leukocyte number and function. Here, we dissected the transcriptional response of key cell types to hyperglycemia across multiple tissues using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and identified conserved, as well as organ-specific, changes associated with diabetes complications. By studying an early time point of diabetes, we focus on biological processes involved in the initiation of the disease, before the later organ-specific manifestations had supervened. We used a mouse model of type 1 diabetes and performed scRNA-seq on cells isolated from the heart, kidney, liver, and spleen of streptozotocin-treated and control male mice after 8 weeks and assessed differences in cell abundance, gene expression, pathway activation, and cell signaling across organs and within organs. In response to hyperglycemia, endothelial cells, macrophages, and monocytes displayed organ-specific transcriptional responses, whereas fibroblasts showed similar responses across organs, exhibiting altered metabolic gene expression and increased myeloid-like fibroblasts. Furthermore, we found evidence of endothelial dysfunction in the kidney, and of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in streptozotocin-treated mouse organs. In summary, our study represents the first single-cell and multi-organ analysis of early dysfunction in type 1 diabetes-associated hyperglycemia, and our large-scale dataset (comprising 67 611 cells) will serve as a starting point, reference atlas, and resource for further investigating the events leading to early diabetic disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hiperglicemia , Camundongos , Animais , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Células Endoteliais , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hiperglicemia/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
4.
Epigenetics ; 19(1): 2318517, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38404006

RESUMO

Supplementation of one-carbon (1C) metabolism micronutrients, which include B-vitamins and methionine, is essential for the healthy growth and development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). However, the recent shift towards non-fish meal diets in salmon aquaculture has led to the need for reassessments of recommended micronutrient levels. Despite the importance of 1C metabolism in growth performance and various cellular regulations, the molecular mechanisms affected by these dietary alterations are less understood. To investigate the molecular effect of 1C nutrients, we analysed gene expression and DNA methylation using two types of omics data: RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and reduced-representation bisulphite sequencing (RRBS). We collected liver samples at the end of a feeding trial that lasted 220 days through the smoltification stage, where fish were fed three different levels of four key 1C nutrients: methionine, vitamin B6, B9, and B12. Our results indicate that the dosage of 1C nutrients significantly impacts genetic and epigenetic regulations in the liver of Atlantic salmon, particularly in biological pathways related to protein synthesis. The interplay between DNA methylation and gene expression in these pathways may play an important role in the mechanisms underlying growth performance affected by 1C metabolism.


Assuntos
Salmo salar , Animais , Salmo salar/genética , Metilação de DNA , Fígado/metabolismo , Dieta , Vitaminas , Metionina/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353578

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Chronic sarcoidosis is a complex granulomatous disease with limited treatment options that can progress over time. Understanding the molecular pathways contributing to disease would aid in new therapeutic development. OBJECTIVES: To understand if macrophages from non-resolving chronic sarcoidosis patients are predisposed to macrophage aggregation and granuloma formation, and if modulation of the underlying molecular pathways influence sarcoidosis granuloma formation. METHODS: Macrophages were cultivated in vitro from isolated peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes and evaluated for spontaneous aggregation. Transcriptomics analyses, phenotypic and drug inhibitory experiments were performed on these monocyte-derived macrophages. Human skin biopsies from sarcoidosis patients and a myeloid Tsc2-specific sarcoidosis mouse model were analyzed for validatory experiments. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Monocyte-derived macrophages from chronic sarcoidosis patients spontaneously formed extensive granulomas in vitro compared to healthy controls. Transcriptomic analyses separated healthy and sarcoidosis macrophages and identified an enrichment in lipid metabolic processes. In vitro patient granulomas, sarcoidosis mouse model granulomas, and those directly analyzed from lesional patient skin expressed an aberrant lipid metabolism profile and contained increased neutral lipids. Conversely, a combination of statins and cholesterol-reducing agents reduced granuloma formation both in vitro and in vivo in a sarcoidosis mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our findings show that altered lipid metabolism in sarcoidosis macrophages is associated with its predisposition to granuloma formation and suggest cholesterol-reducing therapies as a treatment option in patients.

6.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 6(2): e81-e91, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory condition that can affect various organs and tissues, causing the formation of granulomas and subsequent functional impairment. The origin of sarcoidosis remains unknown and there are few treatment options. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation is commonly seen in granulomas of patients across different tissues and has been shown to induce sarcoidosis-like granulomas in a mouse model. This study aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus as a treatment for cutaneous sarcoidosis. METHODS: We did a single-centre, randomised study treating patients with persistent and glucocorticoid-refractory cutaneous sarcoidosis with sirolimus at the Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna (Vienna, Austria). We recruited participants who had persistent, active, and histologically proven cutaneous sarcoidosis. We used an n-of-1 crossover design in a placebo-controlled, double-blind topical treatment period and a subsequent single-arm systemic treatment phase for 4 months in the same participants. Participants initially received either 0·1% topical sirolimus in Vaseline or placebo (Vaseline alone), twice daily. After a washout period, all participants were subsequently administered a 6 mg loading dose followed by 2 mg sirolimus solution orally once daily, aiming to achieve serum concentrations of 6 ng/mL. The primary endpoint was change in the Cutaneous Sarcoidosis Activity and Morphology Index (CSAMI) after topical or systemic treatment. All participants were included in the safety analyses, and patients having completed the respective treatment period (topical treatment or systemic treatment) were included in the primary analyses. Adverse events were assessed at each study visit by clinicians and were categorised according to their correlation with the study drug, severity, seriousness, and expectedness. This study is registered with EudraCT (2017-004930-27) and is now closed. FINDINGS: 16 participants with persistent cutaneous sarcoidosis were enrolled in the study between Sept 3, 2019, and June 15, 2021. Six (37%) of 16 participants were men, ten (63%) were women, and 15 (94%) were White. The median age of participants was 54 years (IQR 48-58). 14 participants were randomly assigned in the topical phase and 2 entered the systemic treatment phase directly. Daily topical treatment did not improve cutaneous lesions (effect estimate -1·213 [95% CI -2·505 to 0·079], p=0·066). Systemic treatment targeting trough serum concentrations of 6 ng/mL resulted in clinical and histological improvement of skin lesions in seven (70%) of ten participants (median -7·0 [95% CI -16·5 to -3·0], p=0·018). Various morphologies of cutaneous sarcoidosis, including papular, nodular, plaque, scar, and tattoo-associated sarcoidosis, responded to systemic sirolimus therapy with a long-lasting effect for more than 1 year after treatment had been stopped. There were no serious adverse events and no deaths. INTERPRETATION: Short-term treatment with systemic sirolimus might be an effective and safe treatment option for patients with persistent glucocorticoid-refractory sarcoidosis with a long-lasting disease-modulating effect. The effect of sirolimus in granulomatous inflammation should be investigated further in large, multi-centre, randomised clinical trials. FUNDING: Vienna Science and Technology Fund, Austrian Science Fund.


Assuntos
Butilaminas , Sarcoidose , Sirolimo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Granuloma , Vaselina , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico , Sirolimo/efeitos adversos
7.
Nat Immunol ; 25(1): 19-28, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38168953

RESUMO

Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both low- and high-income countries. Antibiotic therapy and supportive care have significantly improved survival following sepsis in the twentieth century, but further progress has been challenging. Immunotherapy trials for sepsis, mainly aimed at suppressing the immune response, from the 1990s and 2000s, have largely failed, in part owing to unresolved patient heterogeneity in the underlying immune disbalance. The past decade has brought the promise to break this blockade through technological developments based on omics-based technologies and systems medicine that can provide a much larger data space to describe in greater detail the immune endotypes in sepsis. Patient stratification opens new avenues towards precision medicine approaches that aim to apply immunotherapies to sepsis, on the basis of precise biomarkers and molecular mechanisms defining specific immune endotypes. This approach has the potential to lead to the establishment of immunotherapy as a successful pillar in the treatment of sepsis for future generations.


Assuntos
Medicina de Precisão , Sepse , Humanos , Sepse/terapia , Imunoterapia , Biomarcadores
8.
Immunity ; 57(1): 171-187.e14, 2024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198850

RESUMO

Immune responses are tightly regulated yet highly variable between individuals. To investigate human population variation of trained immunity, we immunized healthy individuals with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). This live-attenuated vaccine induces not only an adaptive immune response against tuberculosis but also triggers innate immune activation and memory that are indicative of trained immunity. We established personal immune profiles and chromatin accessibility maps over a 90-day time course of BCG vaccination in 323 individuals. Our analysis uncovered genetic and epigenetic predictors of baseline immunity and immune response. BCG vaccination enhanced the innate immune response specifically in individuals with a dormant immune state at baseline, rather than providing a general boost of innate immunity. This study advances our understanding of BCG's heterologous immune-stimulatory effects and trained immunity in humans. Furthermore, it highlights the value of epigenetic cell states for connecting immune function with genotype and the environment.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG , Imunidade Treinada , Humanos , Multiômica , Vacinação , Epigênese Genética
9.
Neuron ; 112(2): 230-246.e11, 2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38096816

RESUMO

The superior colliculus (SC) in the mammalian midbrain is essential for multisensory integration and is composed of a rich diversity of excitatory and inhibitory neurons and glia. However, the developmental principles directing the generation of SC cell-type diversity are not understood. Here, we pursued systematic cell lineage tracing in silico and in vivo, preserving full spatial information, using genetic mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM)-based clonal analysis with single-cell sequencing (MADM-CloneSeq). The analysis of clonally related cell lineages revealed that radial glial progenitors (RGPs) in SC are exceptionally multipotent. Individual resident RGPs have the capacity to produce all excitatory and inhibitory SC neuron types, even at the stage of terminal division. While individual clonal units show no pre-defined cellular composition, the establishment of appropriate relative proportions of distinct neuronal types occurs in a PTEN-dependent manner. Collectively, our findings provide an inaugural framework at the single-RGP/-cell level of the mammalian SC ontogeny.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neurais , Colículos Superiores , Animais , Colículos Superiores/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula/fisiologia , Mamíferos
10.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 165(12): 4221-4226, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37950066

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Extent of resection (EOR) predicts progression-free survival (PFS) and may impact overall survival (OS) in patients with glioblastoma. We recently demonstrated that 5-aminolevulinic acid-(5-ALA)-fluorescence-enhanced endoscopic surgery increase the rate of gross total resection. However, it is hitherto unknown whether fluorescence-enhanced endoscopic resection affects survival. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center analysis of a consecutive series of patients who underwent surgery for non-eloquently located glioblastoma between 2011 and 2018. All patients underwent fluorescence-guided microscopic or fluorescence-guided combined microscopic and endoscopic resection. PFS, OS, EOR as well as clinical and demographic parameters, adjuvant treatment modalities, and molecular characteristics were compared between microscopy-only vs. endoscopy-assisted microsurgical resection. RESULTS: Out of 114 patients, 73 (65%) were male, and 57 (50%) were older than 65 years. Twenty patients (18%) were operated on using additional endoscopic assistance. Both cohorts were equally distributed in terms of age, performance status, lesion location, adjuvant treatment modalities, and molecular status. Gross total resection was achieved in all endoscopy-assisted patients compared to about three-quarters of microscope-only patients (100% vs. 75.9%, p=0.003). The PFS in the endoscope-assisted cohort was 19.3 months (CI95% 10.8-27.7) vs. 10.8 months (CI95% 8.2-13.4; p=0.012) in the microscope-only cohort. OS in the endoscope-assisted group was 28.9 months (CI95% 20.4-34.1) compared to 16.8 months (CI95% 14.0-20.9), in the microscope-only group (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Endoscope-assisted fluorescence-guided resection of glioblastoma appears to substantially enhance gross total resection and OS. The strong effect size observed herein is contrasted by the limitations in study design. Therefore, prospective validation is required before we can generalize our findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Glioblastoma/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Microcirurgia , Ácido Aminolevulínico , Endoscópios , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos
11.
Neurooncol Adv ; 5(1): vdad136, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38024240

RESUMO

Background: The prognostic roles of clinical and laboratory markers have been exploited to model risk in patients with primary CNS lymphoma, but these approaches do not fully explain the observed variation in outcome. To date, neuroimaging or molecular information is not used. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of radiomic features to capture clinically relevant phenotypes, and to link those to molecular profiles for enhanced risk stratification. Methods: In this retrospective study, we investigated 133 patients across 9 sites in Austria (2005-2018) and an external validation site in South Korea (44 patients, 2013-2016). We used T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI and an L1-norm regularized Cox proportional hazard model to derive a radiomic risk score. We integrated radiomic features with DNA methylation profiles using machine learning-based prediction, and validated the most relevant biological associations in tissues and cell lines. Results: The radiomic risk score, consisting of 20 mostly textural features, was a strong and independent predictor of survival (multivariate hazard ratio = 6.56 [3.64-11.81]) that remained valid in the external validation cohort. Radiomic features captured gene regulatory differences such as in BCL6 binding activity, which was put forth as testable treatment target for a subset of patients. Conclusions: The radiomic risk score was a robust and complementary predictor of survival and reflected characteristics in underlying DNA methylation patterns. Leveraging imaging phenotypes to assess risk and inform epigenetic treatment targets provides a concept on which to advance prognostic modeling and precision therapy for this aggressive cancer.

12.
Cell Metab ; 35(11): 1931-1943.e8, 2023 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37804836

RESUMO

The intestinal epithelium has a high turnover rate and constantly renews itself through proliferation of intestinal crypt cells, which depends on insufficiently characterized signals from the microenvironment. Here, we showed that colonic macrophages were located directly adjacent to epithelial crypt cells in mice, where they metabolically supported epithelial cell proliferation in an mTORC1-dependent manner. Specifically, deletion of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (Tsc2) in macrophages activated mTORC1 signaling that protected against colitis-induced intestinal damage and induced the synthesis of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. Epithelial cells ingested these polyamines and rewired their cellular metabolism to optimize proliferation and defense. Notably, spermine directly stimulated proliferation of colon epithelial cells and colon organoids. Genetic interference with polyamine production in macrophages altered global polyamine levels in the colon and modified epithelial cell proliferation. Our results suggest that macrophages act as "commensals" that provide metabolic support to promote efficient self-renewal of the colon epithelium.


Assuntos
Poliaminas , Espermina , Camundongos , Animais , Espermina/metabolismo , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Colo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Homeostase , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 4504, 2023 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37587144

RESUMO

SMNDC1 is a Tudor domain protein that recognizes di-methylated arginines and controls gene expression as an essential splicing factor. Here, we study the specific contributions of the SMNDC1 Tudor domain to protein-protein interactions, subcellular localization, and molecular function. To perturb the protein function in cells, we develop small molecule inhibitors targeting the dimethylarginine binding pocket of the SMNDC1 Tudor domain. We find that SMNDC1 localizes to phase-separated membraneless organelles that partially overlap with nuclear speckles. This condensation behavior is driven by the unstructured C-terminal region of SMNDC1, depends on RNA interaction and can be recapitulated in vitro. Inhibitors of the protein's Tudor domain drastically alter protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization, causing splicing changes for SMNDC1-dependent genes. These compounds will enable further pharmacological studies on the role of SMNDC1 in the regulation of nuclear condensates, gene regulation and cell identity.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Proteínas do Complexo SMN , Condensados Biomoleculares , Carbocianinas , Salpicos Nucleares , Domínio Tudor
14.
Immunity ; 56(8): 1809-1824.e10, 2023 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37499656

RESUMO

Complement factor H (CFH) negatively regulates consumption of complement component 3 (C3), thereby restricting complement activation. Genetic variants in CFH predispose to chronic inflammatory disease. Here, we examined the impact of CFH on atherosclerosis development. In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, CFH deficiency limited plaque necrosis in a C3-dependent manner. Deletion of CFH in monocyte-derived inflammatory macrophages propagated uncontrolled cell-autonomous C3 consumption without downstream C5 activation and heightened efferocytotic capacity. Among leukocytes, Cfh expression was restricted to monocytes and macrophages, increased during inflammation, and coincided with the accumulation of intracellular C3. Macrophage-derived CFH was sufficient to dampen resolution of inflammation, and hematopoietic deletion of CFH in atherosclerosis-prone mice promoted lesional efferocytosis and reduced plaque size. Furthermore, we identified monocyte-derived inflammatory macrophages expressing C3 and CFH in human atherosclerotic plaques. Our findings reveal a regulatory axis wherein CFH controls intracellular C3 levels of macrophages in a cell-autonomous manner, evidencing the importance of on-site complement regulation in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Complemento C3 , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Complemento C3/genética , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Fator H do Complemento/metabolismo , Inflamação , Macrófagos/metabolismo
15.
N Engl J Med ; 389(6): 527-539, 2023 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37342957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence links genetic defects affecting actin-regulatory proteins to diseases with severe autoimmunity and autoinflammation, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Dedicator of cytokinesis 11 (DOCK11) activates the small Rho guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) cell division cycle 42 (CDC42), a central regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. The role of DOCK11 in human immune-cell function and disease remains unknown. METHODS: We conducted genetic, immunologic, and molecular assays in four patients from four unrelated families who presented with infections, early-onset severe immune dysregulation, normocytic anemia of variable severity associated with anisopoikilocytosis, and developmental delay. Functional assays were performed in patient-derived cells, as well as in mouse and zebrafish models. RESULTS: We identified rare, X-linked germline mutations in DOCK11 in the patients, leading to a loss of protein expression in two patients and impaired CDC42 activation in all four patients. Patient-derived T cells did not form filopodia and showed abnormal migration. In addition, the patient-derived T cells, as well as the T cells from Dock11-knockout mice, showed overt activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines that were associated with an increased degree of nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cell 1 (NFATc1). Anemia and aberrant erythrocyte morphologic features were recapitulated in a newly generated dock11-knockout zebrafish model, and anemia was amenable to rescue on ectopic expression of constitutively active CDC42. CONCLUSIONS: Germline hemizygous loss-of-function mutations affecting the actin regulator DOCK11 were shown to cause a previously unknown inborn error of hematopoiesis and immunity characterized by severe immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation, recurrent infections, and anemia. (Funded by the European Research Council and others.).


Assuntos
Actinas , Anemia , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina , Inflamação , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Anemia/etiologia , Anemia/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Hematopoese , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 3620, 2023 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37365178

RESUMO

Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related deaths. Neuroblastoma (NB), a childhood tumor has been molecularly defined at the primary cancer site, however, the bone marrow (BM) as the metastatic niche of NB is poorly characterized. Here we perform single-cell transcriptomic and epigenomic profiling of BM aspirates from 11 subjects spanning three major NB subtypes and compare these to five age-matched and metastasis-free BM, followed by in-depth single cell analyses of tissue diversity and cell-cell interactions, as well as functional validation. We show that cellular plasticity of NB tumor cells is conserved upon metastasis and tumor cell type composition is NB subtype-dependent. NB cells signal to the BM microenvironment, rewiring via macrophage mgration inhibitory factor and midkine signaling specifically monocytes, which exhibit M1 and M2 features, are marked by activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory programs, and express tumor-promoting factors, reminiscent of tumor-associated macrophages. The interactions and pathways characterized in our study provide the basis for therapeutic approaches that target tumor-to-microenvironment interactions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Medula Óssea , Neuroblastoma , Humanos , Criança , Medula Óssea/patologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Epigenômica , Neoplasias da Medula Óssea/genética , Neoplasias da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Medula Óssea/patologia , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
17.
Clin Epigenetics ; 15(1): 102, 2023 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37309009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic alterations are a near-universal feature of human malignancy and have been detected in malignant cells as well as in easily accessible specimens such as blood and urine. These findings offer promising applications in cancer detection, subtyping, and treatment monitoring. However, much of the current evidence is based on findings in retrospective studies and may reflect epigenetic patterns that have already been influenced by the onset of the disease. METHODS: Studying breast cancer, we established genome-scale DNA methylation profiles of prospectively collected buffy coat samples (n = 702) from a case-control study nested within the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort using reduced representation bisulphite sequencing (RRBS). RESULTS: We observed cancer-specific DNA methylation events in buffy coat samples. Increased DNA methylation in genomic regions associated with SURF6 and REXO1/CTB31O20.3 was linked to the length of time to diagnosis in the prospectively collected buffy coat DNA from individuals who subsequently developed breast cancer. Using machine learning methods, we piloted a DNA methylation-based classifier that predicted case-control status in a held-out validation set with 76.5% accuracy, in some cases up to 15 years before clinical diagnosis of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings suggest a model of gradual accumulation of cancer-associated DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood, which may be detected long before clinical manifestation of cancer. Such changes may provide useful markers for risk stratification and, ultimately, personalized cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas Nucleares
18.
Blood ; 142(9): 827-845, 2023 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37249233

RESUMO

The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors plays central roles in adaptive immunity in murine models; however, their contribution to human immune homeostasis remains poorly defined. In a multigenerational pedigree, we identified 3 patients who carry germ line biallelic missense variants in NFATC1, presenting with recurrent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and decreased antibody responses. The compound heterozygous NFATC1 variants identified in these patients caused decreased stability and reduced the binding of DNA and interacting proteins. We observed defects in early activation and proliferation of T and B cells from these patients, amenable to rescue upon genetic reconstitution. Stimulation induced early T-cell activation and proliferation responses were delayed but not lost, reaching that of healthy controls at day 7, indicative of an adaptive capacity of the cells. Assessment of the metabolic capacity of patient T cells revealed that NFATc1 dysfunction rendered T cells unable to engage in glycolysis after stimulation, although oxidative metabolic processes were intact. We hypothesized that NFATc1-mutant T cells could compensate for the energy deficit due to defective glycolysis by using enhanced lipid metabolism as an adaptation, leading to a delayed, but not lost, activation responses. Indeed, we observed increased 13C-labeled palmitate incorporation into citrate, indicating higher fatty acid oxidation, and we demonstrated that metformin and rosiglitazone improved patient T-cell effector functions. Collectively, enabled by our molecular dissection of the consequences of loss-of-function NFATC1 mutations and extending the role of NFATc1 in human immunity beyond receptor signaling, we provide evidence of metabolic plasticity in the context of impaired glycolysis observed in patient T cells, alleviating delayed effector responses.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição NFATC , Linfócitos T , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Glicólise/genética , Mutação
19.
Immunity ; 56(2): 289-306.e7, 2023 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36750099

RESUMO

Granulomas are lumps of immune cells that can form in various organs. Most granulomas appear unstructured, yet they have some resemblance to lymphoid organs. To better understand granuloma formation, we performed single-cell sequencing and spatial transcriptomics on granulomas from patients with sarcoidosis and bioinformatically reconstructed the underlying gene regulatory networks. We discovered an immune stimulatory environment in granulomas that repurposes transcriptional programs associated with lymphoid organ development. Granuloma formation followed characteristic spatial patterns and involved genes linked to immunometabolism, cytokine and chemokine signaling, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Three cell types emerged as key players in granuloma formation: metabolically reprogrammed macrophages, cytokine-producing Th17.1 cells, and fibroblasts with inflammatory and tissue-remodeling phenotypes. Pharmacological inhibition of one of the identified processes attenuated granuloma formation in a sarcoidosis mouse model. We show that human granulomas adopt characteristic aspects of normal lymphoid organ development in aberrant combinations, indicating that granulomas constitute aberrant lymphoid organs.


Assuntos
Sarcoidose , Transcriptoma , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Granuloma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
20.
Clin Immunol ; 248: 109245, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36702179

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) seeks to reconstitute the host's immune system from donor stem cells. The success of HSCT is threatened by complications including leukemia relapse or graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD). To investigate the underlying regulatory processes in central and peripheral T cell recovery, we performed sequential multi-omics analysis of T cells of the skin and blood during HSCT. We detected rapid effector T cell reconstitution, while emergence of regulatory T cells was delayed. Epigenetic and gene-regulatory programs were associated with recovering T cells and diverged greatly between skin and blood T cells. The BRG1/BRM-associated factor chromatin remodeling complex and histone deacetylases (HDACs) were epigenetic regulators involved in restoration of T cell homeostasis after transplantation. In isolated T cells of patients after HSCT, we observed class I HDAC-inhibitors to modulate their dysbalance. The present study highlights the importance of epigenetic regulation in the recovery of T cells following HSCT.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia , Humanos , Linhagem da Célula , Epigênese Genética
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