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1.
Homeopathy ; 2023 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37517405

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aspirin is one of the most commonly used drugs worldwide. It is known to present antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic actions, making it extremely useful in a wide range of clinical contexts. Interestingly, homeopathically prepared Aspirin 15cH has been found to have a pro-thrombotic effect in rats, raising the hypothesis that Aspirin 15cH could also modulate the activity of inflammatory cells in different pathological processes. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess what effect Aspirin 15cH has on RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. METHODS: The effects of Aspirin 15cH on biochemical and morphological activities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were evaluated. These effects were compared with unchallenged macrophages (negative control), untreated LPS-stimulated macrophages, macrophages treated with succussed water (vehicle control), or aspirin 200 µg/mL (pharmacological inhibitor of LPS activity). Cell morphology (adhered cell area and cytoskeleton arrangements), cell viability, toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) expression, and the production of nitric oxide, cytokines and intracellular reactive oxygen species were assessed. RESULTS: Aspirin 15cH reduced the number of cells expressing TLR-4 on the surface (p = 0.03) and induced a "columnar" morphology of macrophage pseudopods, indicating changes in cytoskeleton arrangement. When cells were treated with both Aspirin 15cH and LPS, cell morphology became heterogeneous, suggesting that sub-populations of cells had differing sensitivities to LPS or Aspirin 15cH. Exposure of the cells to LPS alone, succussed water or aspirin 200 µg/mL produced effects consistent with the literature. CONCLUSION: Aspirin 15cH, aspirin 200 µg/mL, LPS and succussed water appear to act as independent stimuli able to induce different patterns of macrophage response. Aspirin 15cH induced changes suggestive of M2 polarization of the macrophages (i.e., toward a wound healing or tissue repair, rather than inflammatory, phenotype). These preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further specific studies.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37298430

RESUMO

Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used in agriculture but can present chronic toxicity in low concentrations. Artemia salina is a common bio-indicator of ecotoxicity; it was used herein as a model to evaluate the effect of highly diluted-succussed glyphosate (potentized glyphosate) in glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) exposed living systems. Artemia salina cysts were kept in artificial seawater with 0.02% glyphosate (corresponding to 10% lethal concentration or LC10) under constant oxygenation, luminosity, and controlled temperature, to promote hatching in 48 h. Cysts were treated with 1% (v/v) potentized glyphosate in different dilution levels (Gly 6 cH, 30 cH, 200 cH) prepared the day before according to homeopathic techniques, using GBH from the same batch. Controls were unchallenged cysts, and cysts treated with succussed water or potentized vehicle. After 48 h, the number of born nauplii per 100 µL, nauplii vitality, and morphology were evaluated. The remaining seawater was used for physicochemical analyses using solvatochromic dyes. In a second set of experiments, Gly 6 cH treated cysts were observed under different degrees of salinity (50 to 100% seawater) and GBH concentrations (zero to LC 50); hatching and nauplii activity were recorded and analyzed using the ImageJ 1.52, plug-in Trackmate. The treatments were performed blind, and the codes were revealed after statistical analysis. Gly 6 cH increased nauplii vitality (p = 0.01) and improved the healthy/defective nauplii ratio (p = 0.005) but delayed hatching (p = 0.02). Overall, these results suggest Gly 6cH treatment promotes the emergence of the more GBH-resistant phenotype in the nauplii population. Also, Gly 6cH delays hatching, another useful survival mechanism in the presence of stress. Hatching arrest was most marked in 80% seawater when exposed to glyphosate at LC10. Water samples treated with Gly 6 cH showed specific interactions with solvatochromic dyes, mainly Coumarin 7, such that it appears to be a potential physicochemical marker for Gly 6 cH. In short, Gly 6 cH treatment appears to protect the Artemia salina population exposed to GBH at low concentrations.


Assuntos
Cistos , Herbicidas , Animais , Artemia , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Água/farmacologia
3.
Homeopatia Méx ; (n.esp): 68-74, feb. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | HomeoIndex - Homeopatia, LILACS | ID: biblio-1416727

RESUMO

La investigación fundamental en homeopatía ha avanzado considerablemente en los últimos 20 años: desde estudios exploratorios con animales y plantas hasta la caracterización de los efectos sistémicos de los medicamentos homeopáticos y estudios in vitro con sistemas celulares aislados para evaluar los cambios en los mecanismos de adaptación celular y señalización intracelular frente a tratamientos homeopáticos variables. El número de artículos publicados a lo largo del tiempo ha permitido realizar varias revisiones sistemáticas. Recientemente, la demostración de que los medicamentos homeopáticos podrían modificar las funciones celulares a través de mecanismos epigenéticos (metilación y desmetilación de ADN) preparó el camino para un campo de investigación completamente nuevo. En paralelo, el descubrimiento de las nanopartículas y propiedades físicas específicas de las diluciones homeopáticas ha arrojado luz hacia un campo antes poco conocido, dado que se consideraba que las diluciones homeopáticas no consistían más que de agua. Así las cosas, los retos para el futuro conciernen a la demostración, o no, de la interrelación entre ambos fenómenos.


Fundamental research in homeopathy has much advanced in the past 20 years. From exploratory studies with animals and plants to the characterization of the systemic effects of homeopathic medicines and in vitro studies with isolated cell systems to assess changes in the mechanisms of cell adaptation and intracellular signaling facing variable homeopathic treatments. The amount of articles published over time enabled several systematic reviews. Recently, demonstration that homeopathic medicines might modify cell functions through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation and demethylation) paved the road for a fully new field of research. In parallel, the discovery of nanoparticles and specific physical properties of homeopathic dilutions brought light to a previously poorly known field, as it was believed that homeopathic dilutions consist in nothing but water. Thus being, challenges for the future concern the demonstration, or not, of the interrelationship between both phenomena.


Assuntos
Dinamização , Nanopartículas , Epigenômica , Estudos de Intervenção
4.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 20-20, May 6, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1396571

RESUMO

Viscum album extract (VA) is a complementary treatment in cancer, with in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic effects on several tumor types when applied in phytochemical doses. However, highly diluted ethanolic homeopathic preparations' effects and mechanisms need further study. Aims:To assess the in vitro effects of highly diluted VA from the subspecies V. album abietis and V. album album at different potency levels in different dilution ratios on murine melanoma cells. Methodology:The VA mother tinctures (MT)from Abies alba (MTA) and Quercus robur (MTQ) were prepared with summer and winter samples, harvested in Switzerland. They were submitted to homeopathic ethanolic maceration and a subsequent dynamization process. MTA, MTQ and the following respective potencies were tested in B16F10 murine cells: 3x, 12x, 30x, 6cH, 12cH, 200cH, 2LM, 3LM, and 5LM. Dynamized water, dynamized and non-dynamized ethanol, and carboplatin were used as control groups. The mitochondrial activity and cell viability analysis were performed at 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours by in vitro incubation. MTA and MTQ harvested in summer, as well as 12x, 200cH and 5LM potencies were also tested to cell apoptosis and necrosis markers, reactive oxygens species (ROS) production, inflammatory cytokines profile, cell morphology, and migratory capacity. Results and discussion: MTA and MTQ induced a decrease in cell metabolism and higher cytotoxicity within 1 hour, with significant morphological changes and increased production of ROS and inflammatory cytokines. Both homeopathic dilutions 12x and 5LM showed an influence on cell metabolism, cell replication, and oxidative stress modulation with inflammatory cytokines, mitosis, and migration pattern changes. On the other hand, Quercus robur and Abies alba 200cH showed increased on cytotoxicity and ROS levels, respectively. Conclusion:The in vitro effects of Viscum album homeopathic solutions in melanoma cells highlight the promising antitumoral potential and reinforce the need for further research to better understanding their mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Dinamização , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Erva-de-Passarinho , Quercus , Viscum album , Abies
5.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 9-9, May 6, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1396587

RESUMO

Different environmental conditions can influence the effects of toxic agents on living beings. Recently, a series of experiments performed in Artemia salina submitted to different kinds of intoxication have shown that both, isotherapic and succussed watercan change Artemia salina ́s bio resilience at different levels. Moreover, it seems to vary according to the circalunar cycle. Objective:To verify if circalunar phases and water agitation can modify the toxicity of lead chloride on Artemia salina in vitro. Methodology:Artemia salina cysts were exposed to seawater containing 0.04% of lead chloride (equal to EC10 or 10% effective concentration, previously determined in a pilot study) in 96-well culture plates. Thirty-six experimental repetitions were performed in four series to observe the possible effects of adding stirred water, the so-called succussed water, and the moon phases. The hatched cysts were recorded after 48 hours using a digital microscope (1000x magnification) to identify the hatching percentage and the viability and mobility of the born nauplii. Results:The exposition of cysts to PbCl2 led to an increase in the hatching rate, and it was more evident during the full moon (p = 0.00014) The addition of succussed water into the seawater medium reduced this effect to the baseline levels. An increase in mobility was seen in nauplii born from exposed cysts during the full moon (p = 0.00077), but this effect was not affected by the treatment with succussed water. Discussion:Although the effects of lead chloride EC10 on the increase of nauplii hatching were expected, two environmental variables changed the sensitivity of cysts to this harmful stimulus. The circalunar cycle varied the hatching rate according to the moon phase, even in laboratory conditions, and the addition of succussed water into the medium reduced the hatching rate, even with different intensities according to the moon phase. The organization of nano and microbubbles generated after the succussion of water could be related to this protective effect and can explain, at least partially the effects of high diluted preparations on this biological context. Conclusion:Environmental factors, such as the circalunar cycle and products of water agitation, can modulate the adaptative control of hatching in Artemia salina exposed to lead chloride at EC10.


Assuntos
Animais , Artemia , Cloretos/análise , Ecotoxicologia
6.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 4-4, May 6, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1396607

RESUMO

Solvatochromic dyes are probes to detect variations on the dipole moment of solvents after the insertion of homeopathic potencies. Recent studies have shown they can be useful tools in laboratory and field studies to detect the activity of homeopathic remedies.Objective: Determine whether solvatochromic dyes can be a diagnostic tool for cells infected by different agents and/or markers to identify the activity of homeopathic medicines. Methods: Ethilicum1cH, Siliceaterra6, 30, 200cH; Zincummetallicum6, 30, 200cH and Phosphorus6, 30 and 200cH were analyzed by pouring the samples (in a 1:60 rate) into a series of seven dyes (rhodamine, ET 33, ET 30, coumarin 7, NN DMIA, Nile red, methylene violet) diluted in absolute ethanol using pre-established working concentrations. Oscillations of dye absorbance were observed at visible light spectrophotometry according to the remedy and potency. Water and succussed water were used as controls. In a second moment, the absorbance profile of the remedies will be compared with those of biological samples (supernatants) and checked with the biological effect previously obtained from each treatment.Supernatants of RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by Calmette-Guérin bacilli (BCG) or infected with Encephalitozoon cuniculiwill be analyzed. Results: Preliminary results have shown that Siliceaterra6cH, Phosphorus30 and 200cH and Zincummetallicum6, 30 and 200cH reduced the absorbance of methylene violet (p=0.01). Repetitions and analysis of supernatants are expected to be performed in the next steps of the study. Future perspectives: Establish a pattern of reactivity of the studied medicines with different dyes and the putative relation with the corresponding supernatants, as an attempt to obtain a "physicochemical signature" for each kind of infection and/or treatment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Medicamento Homeopático , Corantes
7.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 3-3, May 6, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1396609

RESUMO

Considering that there are few published studies that specifically address the exclusive use of Carcinosinumin different potencies and, most of them focused on genotypic and clinical effects, the present study was proposed to identify possible phenotypic changes, including viability, expression of HER-2 and metastatic abilities, using 4T1 cells in vitroas a model. Carcinosinum was tested in different homeopathic potencies (12cH; 30cH; 200cH) mechanically prepared using sterile pure water. The time space between preparing the potencies and using them was 24 hours.The final dilutions were inserted into the culture medium in a volume equal to 10%, at the time of cell seeding. The same succussed vehicle used to prepare the drugs (70% ethanol) diluted 1:100 in sterile pure water was used as control. All treated cells were cultured in 25 mL flasks, with cell density of 5 x 105cells/mL. After 24 hours of treatment, cells were analyzed for apoptosis index using Annexin V kit and the Countess® system. The morphology of 4T1 cells was monitored by staining cell smears with hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa methods. HER-2 expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry and metalloproteinase activity was assessed by zymography. The determination of the cytokine profile was performed using Cytometric Bead Array (CBA). The samples were evaluated in quadruplicate and the data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Carcinosinum30cH presented the highest apoptotic index and reduction of MMP-9-Pro expression; Carcinosinum200cH produced the highest positivity for HER-2 and no specific effect was seen after the treatment with Carcinosinum12cH. No change in cytokine expression was seen among treatments. We conclude that Carcinosinum30cH and 200cH can change phenotypic features important totumor development in vitro. The clinical meaning of these data deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/química , Carcinosinum , Pesquisa Homeopática Básica
8.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 11-12, May 6, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1396742

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria are microorganisms found in different parts of the world. Some genera are cyanotoxins producers a sodium channel blockingneurotoxin (saxitoxins). Some homeopathic preparations have been identified as remedial action on toxicity models in Artemia salina. This study aimed to observe whether homeopathic products influence the toxicity ofR.raciborskiiextract onA.salinaby inducing cyst hatching arrest, anembryo bioresiliencemodel previously developed in our laboratory (Pinto et al., 2021; Mohammad et al., 2022). Thus, previous toxicity testswere carried out on cysts in 96-well plates, using different concentrations of the extract obtained from regular cultivation of R. raciborskii in HCl 0.05M, whose strain, named T3, is kept in the laboratory of Cyanobacteria at FURGS, Brazil.The standardization of toxin concentration was based on an established scale developed at FURGS, in which the number of T3 filaments is associated withspecific saxitoxin concentrationsdefined by chromatography. The concentration of 2.6 µg/L was chosen since it reducedthe cysthatching rate by 30%, the ideal level to observe embryo bioresilience. Then, a screeningstudy with 22 homeopathic preparations was tested blind in three experimental series, in duplicate,against threecontrols (unchallenged, water,and succussed water)for possible toxicity attenuationon Artemia salinacysts hatching rate. Homeopathic medicines were prepared in pure,sterile water from a stock homeopathic solution, one potency below the working potency. After the 1:100 dilution, 100 succussions were made using a robotic arm (Denise, Autic). The medicines were inserted into the seawater on a 10% basis. Due to the high sensitivity of A. salinato the circalunar variations, all experiments were performed during the first quarter moon. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey, with α=0.05. The most significant results indicative of bioresilience improvement were seen after the treatment with Nitric acidum6 cH, Plumbum metallicum6 cH, isotherapic 200 cH, and hydrochloric acid 1 cH being the last one used as a vehicle of the extracts. Thus, these preparations were chosen to be used in further experiments. In conclusion, the Artemia salinamodel has also beenuseful to study bioresilienceimprovement by homeopathic medicines after intoxication with saxitoxin.


Assuntos
Artemia/virologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Veículos Homeopáticos , Cianobactérias
9.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 6-6, May 6, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396757

RESUMO

Isotherapics preparedfromtoxic substances have been described as attenuation factors for heavy metal intoxicationin aquatic animals. Herein, Artemia salinaand mercury chloride were usedas a model to identify treatment-related bioresilience. The aim was to describe the effects of Mercurius corrosivus(MC) in different potencies on Artemia salinacyst hatching and on mercury bioavailability. Artemia salinacysts were exposed to 5.0 µg/mL of mercury chloride during the hatching phase. MC6cH, 30cH, and 200cHwere prepared and poured into artificial seawater. Different controls were used (nonchallenged cysts and challenged cysts treated with water, succussed water, and Ethilicum 1cH). Four series of nine experiments were performed for4 weeks to evaluate the percentage of cyst hatchingconsidering all moon phases. Soluble total mercury (THg) levels and precipitated mercury content were also evaluated. Solvatochromic dyes were used to check for eventual physicochemical markers of MCbiological activity. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with mixed modelswas used for evaluating the effect of different treatments andthe simultaneous influence of the moon phases on the cystshatching rate, at both observation times (24 and 48 hours).When necessary, outliers were removed, using the Tukeycriterion.Thelevel of significance αwas set at 5%. Significant delay (p<0.0001) in cyst hatching was observed after treatment with MC30cH, compared with the controls. An increase inTHg concentration in seawater (p<0.0018) and of chlorine/oxygen ratio (p<0.0001) in suspended micro-aggregateswas also seen, with possiblerelation with mercury bioavailability. Specific interaction of MC30cH with the solvatochromic dye ET33 (p<0.0017) was found. The other observed potencies of Mercurius corrosivus6 and 200 cH were not significant in relation to the observed groups.The results werepostulated as being protective effects of MC30cH on Artemia salina, by improving its bioresilience.


Assuntos
Artemia , Ecotoxicologia , Homeopatia , Mercúrio
10.
Homeopathy ; 111(4): 278-287, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to identify possible phenotypic changes in 4T1 (murine mammary adenocarcinoma) cells in vitro, including viability, HER-2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor-type 2) expression, and metastatic potential, after treatment with Carcinosinum in different homeopathic dilutions (12cH, 30cH, 200cH) shaken mechanically in pure, sterile, water from a commercial stock dilution. METHODS: Treated cells were cultured in R10 medium, using 24-well plates, 105 cells per well, and treated with vehicle, Carcinosinum 12cH, 30cH or 200cH; untreated cells were used as the baseline control. After 24 hours of treatment, the percentage of apoptotic cells was analyzed by annexin V. Cell morphology was evaluated by microscopy after hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa staining, whilst HER-2 expression was assessed using immunocytochemistry. The metastatic potential was determined by the expression and activity of the enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) using zymography. The cytokine profile was established using the cytometric bead array method. RESULT: Treatment of 4T1 cells in vitro with Carcinosinum 30cH produced an increase in the number of annexin V-positive cells (apoptosis) and decreased expression of proactivated MMP-9. Cells treated with Carcinosinum 200cH presented hyper-expression of HER-2 on the plasma membrane, identified by immunocytochemistry. There were no differences in cytokine production among treatments. CONCLUSION: The data show promising results for Carcinosinum 30cH in vitro, but in vivo studies are also required to evaluate the role of tumor microenvironment in its effects.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Homeopatia , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Anexina A5 , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Citocinas , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral
11.
Homeopathy ; 110(4): 244-255, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474498

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Finding solutions to mitigate the impact of pollution on living systems is a matter of great interest. Homeopathic preparations of toxic substances have been described in the literature as attenuation factors for intoxication. Herein, an experimental study using Artemia salina and mercury chloride was developed as a model to identify aspects related to bioresilience. AIMS: The aim of the study was to describe the effects of homeopathic Mercurius corrosivus (MC) on Artemia salina cysts hatching and on mercury bioavailability. METHODS: Artemia salina cysts were exposed to 5.0 µg/mL of mercury chloride during the hatching phase. MC potencies (6cH, 30cH, and 200cH) were prepared in sterile purified water and poured into artificial sea water. Different controls were used (non-challenged cysts and challenged cysts treated with water, succussed water, and Ethilicum 1cH). Four series of nine experiments were performed to evaluate the percentage of cyst hatching. Soluble total mercury (THg) levels and precipitated mercury content were also evaluated. Solvatochromic dyes were used to check for eventual physicochemical markers of MC biological activity. RESULTS: Significant delay (p < 0.0001) in cyst hatching was observed only after treatment with MC 30cH, compared with controls. This result was associated with an increase of THg concentration in water (p = 0.0018) and of chlorine/oxygen ratio (p < 0.0001) in suspended micraggregates, suggesting changes in mercury bioavailability. A specific interaction of MC 30cH with the solvatochromic dye ET33 (p = 0.0017) was found. CONCLUSION: Changes in hatching rate and possible changes in Hg bioavailability are postulated as protective effects of MC 30cH on Artemia salina, by improving its natural bioresilience processes.


Assuntos
Homeopatia , Mercúrio , Animais , Artemia , Cloretos , Cloreto de Mercúrio
12.
Homeopathy ; 110(1): 52-61, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The homeopathic medicines Silicea terra (Sil) and Zincum metallicum (Zinc) modulate macrophage activity and were assessed in an experimental study in-vitro for their effects on macrophage-BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) interaction. METHODS: RAW 264.7 macrophages were infected with BCG, treated with different potencies of Sil and Zinc (6cH, 30cH and 200cH) or vehicle, and assessed 24 and 48 h later for bacilli internalization, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and cytokine production, and lysosomal activity. RESULTS: Treatment with vehicle was associated with non-specific inhibition of H2O2 production to the levels exhibited by uninfected macrophages. Sil 200cH induced significant reduction of H2O2 production (p < 0.001) compared with the vehicle and all other treatments, as well as higher lysosomal activity (p ≤ 0.001) and increased IL-10 production (p ≤ 0.05). Such effects were considered specific for this remedy and potency. The number of internalized bacilli was inversely proportional to Zinc potencies, with statistically significant interaction between dilution and treatment (p = 0.003). Such linear-like behavior was not observed for Sil dilutions: peak internalization occurred with the 30cH dilution, accompanied by cellular degeneration, and IL-6 and IL-10 increased (p ≤ 0.05) only in the cells treated with Sil 6cH. CONCLUSION: Sil and Zinc presented different patterns of potency-dependent effect on macrophage activity. Bacterial digestion and a balanced IL-6/IL-10 production were related to Sil 6cH, though reduced oxidative stress with increased lysosomal activity was related to Sil 200cH. Degenerative effects were exclusively related to Sil 30cH, and potency-dependent phagocytosis was related only to Zinc.


Assuntos
Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Materia Medica/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia , Brasil , Humanos , Mycobacterium bovis/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Homeopathy ; 110(2): 76-85, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medicine, including homeopathy, is widely used to improve well-being among cancer patients and reduce adverse effects of conventional treatment. In contrast, there are few studies on the use of homeopathic medicines to treat the disease itself. Yet, evidence of possible effectiveness of homeopathic high dilutions in experimental cancer models has been published during the past 20 years. AIM: The aim of the study was to perform a systematic review of fundamental research studies on homeopathic high dilutions in cancer. METHODS: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline, we conducted a literature search in the database PubMed for original publications, from 2000 to 2018 and in English, on in vitro and in vivo experimental cancer models testing homeopathic high dilutions. RESULTS: Twenty-three articles met the inclusion criteria-14 in vitro, eight in vivo, and one in vitro plus in vivo experimental models. Most studies were from India. Research prominently focused on cytotoxic effects involving apoptotic mechanisms. Intrinsic aspects of homeopathy should be considered in experimental designs to emphasize the specificity of such effects. CONCLUSION: Fundamental research of homeopathy in cancer is still at an early stage and has mainly been performed by a few groups of investigators. The results point to an interference of well-selected homeopathic medicines with cell cycle and apoptotic mechanisms in cancer cells. However, these findings still need independent reproduction.


Assuntos
Materia Medica/uso terapêutico , Modelos Teóricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Índia
14.
Homeopathy ; 109(3): 126-132, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Highly diluted and succussed solutions interact with solvatochromic dyes, indicating that changes in solvent and solute polarity could be related to their mechanism of action. It is not known, however, how the activity associated with succussed high dilutions is transferred to untreated water and what the limits of this process are. AIMS: The aims of the present study were to ascertain whether a succussed high dilution of phosphorus (1.5 × 1-59 M; Phos 30cH) seeded into a natural water source that fed a fjord and two connected lakes could propagate itself through the lake system (total volume 2200 m3) and, moreover, whether the process could be tracked using solvatochromic dyes. METHODS: Samples of water were collected before and after seeding, at different times and places throughout the lake system. Controls comprised water taken from an untreated and adjacent, but independent, lake (1385 m3). RESULTS: Water samples taken up to 72 hours after the source treatment produced significant increases (p ≤ 0.03) in the absorbance of the solvatochromic dye methylene violet (MV), while samples from the control lake produced no changes. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that activity associated with Phos 30c can propagate itself through large volumes of water, causing changes throughout a whole connected lake system, and that these changes can be tracked using the solvatochromic dye MV. This in turn means the use of homeopathic medicines in large volumes of drinking water, in farming and ecological contexts, now has the potential to be assessed with physico-chemical monitoring.


Assuntos
Corantes/análise , Técnica de Diluição de Corante , Homeopatia , Fósforo/análise , Água , Humanos
15.
Homeopathy ; 109(2): 79-86, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism by which highly diluted and agitated solutions have their effect is still unknown, but the development in recent years of new methods identifying changes in water and solute dipole moments is providing insights into potential modes of action. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to compare the biological effects of Antimonium crudum (AC) previously obtained by our group and already described in the literature with now measurable physico-chemical effects on solvatochromic dyes. METHODS: Different dilutions of AC and succussed water have been characterized with respect to their effect on the visible spectra of the solvatochromic dyes methylene violet (MV), a pyridinium phenolate (ET33), and a dimethylamino naphthalenone (BDN) compared with in-vitro action against Leishmania amazonensis-infected macrophages. RESULTS: Dye responses varied according to the dye used and the level of AC dilution and results were found to corroborate previously published in-vivo and in-vitro effects of AC. In addition, a very significant enhancement in the absorbance increase of MV was seen using the supernatant from AC 200cH-treated cells (15%; p < 0.0001) over that seen with AC 200cH itself (4%; p = 0.034), suggesting the amplification of ultra-high dilution effects by biological systems. Furthermore, supernatants from AC-treated cells increased the range of dilutions of AC that were capable of producing effects on the spectra of MV. The effect of AC dilutions on dye ET33 was eliminated by a weak electric current passed through potency solutions. CONCLUSION: The data confirm a correspondence between the biological effects of dilutions of AC in-vitro and physico-chemical effects on solvatochromic dyes as measured by changes in their visible spectra. Results also indicate high dilutions of AC are sensitive to exposure to electric currents and biological systems.


Assuntos
Antimônio/química , Antimônio/farmacologia , Corantes/química , Homeopatia , Solventes/química , Corantes/farmacologia , Leishmania mexicana/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos , Solventes/farmacologia , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
16.
Homeopathy ; 108(3): 188-200, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999383

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi), a fungus that acts as an intracellular pathogen, causes a marked neurological syndrome in many host species and is a zoonotic concern. Although no well-established treatment for this syndrome is known, previous successful clinical experience using homeopathic phosphorus has been described in which symptom remission with no mortality occurred in 40/42 animals by means of unknown immunological mechanisms. The latter observation was the main motivation for this study. OBJECTIVE: To verify, in an in-vitro model, if macrophages infected with E. cuniculi can change in function after treatment with different potencies of phosphorus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RAW 264.7 macrophages were infected with E. cuniculi in-vitro and treated with various homeopathic potencies of phosphorus. The vehicle was used as a control solution (0.06% succussed ethanol). After 1 and 24 hours, the following parameters were analyzed: parasite internalization (by the Calcofluor staining method), lysosome activity (by the acridine orange method), cytokine/chemokine production (by the MAGPIX system), and cell ultrastructure. Automatic image analysis was used when applicable, and the experiments were performed in triplicate. RESULTS: Treatment with vehicle alone increased interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha and monocyte chemotactic protein -1 production (p ≤ 0.05) and reduced the number of internalized parasites (p ≤ 0.001). A progressive and time-dependent increase in RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) and lysosome activity (p ≤ 0.002) was observed only after treatment with the highest potency of phosphorus (Phos 200cH), together with decreased apoptosis rate, intense parasite digestion, and the presence of non-internalized spores. CONCLUSIONS: Phos 200 cH has a modulatory action on the activity of infected macrophages, especially a specific increase in RANTES, a key element in the prognosis of E. cuniculi-infected and of immunosuppressed patients bearing infections.


Assuntos
Encephalitozoon cuniculi/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fósforo/uso terapêutico , Animais , Encephalitozoon cuniculi/patogenicidade , Encefalitozoonose/tratamento farmacológico , Homeopatia/métodos , Homeopatia/normas , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Fosfatos/uso terapêutico , Coelhos
17.
Homeopathy ; 108(1): 12-23, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290377

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: According to the "silica hypothesis" formulated to explain homeopathy, the information of starting materials would be transferred to cells by silica nanoparticles detached from the glassware walls by serial dilution and agitation through epitaxy. We compared the biological activity, electrical current and silicon microparticle content (by means of scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) of high dilutions (HDs) of arsenic prepared in plastic and glass vials to investigate the role of silica in their biological effects in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Co-cultures of macrophages and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were treated with different HDs of arsenic prepared in plastic and glass vials. Macrophage morphology, phagocytosis index, nitric oxide (NO), and cytokine production were evaluated. RESULTS: Measurable amounts of silicon microparticles were detected only in the HDs prepared in glass vials, but ultra-centrifugation eliminated them. Specific and non-specific results were observed. Non-specific pro-inflammatory effects were seen in all dilutions prepared in plastic vials, including elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NO and macrophage phagocytic index. Only the 200th centesimal dilution of arsenic produced specific decrease in interleukin-6 production in macrophages, and it was independent of the vial type or the presence of microparticles of silica in the medicine samples. The nature of the vials had an impact on the electric flow in the respective fluids. CONCLUSION: The non-specific, pro-inflammatory effects might be attributed to organic residuals detached from the vials' plastic walls during manipulation. Instead, specific silica-independent effects of the homeopathic medicine can be attributed to the decrease of interleukin-6 after treatment with the 200th centesimal dilution of arsenic.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/isolamento & purificação , Condutividade Elétrica , Silício/isolamento & purificação , Citocinas/isolamento & purificação , Homeopatia/métodos , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos
18.
Homeopathy ; 107(3): 172-180, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768636

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are two critical pillars of homeopathy that contrast with the dominant scientific approach: the similitude principle and the potentization of serial dilutions. Three main hypotheses about the mechanisms of action are in discussion: nanobubbles-related hormesis; vehicle-related electric resonance; and quantum non-locality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to review and discuss some key points of such properties: the imprint of supramolecular structures based on the nanoparticle-allostatic, cross-adaptation-sensitization (NPCAS) model; the theory of non-molecular electromagnetic transfer of information, based on the coherent water domains model, and relying (like the NPCAS model) on the idea of local interactions; and the hypothesis of quantum entanglement, based on the concept of non-locality. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The nanoparticles hypothesis has been considered since 2010, after the demonstration of suspended metal nanoparticles even in very highly diluted remedies: their actual action on biological structures is still under scrutiny. The second hypothesis considers the idea of electric resonance mechanisms between living systems (including intracellular water) and homeopathic medicines: recent findings about potency-related physical properties corroborate it. Finally, quantum theory of 'non-local' phenomena inspires the idea of an 'entanglement' process among patient, practitioner and the remedy: that quantic phenomena could occur in supra-atomic structures remains speculative however. CONCLUSION: Further studies are needed to ascertain whether and which of these hypotheses may be related to potential cellular effects of homeopathic preparations, such as organization of metabolic pathways or selective gene expression.


Assuntos
Homeopatia/métodos , Materia Medica/química , Nanopartículas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alostase , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Teoria Quântica
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 117: 178-186, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288959

RESUMO

Ivermectin (IVM) is an antiparasitic agent widely used in agricultural, domestic animals and in human clinical practice. In the present study, the temporal effects of therapeutic doses of IVM in the morphometric and histological assessment of testis were studied to verify if IVM acute administration impaired the spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis of adult rats, if these effects are reversible. The testosterone levels and the plasmatic IVM levels were assessed. The results show: 1) IVM acute exposure, mainly in the higher dose, reduced the testicular volume, the tubular diameter and the germinal epithelium height; 2) no interferences on Leydig cells frequency; 3) histological studies show that tubular sections containing several histological changes indicative of spermatogenesis interruption, such as disorganization of germinal epithelium, vacuolar degeneration of the germ cells and sloughing of cells into the tubular lumen; 4) no differences in testosterone levels; 5) The IVM plasmatic levels were significantly reduced at 72h after the 0.2mg/kg. It was concluded that acute IVM impaired the spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis of rats. Probably these effects were not consequence of IVM at the Leydig cells because no effects were observed at this level. Finally, our results suggest that some testicular effects are reversible and correlated with the plasmatic levels of IVM.


Assuntos
Ivermectina/farmacologia , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo , Masculino , Ratos , Testículo , Testosterona
20.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 17(3/4): 20-41, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: biblio-1050007

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of the present study was to describe different biological aspects of Ehrlich tumor in mice, such as body weight evolution, tumor growth rate, histological organization and systemic immune response after treatment with high-diluted thymulin (10-9 M, named 5CH). Methods: Tumor assessment was focused on macro- and microscopic aspects; parameters included occurrence of necrosis, embolism and tumor development, in addition to quantitative analysis of apoptosis (caspase-3), cell proliferation (Ki-67) and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor - VEGF) by means of specific immunohistochemistry markers. Spleen cell populations were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Results: Mice treated with thymulin 5CH exhibited changes in the tumor microenvironment, such as reduced micro-embolism incidence and cytokeratin expression, with increased caspase-3 expression in the tumor cells. These findings indicate some apoptotic activity by the tumor cells induced by the treatment, even though no reduction of the macroscopic tumor mass occurred. No changes in the systemic immune response were detected, as the balance among spleen cell populations remained unchanged. Conclusions: The results indicate that treatment of mice bearing Ehrlich tumor with thymulin 5CH induces some specific changes in the tumor environment. However, it did not influence systemic immunity parameters. Adjuvant use of thymulin 5CH in oncological clinical practice is still a matter of discussion. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Carcinoma de Ehrlich , Altas Potências , Thymolum , Neoplasias
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