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1.
BJPsych Open ; 10(3): e78, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brief intervention services provide rapid, mobile and flexible short-term delivery of interventions to resolve mental health crises. These interventions may provide an alternative pathway to the emergency department or in-patient psychiatric services for children and young people (CYP), presenting with an acute mental health condition. AIMS: To synthesise evidence on the effectiveness of brief interventions in improving mental health outcomes for CYP (0-17 years) presenting with an acute mental health condition. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted, and the studies' methodological quality was assessed. Five databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles between January 2000 and September 2022. RESULTS: We synthesised 30 articles on the effectiveness of brief interventions in the form of (a) crisis intervention, (b) integrated services, (c) group therapies, (d) individualised therapy, (e) parent-child dyadic therapy, (f) general services, (g) pharmacotherapy, (h) assessment services, (i) safety and risk planning and (j) in-hospital treatment, to improve outcomes for CYP with an acute mental health condition. Among included studies, one study was rated as providing a high level of evidence based on the National Health and Medical Research Council levels of evidence hierarchy scale, which was a crisis intervention showing a reduction in length of stay and return emergency department visits. Other studies, of moderate-quality evidence, described multimodal brief interventions that suggested beneficial effects. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides evidence to substantiate the benefits of brief interventions, in different settings, to reduce the burden of in-patient hospital and readmission rates to the emergency department.

2.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 110: 102431, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626645

RESUMO

Children can experience significant distress during hospitalisation, as a result of the treatment process and due to psychosocial factors impacting their adjustment to the hospital environment. Such factors can contribute to negative outcomes for the child. Despite this, limited research focus has been placed on understanding the psychosocial factors that contribute to a child's distress to inform support strategies that can improve the experience of hospitalisation across paediatric conditions. The objectives of this review were to synthesise the qualitative and quantitative literature on psychosocial factors associated with hospital adjustment and to identify risk and protective factors that influence the adjustment process. The literature search (1980 to February 2024: CINAHL / Embase / Medline / PsychINFO and Web of Science databases) identified thirty-four studies. Poor hospital adjustment, anxiety, depression and homesickness, were reported by the majority of hospitalised children. Several demographic and psychosocial factors were identified in the quantitative synthesis to contribute to poor adjustment. Child age, temperament, attachment style, past negative hospital experiences, homesickness and fear cognitions, were all associated with adjustment to the hospital environment. Homesickness was identified as a particularly understudied and important construct. Theoretical and methodological considerations are discussed, and recommendations made for future research that can further support inpatient children and their families.

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 15: 1324220, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38510802

RESUMO

Background: Long term intervention services have proven to be effective in improving mental health (MH) outcomes and the quality of life for children and young people (CYP). Aim: To synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of long-term interventions in improving MH outcomes for CYP, 0-17 years, presenting with MH conditions. Methods: A systematic search was carried out and the methodological quality of included long term MH intervention studies were assessed. Six databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles between January 2000 and September 2022. Results: We found 30 studies that reported on the effectiveness of a range of long-term MH interventions in the form of (i) group therapy, (ii) multisystemic behavior therapy, (iii) general services, (iv) integrated services, (v) psychotherapy, (vi) intensive intervention services, (vii) comprehensive collaborative care, (viii) parent training, and (ix) home outreach service. Among the included studies, seven were rated as high level of evidence based on the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) levels of evidence hierarchy scale and seven were of moderate quality evidence. Others were rated as lower-quality evidence. Among the studies providing high quality evidence, most were reported for group therapy, general services, and psychotherapy studies demonstrating beneficial effects. Conclusion: This systematic review provides evidence to demonstrate the benefits of a range of long-term interventions, in a range of settings, can be effective in improving MH outcomes for CYP and their families. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD42022323324.

4.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 40: 100878, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38116503

RESUMO

Background: Paediatric hospitalisations represent a significant cost to the health system and cause significant burden to children and their families. Understanding trends in hospitalisation costs can assist with health planning and support strategies across stakeholders. The objective of this systematic review is to examine the trends in costs and burden of paediatric hospitalisations in Australia to help inform policy and promote the well-being of children and their families. Methods: Electronic data sources (Embase, Medline, Web of Science, PSYCH-Info, CINAHL and Scopus) were searched from 1990 until December 2022. Any quantitative or qualitative studies conducted in Australian tertiary hospitals were included in the review. Eligible studies were those that included paediatric (<18 years) hospitalisations and reported on economic and/or non-economic costs for the child, family unit and/or health system. Study quality and risk of bias for each study were assessed with the Joanna Briggs Critical Appraisal Tools. We present a summary of the findings of the hospitalisation burden across major diagnostic admission categories and for the child and family unit. The systematic review was registered with Prospero (ID: CRD42021276202). Findings: The review summarises a total of 88 studies published between 1990 and December 2022. Overall, the studies identified that paediatric hospitalisations incur significant financial costs, which have not shown significant reductions over time. In-patient direct hospital costs varied depending on the type of treatment and diagnostic condition. The costs per-case were found to range from just below AUD$2000 to AUD$20,000 or more. The financial burden on the family unit included loss of productivity, transport and travel costs. Some studies reported estimates of these costs upward of AUD$500 per day. Studies evaluating 'hospital in the home' options identified significant benefits in reducing hospitalisations and costs without compromising care. Interpretation: Increasing focus on alternative models of care may help alleviate the significant costs associated with paediatric hospitalisation. Funding: This research was supported by Hospitals United for Sick Kids (formerly Curing Homesickness).

5.
Int J Integr Care ; 23(3): 4, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37577140

RESUMO

Introduction: As the number of children and young people (CYP) presenting to Emergency Departments (ED) with acute mental health (MH) presentations has been steadily increasing over the years and further accelerated by the pandemic, there is an urgent need to develop and evaluate innovative solutions to respond to this growing challenge. Description: The evaluation of the Safeguards Teams Program (STP) aims to ascertain the impact, implementation and economic analysis of this acute rapid response recovery-focused, trauma-informed assessment and brief intervention for CYP (aged 0-17 years) presenting in acute MH crisis and their families/caregivers.The STP will support consumers (patients) and their families/caregivers to navigate the complex and often fragmented child and adolescent MH services (CAMHS) landscape, thereby avoiding unnecessary ED presentations or hospitalisations, and facilitating comprehensive assessment and appropriate care pathways for those who present in crisis. Discussion: The STP is expected to provide CYP in MH crisis and their support networks with early access to evidence-based specialist care at the right place and time. Conclusion: Implementation of the STP will assist with identifying and addressing gaps in acute care for CYP and provide the necessary evidence for service redesign in collaboration with consumers, service providers and other stakeholders.

6.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 57(1): 58-68, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266405

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Self-harm presentations in children and young people have increased internationally over the last decade. The COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to worsen these trends. OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in emergency department self-harm or suicidal ideation presentations for children and young people in New South Wales before and since the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We studied presentations for self-harm or suicidal ideation by 10- to 24-year-olds to New South Wales emergency departments, using interrupted time series analysis to compare annualised growth before COVID (2015 to February 2020) and since COVID (March 2020 to June 2021). Subgroup analyses compared age group, gender, triage category, rurality and disadvantage. Time series decomposition via generalised additive models identified long-term, seasonal and short-term trends. RESULTS: Self-harm or suicidal ideation presentations by young people in New South Wales increased by 8.4% per annum pre-COVID. Growth accelerated since COVID, to 19.2% per annum, primarily due to increased presentations by females aged 13-17 years (47.1% per annum since COVID, from 290 per 10,000 in 2019 to 466 per 10,000 in 2021). Presentations in males aged 10-24 years did not increase since COVID (105.4 per 10,000 in 2019, 109.8 per 10,000 in 2021) despite growing 9.9% per annum before COVID. Presentation rates accelerated significantly in socio-economically advantaged areas. Presentations in children and adolescents were strongly linked to school semesters. CONCLUSION: Emergency department self-harm or suicidal ideation presentations by New South Wales young people grew steadily before COVID. Understanding the sustained increase remains a priority. Growth has increased since COVID particularly for adolescent females, but not among adolescent males. Surprisingly, the largest post-COVID increases in annual growth occurred in socio-economically advantaged and urban regions. The COVID-19 pandemic appears to have added new challenges, particularly in females in the developmentally critical early adolescent and teenage years.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Ideação Suicida , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Austrália , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
7.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 57(4): 482-488, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377648

RESUMO

One in five people experience clinically relevant mental health problems before the age of 25 years. Furthermore, in Australia, one in seven children are reported to experience a mental health disorder. Consequently, there has been a steady increase in demand for mental health services for children and young people, and this has been compounded by the COVID-19 pandemic. Unfortunately, currently many children and young people with mental health difficulties are not accessing appropriate and/or timely care, with individuals and families finding it increasingly difficult to access and navigate suitable services. In part, this is related to the fragmented and isolated manner in which child mental health services are operating. To address the current issues in access to appropriate child and adolescent mental health care in Australia, a novel Integrated Continuum of Connect and Care model is proposed to integrate relevant services along a tiered care pathway. The aim of this model is to facilitate timely access to mental health services that meet the specific needs of each child/young person and their family. This model will function within co-located service hubs that integrate health care through a comprehensive assessment followed by a link up to relevant services. The Integrated Continuum of Connect and Care has the potential to pave the way for unifying the fragmented child and youth mental health system in Australia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
8.
J Affect Disord ; 305: 1-7, 2022 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In inpatient psychiatric units, seclusion (isolation in a locked room) is recommended only as a last resort for serious aggression or agitation. In response to an increase in seclusion during 2015, an 8-bed child and adolescent inpatient unit implemented a suite of multidisciplinary interventions. This study examines changes in seclusion rates following intervention implementation and assesses whether specific patient factors were associated with seclusion rates before and after interventions. METHOD: Multi-modal interventions, comprised of patient treatment plans, intake and handover meetings, staff supervision and debriefing sessions, were implemented from January 2016. We compared quarterly seclusion rates (episodes per 1000 patient days) across a thirteen-year period, from July 2008 to June 2021. Change in seclusion rates following intervention was evaluated using a segmented regression analysis. We examined whether patient factors were associated with seclusion rates, and whether the duration of seclusion episodes differed before and after interventions. RESULTS: There was a 100% reduction in seclusion rates in the 6 months following intervention implementation, from 28.4 episodes per 1000 patient days in July-September 2015, to 4.7 episodes in January-March 2016, reaching 0.0 episodes by April-June 2016. This reduction was maintained until April-June 2021. Most patients with seclusion events before and after intervention implementation had a neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosis and a minority of patients accounted for most seclusion events. There was a 65% reduction in the average duration of seclusion episodes following interventions, however this was not statistically significant. LIMITATIONS: Due to a crisis in staff morale, interventions were implemented simultaneously, preventing an understanding of whether a single intervention accounted for change. While not addressed in the current study, assessing perceptions of staff, children and parents following intervention implementation may have elucidated barriers and facilitators to change. CONCLUSIONS: Multidisciplinary, patient-centered interventions may be effective for long-term reduction of seclusion rates in inpatient psychiatric units. These findings highlight patient factors associated with seclusion reduction which should be considered when implementing interventions.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Isolamento de Pacientes , Restrição Física
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(10): e1009474, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662342

RESUMO

The role of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is unclear. To address this gap, we simulated the release of SARS-CoV-2 in a multistory office building and three social gathering settings (bar/restaurant, nightclub, wedding venue) using a well-mixed, multi-zone building model similar to those used by Wells, Riley, and others. We varied key factors of HVAC systems, such as the Air Changes Per Hour rate (ACH), Fraction of Outside Air (FOA), and Minimum Efficiency Reporting Values (MERV) to examine their effect on viral transmission, and additionally simulated the protective effects of in-unit ultraviolet light decontamination (UVC) and separate in-room air filtration. In all building types, increasing the ACH reduced simulated infections, and the effects were seen even with low aerosol emission rates. However, the benefits of increasing the fraction of outside air and filter efficiency rating were greatest when the aerosol emission rate was high. UVC filtration improved the performance of typical HVAC systems. In-room filtration in an office setting similarly reduced overall infections but worked better when placed in every room. Overall, we found little evidence that HVAC systems facilitate SARS-CoV-2 transmission; most infections in the simulated office occurred near the emission source, with some infections in individuals temporarily visiting the release zone. HVAC systems only increased infections in one scenario involving a marginal increase in airflow in a poorly ventilated space, which slightly increased the likelihood of transmission outside the release zone. We found that improving air circulation rates, increasing filter MERV rating, increasing the fraction of outside air, and applying UVC radiation and in-room filtration may reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission indoors. However, these mitigation measures are unlikely to provide a protective benefit unless SARS-CoV-2 aerosol emission rates are high (>1,000 Plaque-forming units (PFU) / min).


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado , COVID-19/transmissão , Calefação , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilação , Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Movimentos do Ar , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos da radiação , Interação Social , Raios Ultravioleta , Local de Trabalho
10.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 64(4): 528-532, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27673709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Research is lacking into the emotional effects on families of serious chronic illness in infants. We examined the effect of the diagnosis of serious liver disease in infants upon parent psychological symptoms and family functioning. We hypothesized that parent psychological symptoms, family functioning, and father engagement will predict infant emotional outcomes. METHODS: Parents of infants recently diagnosed with serious liver disease completed validated questionnaires about parent stress, family function, impact of the illness on the family, and father engagement. The measures were repeated after 1 year, with the addition of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). RESULTS: Parents of 37 infants participated. Parent stress and family functioning scores were not elevated. Parent psychological symptoms, family function, and father engagement did not predict infant outcome. For mothers, infant diagnosis other than biliary atresia, number of outpatient visits, and impact of the illness on the family explained 32% of the variation in CBCL (P = 0.001). For fathers, socioeconomic status, infant diagnosis other than biliary atresia, whether the infant had had a transplant, and impact of the illness on the family explained 44% of the variation in CBCL (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Parents and families appear to be resilient in coping with serious infant illness. Infant diagnosis other than biliary atresia and parental perceptions of high impact of the illness on the family are indicators of negative emotional outcomes for infants with serious liver disease. Psychosocial interventions for infants with chronic illness should target reducing the impact of illness on the family.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Hepatopatias/psicologia , Transplante de Fígado/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Atresia Biliar/diagnóstico , Atresia Biliar/psicologia , Atresia Biliar/cirurgia , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/cirurgia , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Trials ; 16: 329, 2015 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26242401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pain of a severe burn injury is often characterised by intense background pain, coupled with severe exacerbations associated with essential procedures such as dressing changes. The experience of pain is affected by patients' psychological state and can be enhanced by the anxiety, fear and distress caused by environmental and visual inputs. Virtual Reality (VR) distraction has been used with success in areas such as burns, paediatrics and oncology. The underlying principle of VR is that attention is diverted from the painful stimulus by the use of engaging, dynamic 3D visual content and associated auditory stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies undertaken during VR distraction from experimental pain have demonstrated enhancement of the descending cortical pain-control system. METHODS/DESIGN: The present study will evaluate the feasibility of introducing a novel VR system to the Burns Unit at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham for dressing changes: virtual restorative environment therapy (VRET). The study will also explore the system's impact on pain during and after the dressing changes compared to conventional analgesia for ward-based burn dressing changes. A within-subject crossover design will be used to compare the following three conditions: 1. Interactive VRET plus conventional analgesics. 2. Passive VRET with conventional analgesics. 3. Conventional analgesics alone. Using the Monte Carlo method, and on the basis of previous local audit data, a sample size of 25 will detect a clinically significant 33 % reduction in worst pain scores experienced during dressing changes. DISCUSSION: The study accrual rate is currently slower than predicted by previous audits of admission data. A review of the screening log has found that recruitment has been limited by the nature of burn care, the ability of burn inpatients to provide informed consent and the ability of patients to use the VR equipment. Prior to the introduction of novel interactive technologies for patient use, the characteristics and capabilities of the target population needs to be evaluated, to ensure that the interface devices and simulations are usable. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN23330756 . Date of Registration 25 February 2014.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Queimaduras/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor/prevenção & controle , Terapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/métodos , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Queimados , Queimaduras/complicações , Queimaduras/diagnóstico , Protocolos Clínicos , Terapia Combinada , Computadores , Estudos Cross-Over , Inglaterra , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Método de Monte Carlo , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/etiologia , Dor/psicologia , Manejo da Dor/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/instrumentação , Medição da Dor , Projetos Piloto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tamanho da Amostra , Terapia Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento , Interface Usuário-Computador , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/instrumentação
12.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 60(6): 717-22, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25643019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Parenting stress, problems in family functioning, and lack of fathers' engagement in treatment are associated with poor quality of life in children with chronic illnesses. The aim of the present study was to examine these characteristics in families of infants with serious liver disease in Australia, to inform the provision of mental health care for these families. METHODS: From September 2009 to May 2013, 42 parents of infants recently diagnosed as having serious liver disease (defined as liver disease that may require transplantation in the future) completed questionnaires about family function, impact of the infant's illness on the family, parent stress symptoms, and fathers' engagement in the care of the child. Participants were recruited from 4 metropolitan children's hospitals in Australia. RESULTS: Parents reported psychological symptoms at similar rates to normative populations. Their reports of family functioning were significantly below mean scores in previously published populations with a medically ill family member (population mean 1.89; mothers mean 1.59; fathers mean 1.61, P < 0.001). Disruption to family roles was significantly correlated with psychological symptoms for mothers (r = 0.48, P < 0.01) and fathers (r = 0.31, P < 0.05). Greater helpfulness of fathers was correlated with lower depression in mothers (r = -0.35, P < 0.05), and fathers' anxiety was correlated with their increased engagement (r = 0.40, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: When parents report the presence of psychological symptoms, symptoms are likely to be present in both parents and are associated with difficulties adjusting to disrupted family roles. Father engagement may be protective of mothers' mental health.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Hepatopatias/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Australas Psychiatry ; 21(4): 393-6, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23804117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper describes a competency based advanced training year in adult Intellectual Disability Psychiatry enabled through a partnership between disability and mental health sectors. This training experience could be viewed as a prototype for further specialised training schemes in Intellectual Disability Psychiatry, and has relevance for the implementation of competency based psychiatric training schemes in Australia. CONCLUSIONS: The need for a specific training curriculum in Intellectual Disability Psychiatry is outlined with reference to epidemiological evidence and human rights. The formulation of the training programme and the training experience itself is described and evaluated. Conclusions on the implications of this experience for the future competency based training schemes are drawn. Building a skilled workforce is necessary to address the significant inequalities in mental health experienced by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. A significant initial step for this would be the development of a specialised training curriculum. Service provision for this population is scattered across many disciplines and organisations with historically little mutual cooperation. Additionally, proposed competency-based training schemes stipulate that a medical expert develops a wide skill set across multiple domains. Thus, formal cross sector collaboration is fundamental for any competency based training scheme to be feasible.


Assuntos
Bolsas de Estudo , Deficiência Intelectual , Psiquiatria/educação , Austrália , Humanos , New South Wales , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Especialização
14.
Australas Psychiatry ; 15(4): 276-80, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17612878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to provide a model for supervision in advanced training in child and adolescent psychiatry that is in keeping with adult learning principles and that gives supervisors a framework that allows fulfillment of their multiple roles. Guidelines to develop reflective practice in trainees, thus enhancing clinical competence and life-long learning, are presented. CONCLUSIONS: Reflective practice in supervision encourages the development of competence in trainees. This model is especially relevant for training in child and adolescent psychiatry, but can also be applied to other subspecialty training areas.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/educação , Psiquiatria Infantil/educação , Mentores , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , New South Wales , Papel do Médico
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