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Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 164 Suppl 1: 67-80, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360029


Forty-seven of the 203 countries with abortion laws detailed by the Center for Reproductive Rights have a health exception (HE) clause, inconsistent in both wording and implementation, even within countries. This narrative review sought to determine the understanding and implementation of the legally permissible HE in different countries, or states, to provide clarification and guidance for strategies that will maximize permitted access to safe abortion within the law and avoid undue delays that harm the lives and health of women and their families. A multimethod approach was used. The literature search for countries with HE laws, including physical, mental, and social health, and exceptions for threat to life, rape, incest, and fetal anomaly, returned sparse results. The review of emblematic cases that had reached regional courts on the grounds of human rights violation for failure to obtain legal abortion under the country's HE clause included some examples qualifying on multiple grounds. We interviewed 15 physician advocates from 14 countries about use of the HE in their countries. Informants from Latin America interpreted the HE to refer to physical, psychological, and social health. HE laws are common but confusing, with significant opportunities to improve access through clarification and implementation. Where multiple grounds permit ending a pregnancy, the least onerous exception for the patient is the most ethical. Examples of progress in Colombia and Ghana demonstrate successful approaches to broader HE implementation.

Aborto Induzido , Estupro , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Aborto Legal , Direitos Humanos , América Latina
Front Immunol ; 14: 1237565, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37638045


Immunotherapies are a key therapeutic strategy to fight cancer. Diverse approaches are used to activate tumor-directed immunity and to overcome tumor immune escape. The dynamic interplay between tumor cells and their tumor(immune)microenvironment (T(I)ME) poses a major challenge to create appropriate model systems. However, those model systems are needed to gain novel insights into tumor (immune) biology and a prerequisite to accurately develop and test immunotherapeutic approaches which can be successfully translated into clinical application. Several model systems have been established and advanced into so-called patient avatars to mimic the patient´s tumor biology. All models have their advantages but also disadvantages underscoring the necessity to pay attention in defining the rationale and requirements for which the patient avatar will be used. Here, we briefly outline the current state of tumor model systems used for tumor (immune)biological analysis as well as evaluation of immunotherapeutic agents. Finally, we provide a recommendation for further development to make patient avatars a complementary tool for testing and predicting immunotherapeutic strategies for personalization of tumor therapies.

Imunoterapia , Neoplasias , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Evasão Tumoral , Neoplasias/terapia
Adv Mater ; 32(36): e2002254, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725688


The assembly of colloidal semiconductive nanocrystals into highly ordered superlattices predicts novel structure-related properties by design. However, those structure-property relationships, such as charge transport depending on the structure or even directions of the superlattice, have remained unrevealed so far. Here, electric transport measurements and X-ray nanodiffraction are performed on self-assembled lead sulfide nanocrystal superlattices to investigate direction-dependent charge carrier transport in microscopic domains of these materials. By angular X-ray cross-correlation analysis, the structure and orientation of individual superlattices is determined, which are directly correlated with the electronic properties of the same microdomains. By that, strong evidence for the effect of superlattice crystallinity on the electric conductivity is found. Further, anisotropic charge transport in highly ordered monocrystalline domains is revealed, which is attributed to the dominant effect of shortest interparticle distance. This implies that transport anisotropy should be a general feature of weakly coupled nanocrystal superlattices.

Microbiologyopen ; 9(9): e1094, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652897


The associated microbiota of marine invertebrates plays an important role to the host in relation to fitness, health, and homeostasis. Cooperative and competitive interactions between bacteria, due to release of, for example, antibacterial substances and quorum sensing (QS)/quorum quenching (QQ) molecules, ultimately affect the establishment and dynamics of the associated microbial community. Aiming to address interspecies competition of cultivable microbes associated with emerging model species of the basal animal phyla Cnidaria (Aurelia aurita) and Ctenophora (Mnemiopsis leidyi), we performed a classical isolation approach. Overall, 84 bacteria were isolated from A. aurita medusae and polyps, 64 bacteria from M. leidyi, and 83 bacteria from ambient seawater, followed by taxonomically classification by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The results show that A. aurita and M. leidyi harbor a cultivable core microbiome consisting of typical marine ubiquitous bacteria also found in the ambient seawater. However, several bacteria were restricted to one host suggesting host-specific microbial community patterns. Interbacterial interactions were assessed by (a) a growth inhibition assay and (b) QS interference screening assay. Out of 231 isolates, 4 bacterial isolates inhibited growth of 17 isolates on agar plates. Moreover, 121 of the 231 isolates showed QS-interfering activities. They interfered with the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-based communication, of which 21 showed simultaneous interference with autoinducer 2. Overall, this study provides insights into the cultivable part of the microbiota associated with two environmentally important marine non-model organisms and into interbacterial interactions, which are most likely considerably involved in shaping a healthy and resilient microbiota.

Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ctenóforos/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Cifozoários/microbiologia , Acil-Butirolactonas/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Genes de RNAr , Interações Microbianas , Filogenia , Percepção de Quorum , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar/microbiologia
Faraday Discuss ; 184: 321-37, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26404008


Coupling a single quantum emitter, such as a fluorescent molecule or a quantum dot (QD), to a plasmonic nanostructure is an important issue in nano-optics and nano-spectroscopy, relevant for a wide range of applications, including tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy, plasmon enhanced molecular sensing and spectroscopy, and nanophotonic amplifiers or nanolasers, to mention only a few. While the field enhancement of a sharp nanoantenna increasing the excitation rate of a very closely positioned single molecule or QD has been well investigated, the detailed physical mechanisms involved in the emission of a photon from such a system are, by far, less investigated. In one of our ongoing research projects, we try to address these issues by constructing and spectroscopically analysing geometrically simple hybrid heterostructures consisting of sharp gold cones with single quantum dots attached to the very tip apex. An important goal of this work is to tune the longitudinal plasmon resonance by adjusting the cones' geometry to the emission maximum of the core-shell CdSe/ZnS QDs at nominally 650 nm. Luminescence spectra of the bare cones, pure QDs and hybrid systems were distinguished successfully. In the next steps we will further investigate, experimentally and theoretically, the optical properties of the coupled systems in more detail, such as the fluorescence spectra, blinking statistics, and the current results on the fluorescence lifetimes, and compare them with uncoupled QDs to obtain a clearer picture of the radiative and non-radiative processes.

Nanoscale ; 7(35): 14691-6, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26280199


Hybrid structures of few or single quantum dots (QDs) coupled to single optical antennas are of prime interest for nano-optical research. The photoluminescence (PL) signal from single nanoemitters, such as QDs, can be enhanced, and their emission characteristics modified, by coupling them to plasmonic nanostructures. Here, a self-aligned technique for placing nanoscale QDs with about 10 nm lateral accuracy and well-defined molecular distances to the tips of individual nanocones is reported. This way the QDs are positioned exactly in the high near-field region that can be created near the cone apex. The cones are excited in the focus of a radially polarized laser beam and the PL signal of few or single QDs on the cone tips is spectrally detected.