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1.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820229

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco usage is an epidemic as statistics point towards smoking as the second leading cause of death. Populations experiencing humanitarian emergencies may experience a higher propensity for tobacco, alcohol, and other substance abuse disorders. This review aimed to map tobacco prevention and control interventions in humanitarian settings. METHODS: The search for this scoping review was conducted in six databases and supplemented with a gray literature search. Articles were screened at title-abstract and full-text by two pairs of authors, and data was abstracted by three individuals independently. An adapted diffusion of governance framework is used to discuss the findings. RESULTS: A total of 26 articles were included from the searches conducted in the databases and grey literature. The interventions targeted all age groups. The documents retrieved from the grey literature search were classified as population-based interventions, as they were not restricted to a particular group of individuals. Interventions were delivered at various locations, using different methods and engaging multiple stakeholders. Interventions assessed were grouped into packaging, labeling, and other policy interventions (pricing and taxes). CONCLUSION: There are few tobacco prevention and control interventions in the humanitarian context. The diffusion of governance perspective in implementing these interventions in humanitarian settings provides a cue for inter-sectoral cooperation among different stakeholders and disciplines beyond the health sector. Our review recommends exploring complementarity between the demand and supply side interventions for tobacco control. IMPLICATIONS: The scoping review has highlighted various tobacco prevention and control efforts in humanitarian settings. The interventions were delivered using various modes, and yet the burden of smoking is higher among the humanitarian population. Further research may use impact evaluation techniques to assess the impact of these interventions to facilitate the re-design of the implementation approach and policy priorities.

2.
Glob Public Health ; 19(1): 2348646, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718287

RESUMO

The implementation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is crucial for eliminating cervical cancer in India. The infodemic, characterised by misleading information, could hinder the successful implementation of the initiative. Misinformation related to the HPV vaccine, such as rumours, has been reported and circulated, contributing to an alarming pattern of vaccine hesitancy observed on social media. This study aimed to identify the public sentiment towards HPV vaccination based on the 'Behavioral and Social Drivers (BeSD)' framework through geospatial, content and sentiment analysis. A total of 1,487 tweets were extracted. After preprocessing, 1010 tweets were identified for sentiment and content analysis. The sentiments expressed towards the HPV vaccine are mixed, with a generally positive outlook on the vaccines. Within the population, there is a pervasive proliferation of misinformation, primarily focusing on vaccine safety and efficacy, contentious subjects, ethical considerations, and a prevalent sense of uncertainty in selecting the appropriate vaccine. These observations are crucial for developing targeted strategies to address public concerns and enhance vaccination rates. The insights gained from these results will guide policymakers, healthcare practitioners, and public health organisations to implement evidence-based interventions, thereby countering vaccine hesitancy and improving public health outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Mídias Sociais , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Humanos , Índia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Hesitação Vacinal , Opinião Pública , Vacinação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Papillomavirus Humano
3.
F1000Res ; 13: 184, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779318

RESUMO

Background: Health security as a domain has gained tremendous importance in the recent past. Emerging and re-emerging diseases globally, coupled with the derailment of the determinants of health mainly the socio-political environment, has made health security a cross-cutting entity in diverse fields including International Relations (IR). With the ongoing global polycrisis, the health-related issues which were previously sidelined as a concept of less strategic importance in the IR field, are now contributing to the shift of the world order. This has instilled an increased participation of IR scholars in the discussions and debates on health security concerns. The field of IR contains numerous theoretical lenses through which scholars analyze such situations, policies, and systems of the world. Methods: In this paper, we use a scoping review method to inspect how IR theories have been applied in analyzing health security concerns. Results: We observed that various diverging IR theories have been used to deliberate on states' actions in tackling the recent pandemic and have also been prescriptive about the changing notions of multilateralism and international governing organizations. Realism, liberalism, and securitization were among the most frequently applied IR theories in the context of health security discussions. Conclusions: This work provides an impetus to enhance the interaction among interdisciplinary teams leading to evolving solutions that can address issues of global importance in the contemporary world.


Assuntos
Diplomacia , Humanos , Saúde Global , Internacionalidade , Cooperação Internacional
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0292192, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635845

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of local evidence ecosystems in which academia and practice in the Public Health Service (PHS) are interconnected. However, appropriate organizational structures and well-trained staff are lacking and evidence use in local public health decision-making has to be integrated into training programs in Germany. To address this issue, we developed a framework incorporating a toolbox to conceptualize training programs designed to qualify public health professionals for working at the interface between academia and practice. We conducted a scoping review of training programs, key-informant interviews with public health experts, and a multi-professional stakeholder workshop and triangulated their output. The resulting toolbox consists of four core elements, encompassing 15 parameters: (1) content-related aspects, (2) context-related aspects, (3) aspects relevant for determining the training format, and (4) aspects relevant for consolidation and further development. Guiding questions with examples supports the application of the toolbox. Additionally, we introduced a how-to-use guidance to streamline the creation of new training programs, fostering knowledge transfer at the academia-practice interface, equipping public health researchers and practitioners with relevant skills for needs-based PHS research. By promoting collaborative training development across institutions, our approach encourages cross-institutional cooperation, enhances evidence utilization, and enables efficient resource allocation. This collaborative effort in developing training programs within local evidence ecosystems not only strengthens the scientific and practical impact but also lays a foundation for implementing complex public health measures effectively at the local level.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pandemias , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Pessoal de Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos
6.
Eur Phys J E Soft Matter ; 47(2): 10, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305841

RESUMO

We present the macroscopic dynamics of ferroelectric smectic A, smectic [Formula: see text], liquid crystals reported recently experimentally by three groups. In this fluid and orthogonal smectic phase, the macroscopic polarization, [Formula: see text], is parallel to the layer normal thus giving rise to [Formula: see text] overall symmetry for this phase in the spatially homogeneous limit. A combination of linear irreversible thermodynamics and symmetry arguments is used to derive the resulting dynamic equations applicable at sufficiently low frequencies and sufficiently long wavelengths. Compared to non-polar smectic A phases, we find a static cross-coupling between compression of the layering and bending of the layers, which does not lead to elastic forces, but to elastic stresses. In addition, it turns out that a reversible cross-coupling between flow and the magnitude of the polarization modifies the velocities of both, first and second sound. At the same time, the relaxation of the polarization gives rise to dissipative effects for second sound at the same order of the wavevector as for the sound velocity. We also analyze reversible cross-coupling terms between elongational flow and electric fields as well as temperature and concentration gradients, which lend themselves to experimental detection. Apparently this type of terms has never been considered before for smectic phases. The question how the linear [Formula: see text] coupling in the energy alters the macroscopic response behavior when compared to usual non-polar smectic A phases is also addressed.

7.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 14(1): 4-12, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224386

RESUMO

Malaria is a major public health problem in developing countries. The burden of malaria in fragile and conflict-affected states (FCAS) is increasing year by year. Moreover, the population living in FCAS is often the most vulnerable and at high risk of malaria due to factors, such as deteriorating healthcare system, mass relocations, and reduced resilience to shocks. Therefore, this scoping review aims to map the interventions that are conducted at the FCAS on malaria prevention among the general population. In addition, this review can help policy-makers and international health bodies, providing a comprehensive overview that can lead to more targeted, effective, and context-specific interventions. Databases, such as PubMed, EBSCO-CINAHL, Web of Science, ProQuest, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, were searched using specified search terms. A total of 3601 studies were retrieved from the search. After screening, 62 studies were included in the synthesis that met the eligibility criteria. Narrative analysis of the findings was done. The results revealed that in fragile countries, interventions for children below 5 years of age included IPTi, TDA, and ACT. In conflicted countries, interventions for children below 5 years of age included TDA, LLINs, SMC, drug trials, and vaccination. Similar interventions were reported for other age groups and populations. Despite ongoing conflicts, malaria interventions have been maintained in these countries, but a persistent high burden of malaria remains. To achieve the goals of malaria elimination, the results of the review highlight the need for continued research and evaluation of malaria control interventions to assess their effectiveness and impact. Strengthening health systems, building partnerships, utilizing digital health technologies, and conducting context-specific research are recommended to improve healthcare access and reduce the burden of malaria in FCAS.


Assuntos
Cooperação Internacional , Malária , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Conflitos Armados
8.
Syst Rev ; 13(1): 14, 2024 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178265

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The HPV vaccine is characterized by its significant effectiveness in preventing the occurrence of cervical cancer. However, the South Asian countries face multiple challenges in implementing the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) at scale. Implementation of human papillomavirus vaccination for eliminating cervical cancer necessitates investigating the factors that impact the health system of these nations. Hence, this review will map the evidence on factors influencing the scaling up of human papillomavirus vaccination in South Asia. METHODS: The proposed scoping review will follow the steps given by Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al. The search approach will follow McGowan et al. (14) evidence-based manual for Peer Analysis of Electronic Search Strategies (PRESS 2015) for systematic searches. Using a comprehensive search, the literature from 2006 onward will be identified from PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus. The search strategy will include terms relating to the HPV vaccine and implementation. A predefined criterion for the inclusion and exclusion of studies will be adopted by three review authors independently to determine the eligible studies. The results will be narratively synthesized and examined in addition to being quantitatively presented to provide an outline. The review will be presented per the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses extension for scoping review (PRISMA-ScR)" guidelines. CONCLUSIONS/DISCUSSION: The evaluation is anticipated to map the barriers and enablers influencing the rollout of the human papillomavirus vaccine. Lessons learned from the South Asian countries, where the vaccine has been implemented, may contribute to aiding the implementation of the vaccine in countries with similar health systems in an effective manner. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: The protocol was prospectively registered on the "open science framework". The registration DOI is https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/T5SW9 .


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , Ásia Meridional , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
9.
Chaos ; 33(8)2023 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38060792

RESUMO

We investigate the properties of time-dependent dissipative solitons for a cubic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation stabilized by nonlinear gradient terms. The separation of initially nearby trajectories in the asymptotic limit is predominantly used to distinguish qualitatively between time-periodic behavior and chaotic localized states. These results are further corroborated by Fourier transforms and time series. Quasiperiodic behavior is obtained as well, but typically over a fairly narrow range of parameter values. For illustration, two examples of nonlinear gradient terms are examined: the Raman term and combinations of the Raman term with dispersion of the nonlinear gain. For small quintic perturbations, it turns out that the chaotic localized states are showing a transition to periodic states, stationary states, or collapse already for a small magnitude of the quintic perturbations. This result indicates that the basin of attraction for chaotic localized states is rather shallow.

10.
Glob Public Health ; 18(1): 2288269, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38063361

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is a significant public health concern globally, with low and middle-income countries bearing the highest burden, specifically the South Asian region. Therefore, the current scoping review aimed to highlight the factors influencing the implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in South Asia. Adopting the 'Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al.' methodology, multiple electronic databases were searched to identify relevant records. The results were narratively synthesised and discussed, adopting the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) model. We identified 527 records, which were assessed for eligibility based on title, abstract, and full text by three reviewers, followed by data extraction of 29 studies included for analysis in the review. Implementing HPV vaccination programs in South Asia faces various challenges, such as economic, health system, financial, health literacy, and sociocultural factors that hinder their successful implementation. To successfully implement the vaccine, a tailored risk communication strategy is necessary for these countries. Knowledge gained from the experience of South Asian nations in implementing the HPV vaccine can assist in policymaking in similar healthcare for advancing the implementation of HPV vaccination.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Humanos , Feminino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde , Vacinação/métodos , Ásia Meridional , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
11.
F1000Res ; 12: 820, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37928171

RESUMO

Background: Health diplomacy is one of the emerging avenues for academics where foreign policy dynamics and global health meet. Its relevance has augmented especially after the COVID-19 pandemic that brought the world to a halt. International organization and national entities that are responsible for health governance as well as its socio-economic determinants have been increasingly involved in the negotiations for a collective action towards a better health infrastructure and preparedness. However, the approach to health diplomacy seems to vary with whether health is looked through diplomacy lens or vice versa. Thus, inculcating adequate and appropriate competencies of both fields to conduct negotiations for health while keeping national interests and international commitments intact is imperative. Methods: This study investigates 50 programmes/courses that have been currently offered around the globe to understand the competencies that have been identified as essential for a health diplomat. We examined four aspects: i) geographical distribution of programme/course (ii) the type of global health diplomacy programme being offered and their duration (iii) mode of teaching and (iv) cross-cutting themes that the programme offers. Results: We found that the courses/programmes have been mostly provided by the countries of the Global North who play a key part in international negotiations. Although there were diverse types of certifications identified, they can be classified into two groups - core health diplomacy and inclusive health diplomacy programmes. The health diplomacy training is preferred to be provided in-person due to the nature of the work. Conclusions: While competencies for health governance and international relation have been dominant among the current programmes, other cross-cutting themes such as economics, politics, law, public policy, crisis management, environment and public health have been considered essential. The article concludes with a proposal of a framework to streamline the sectors and the competencies that is required in health diplomats.


Assuntos
Diplomacia , Humanos , Fortalecimento Institucional , Pandemias , Política , Saúde Pública
13.
Acta Biomed ; 94(S3): e2023121, 2023 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37695185

RESUMO

Digital health records can provide advantages to healthcare practice, policy, and research. Several countries have established population-based digitalised data collection, integrated through data linkage techniques. In Lombardy (Italy), a regional population-based registry was established in the 2000s. It collects data from the social and health sector, anonymised immediately after their acquisition and restructured in a single repository. Data can be used for public health interest, planning, monitoring, services evaluation, and research. Indeed, data can also be provided to universities and other scientific institutes. The availability of such data enables to explore the epidemiology of infectious, chronic, and rare diseases. Thus, epidemiological research can support policymakers to tackle public health threats. However, analysis of electronic health records comes along with several challenges, including data inaccuracy, incompleteness, and biases. Researchers should take into consideration limits and barriers related to quality of data. Moreover, health data use must adhere to the national and European privacy legislation, at times limiting the potential of data integration. Therefore, even if big data drives innovation and scientific knowledge, ethical issues regarding privacy should be considered in public debate.


Assuntos
Data Warehousing , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Políticas , Coleta de Dados , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde
14.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 12: e38521, 2023 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37747764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is a disease with a strong social component, as its main transmission route is via blood, making it associated with lifestyle. Therefore, it is suitable to be worked on from the perspective of public health policy, which still has a lot of room to explore and improve, contrary to diagnoses and treatments, which are already very refined and effective. OBJECTIVE: An interactive gamified policy tool, designated as Let's End HepC (LEHC), was created to understand the impact of policies related to hepatitis C on the disease's epidemiology on a yearly basis until 2030. METHODS: To this end, an innovative epidemiological model was developed, integrating Markov chains to model the natural history of the disease and adaptive conjoint analysis to reflect the degree of application of each of the 24 public health policies included in the model. This double imputation model makes it possible to assess a set of indicators such as liver transplant, incidence, and deaths year by year until 2030 in different risk groups. Populations at a higher risk were integrated into the model to understand the specific epidemiological dynamics within the total population of each country and within segments that comprise people who have received blood products, prisoners, people who inject drugs, people infected through vertical transmission, and the remaining population. RESULTS: The model has already been applied to a group of countries, and studies in 5 of these countries have already been concluded, showing results very close to those obtained through other forms of evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The LEHC model allows the simulation of different degrees of implementation of each policy and thus the verification of its epidemiological impact on each studied population. The gamification feature allows assessing the adequate fulfillment of the World Health Organization goals for the elimination of hepatitis C by 2030. LEHC supports health decision makers and people who practice patient advocacy in making decisions based on science, and because LEHC is democratically shared, it ends up contributing to the increase of citizenship in health. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR1-10.2196/38521.

15.
J Chem Phys ; 159(6)2023 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37551814

RESUMO

We present a model for the dynamics observed recently by Sano et al. [Nat. Commun. 12, 6771 (2021)] in a coherently layered system made up of sheetlike colloidal particles (nanosheets) subjected to an external concentration gradient. Adding a new macroscopic variable characteristic for the nonequilibrium situation encountered in the experiments to the hydrodynamics of smectic A liquid crystals, we show that all salient dynamic features observed in the experiments can be accounted for. For this nonequilibrium phenomenon, we identify the symmetry of the underlying ground state as undulating smectic A-like layering and the applied concentration gradient applied in the layer planes as the nonequilibrium driving force. As a result of our analysis, we find a coherent motion of undulating layers generated by a Helfrich-Hurault type instability propagating at a fixed velocity in accordance with the observations. If the coherence of the layering is lost, there is no longer any coherent propagation to be expected-as is also observed.

16.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(11)2023 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37297771

RESUMO

The present study explores district-level data associated with health insurance coverage (%) and the prevalence of hypertension (mildly, moderately, and severely elevated) observed across men and women as per NFHS 5. Coastal districts in the peninsular region of India and districts in parts of northeastern India have the highest prevalence of elevated blood pressure. Jammu and Kashmir, parts of Gujarat and parts of Rajasthan have a lower prevalence of elevated blood pressure. Intrastate heterogeneity in spatial patterns of elevated blood pressure is mainly seen in central India. The highest burden of elevated blood pressure is in the state of Kerala. Rajasthan is among the states with higher health insurance coverage and a lower prevalence of elevated blood pressure. There is a relatively low positive relationship between health insurance coverage and the prevalence of elevated blood pressure. Health insurance in India generally covers the cost of inpatient care to the exclusion of outpatient care. This might mean that health insurance has limited impact in improving the diagnosis of hypertension. Access to public health centers raises the probability of adults with hypertension receiving treatment with antihypertensives. Access to public health centers has been seen to be especially significant at the poorer end of the economic spectrum. The health and wellness center initiative under Ayushman Bharat will play a crucial role in hypertension control in India.

17.
Int J Prev Med ; 14: 20, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37033284

RESUMO

Background: Launched in September 2018, the ABPMJAY is the world's largest publicly funded health insurance (PFHI) program with population coverage of 500 million. A systematic review was conducted. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in four databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The literature search was conducted with the search terms: "Ayushman Bharat OR ABPMJAY OR modicare AND RSBY." The search was set to title and abstract. Gray literature and government websites were also searched for relevant documents. A total of 881 documents were identified (PubMed: 53, Web of Science: 46, Scopus: 97, Google Scholar: 681, government websites: two, and gray literature: two). Fifty-two duplicates were identified. After the elimination of the duplicates, 829 unique documents were identified. These 829 unique citations were then subjected to a review of title and abstract independently by 2 reviewers. Six-hundred and ninety-two articles were rejected after review of title and abstract. One-hundred and thirty-seven articles were screened for full text independently by two reviewers. Sixty-six articles were rejected after review of the full text. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Seventy-one unique articles were included in the final review. To attain the objective of the study, which is to critically analyze and provide an overview of Ayushman Bharat, a narrative synthesis was performed. Results: Seven themes were identified from the review: (1) health and wellness centers (HWCs); (2) out-of-pocket health expenditure (OOPHE); (3) fraud; (4) upcoding and provision of unnecessary medical care; (5) moving focus away from primary care; (6) coverage; and (7) lop-sided access, exclusion at the periphery, and brain drain. There is very little impact evidence of the ABPMJAY available. Conclusions: The government could plan impact evaluation studies in every state that the ABPMJAY is functional in. Any high-quality feedback generated might enable the National Health Authority, the government body leading and coordinating the ABPMJAY, to take necessary steps operationally and advice the government on strategy. Another concern is that the ABPMJAY PFHI might negatively impact the ongoing process of continuous strengthening and development of the government health-care system at all levels-primary, secondary, and tertiary. Continual recalibration and course corrections on the basis of high-quality feedback might enable ABPMJAY reduce catastrophic OOPHE for 500 million Indians. This is more than 6% of humanity: the largest block of people served by a single PFHI in history.

18.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13(2): 226-238, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37119512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the mpox 2022 outbreak, several high-income countries have developed plans with inclusion criteria for vaccination against the mpox disease. This study was carried out to map the factors influencing mpox vaccination uptake to help address the challenges and increase vaccination confidence. METHODS: This was a study based on Tweet analysis. The VADER, Text Blob, and Flair analyzers were adopted for sentiment analysis. The "Levesque conceptual framework for healthcare access" was adopted to evaluate the factors impacting access and the decision to get mpox vaccination. Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) criteria were adopted. FINDINGS: A total of 149,133 tweets were extracted between 01/05/2022 and 23/09/2022. Around 1% of the random tweets were used for qualitative analysis. Of the 149,113, tweets were classified as positive, negative and neutral, respectively, by (a) VADER: (55,040) 37.05%, (44,395) 29.89%, and (49,106) 33.06%, (b) TextBlob: (70,900) 47.73%, (22,729) 15.30%, and (54,921) 36.97%, and (c) Flair: (31,389) 21.13%, (117,152) 78.87%, and 0.00%. Sentiment trajectories revealed that communication, stigmatization, accessibility to and availability of vaccines, and concerns about vaccine safety as factors influencing decision-making in the content and flow of tweets. INTERPRETATION: Twitter is a key surveillance tool for understanding factors influencing decisions and access to mpox vaccination. To address vaccine mistrust and disinformation, a social media-based risk communication plan must be devised. Adopting measures to remove logistical vaccination hurdles is needed. Obtaining fact-based information from credible sources is key to improving public confidence.


Assuntos
Mpox , Vacina Antivariólica , Humanos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Vacinação , Políticas
19.
Demography ; 60(1): 303-325, 2023 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656287

RESUMO

The mortality gap between former East and West Germany decreased rapidly in the decade following the reunification of the country in 1990. However, because no previous study has estimated life expectancy (e0) over time for all German districts, the extent of mortality convergence across districts and its determinants are largely unknown. We used a novel relational Bayesian model to estimate district e0 in Germany during 1997-2016, examined mortality convergence using a novel convergence groups approach, and explored the role of selected district characteristics in the process. Differences in e0 between German districts decreased for both sexes during 1997-2016, mainly driven by rapid mortality improvements in eastern German districts. However, considerable heterogeneity in district-level e0 trajectories within federal states was evident. For example, district clusters in northwestern Germany showed increasing e0 disadvantage, which led to a north-south divergence in mortality. A multinomial regression analysis showed a robust association between the e0 trajectory and the district-level tax base and long-term unemployment but not with hospital density. Thus, an equitable "leveling up" of health seems possible with policies investing in places and the people who inhabit them.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Desemprego , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Alemanha Ocidental , Mortalidade
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