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1.
J Am Nutr Assoc ; : 1-7, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939090

RESUMO

Insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) is a potential IR biomarker. Evidence also suggests that fat intake may modulate IR status, but this relationship remains unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the relationship between the TyG index and isocaloric replacement of macronutrients, including the profile of dietary fatty acids in individuals at cardiometabolic risk.This cross-sectional study enrolled 264 individuals at cardiometabolic risk (age 43.1 ± 16.3 years) who participated in a nutritional intervention study (ReBEC, id: RBR-5n4y2g). The baseline demographic, anthropometric, clinical, dietary, and lifestyle data were used. The TyG index was calculated using the formula ln [fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL)/2]. Multivariate nutrient density models were used to analyze isocaloric replacement of fatty acids (as 5% of energy). The chance of having a high TyG index (TyG index >8.83, median value) was decreased by 60% after replacing 5% of the energy intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), and trans fatty acid (TFA) with monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) or PUFA and SFA with protein.Isocaloric replacement of PUFA, SFA, and TFA with MUFA and protein was associated with lower chances of having a high TyG index. These results indicate the importance of macronutrient and dietary fat profiles in the dietary planning of individuals at cardiometabolic risk.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661999

RESUMO

Evidence suggests antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). However, the effect of supplementation of this fatty acid profile on the telomere length and the telomerase enzyme activity was not revised yet. The PubMed and Embase® databases were used to search for clinical trials. A total of six clinical trials were revised. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation did not statistically affect telomere length in three out of three studies but affected telomerase activity in two out of four studies. The supplementation increased telomerase enzyme activity in subjects with first-episode schizophrenia. Besides, it decreased telomerase enzyme activity without modulating the effects of Pro12Ala polymorphism on the PPARγ gene in type 2 diabetes subjects. The methodological differences between the studies and the limited number of studies on the theme suggest that further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on telomere length and telomerase enzyme activity in humans.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Telomerase , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Telomerase/genética , Telomerase/metabolismo , Telômero
3.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748822

RESUMO

In the absence of a recommendation for daily intake of phenolic compounds, to compare the intake of the main dietary polyphenols between populations is a really challenge. This study aimed to estimate the total dietary intake of polyphenols, classes and their food sources among Brazilian graduates and postgraduates. This was a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME project). Food consumption was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 144 food items. Polyphenol intake was estimated from the Phenol-Explorer and US Department of Agriculture database, and previous studies that evaluated the phenolic content of specific foods. A total of 4130 individuals of both sexes with a median age of 34 (18-86) years old were finally included. The median intake of total polyphenols adjusted for energy was 753.41 mg/day (interquartile range - IQR=461.80; p<0.001), and the most consumed classes were phenolic acids and flavonoids, with median intakes of 552.30 mg/d (IQR=429.78; p<0.001) and 154.70 mg/day (IQR=108.70; p<0.001), respectively. The main food sources of polyphenols were coffee, peanuts, beans, and fruits. A lower intake of total polyphenols and their classes was observed in a population with similar characteristics to those from developed countries. The results demonstrate the importance of disseminating nutritional information about foods, so that the consumption of natural foods is prioritized. New studies that evaluate the consumption of polyphenols and their impact on human health are recommended to establish a daily recommendation for the consumption of such compounds.

4.
Nutr Res ; 102: 45-58, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405602

RESUMO

The effect of avocado (Persea Americana) on weight loss in people with excess body weight remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to test our hypothesis that the intake of avocado pulp may be a good strategy for improving anthropometric parameters and, consequently, metabolic health. For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for studies published between database inception and July 2021. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing avocado intake on anthropometric parameters (primary outcome) and metabolic parameters (secondary outcomes) were included. Evidence from RCTs were synthesized as differences between standardized mean differences (SMDs) for change in body weight and body composition, comparing the experimental avocado group with control via random-effects meta-analyses. The risk of bias followed the Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewer's Manual. From 781 records identified, 8 studies with 657 individuals were included. No significant changes in body weight, body mass index, percent of body fat, or visceral adipose tissue in response to intervention was seen in the avocado group compared with the control group. Also, the pooled results showed no reduction in body weight and composition (SMD = 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.25; P= .25; I2 = 0%) of avocado in comparison to control. Secondary outcomes showed some potential benefits in metabolic parameters, mainly related to lipid profile. Regardless, consumption of avocado did not promote weight gain, and further studies are needed to elucidate this effect. The PROSPERO register number of this study is CRD42021266488.


Assuntos
Persea , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Aumento de Peso , Redução de Peso
5.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-38, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193718

RESUMO

Several mechanisms have been proposed for the beneficial effect of nuts on health. However, Brazil and cashew nuts remain the least studied. We aim to evaluate the effect of these nuts within an energy-restricted diet on body weight, body composition, cardiometabolic markers, and endothelial function in cardiometabolic risk women. Brazilian nuts study is a randomized controlled parallel 8-week dietary intervention trial. Forty women were randomly allocated to 1) Control group: Energy-restricted diet without nuts, n= 19 or, 2) Brazil and cashew nuts group (BN-Group): Energy-restricted diet containing daily 45 g of nuts (15 g of Brazil nuts + 30g of cashew nuts), n= 21. At the beginning and final intervention, anthropometry, body composition, and blood pressure were measured. Fasting blood sampling was obtained to evaluate lipid profile, glucose homeostasis, and endothelial function markers. After 8-week, plasma selenium concentration increased in BN-group (∆ = + 31.5 ± 7.8 µg/L; p= 0.001). Brazil and cashew nuts intake reduced total body fat (-1.3 ± 0.4 %) parallel to improvement of lean mass percentage in BN-group compared to the control. Besides, the soluble adhesion molecule VCAM-1 decreased (24.03 ± 15.7 pg/mL vs. -22.2 ± 10.3 pg/mL; p= 0.019) after Brazil and cashew nuts intake compared to the control. However, lipid and glucose profile markers, apolipoproteins, and blood pressure remained unchanged after the intervention. Thus, the addition of Brazil and cashew nuts to an energy-restricted diet can be a healthy strategy to improve body composition, selenium status, and endothelial inflammation in cardiometabolic risk women.

6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(2): 771-782, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137831

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study enrolled participants from the CUME project (n = 289) who lived in Viçosa, Brazil. The neighborhood unit adopted was the buffer (200 meters), considering the participant's residence as central point. We measure the number of public and private facilities inside the buffer as well as violent criminal occurrences. Food establishments were categorized into establishments with predominant sale of natural or minimally processed foods, mixed establishments, and establishments with predominant sale of ultra-processed foods. Those who attended the face-to-face interview filled two scales of perception of the environment. Overall, 33.6% of participants reported overweight. We observed a higher concentration of individuals close to the central region of the city. Access to different establishments, food environments, and criminal occurrences differed between normal-weight and overweight individuals. The groups deferred in the perception of the location of squares, open public spaces, clubs, and soccer fields. The results indicate the association between environmental characteristics and overweight in Brazilian adults.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Meio Social , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Características de Residência
7.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 73(3): 296-306, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607514

RESUMO

Nuts are high-energy density foods and are associated with beneficial effects on health, including weight control. Effects on resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, and diet-induced thermogenesis are suggested mechanisms behind the effects of nuts consumption on weight control. Thus, we revised the randomised clinical trials that assessed acute and chronic nuts consumption effects on energy metabolism. Walnuts (22.1 g to 56 g) consumption appears to modulate energy metabolism markers differently depending on the dose and profile of the evaluated subject. In its turn, 56 g of high-oleic peanuts increased postprandial energy expenditure and thermic effect of food after three hours postprandial compared to consumption of conventional peanuts. Almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, and a mix of nuts were the nuts studies in the chronic studies, which does not seem to influence energy metabolism markers. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of other types of nuts consumption on energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Corylus , Juglans , Arachis , Metabolismo Energético , Nozes , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 62(3): 726-737, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043712

RESUMO

Nuts consumption has been associated with a protective effect against cardiovascular diseases and oxidative stress-related disorders. We aimed to perform a systematic review with clinical trials to assess the impact of chronic nuts consumption on oxidative stress and the possible mechanisms involved. Studies were identified by searching in three electronic databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and LILACS, and selected following PRISMA guidelines. Two authors perform searching and data extraction. A total of 16 articles were included (12 randomized clinical trials and 4 one or two-arm clinical trials). Nut doses were generally high (> 30 g/d), except for Brazil nuts (5-13 g/d). The follow-up time ranges between four weeks and six months, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) was the most assessed biomarker. Eight articles reported improvement in oxidative stress biomarkers after nuts supplementation. Pathways regulated by selenium (e.g. glutathione peroxidase activity and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulation), monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g. reduction of LDL oxidation), and bioactive compounds (e.g. antioxidant activity) were described as mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects. No studies reported harmful effects of nut consumption, even in high doses. The chronic consumption of nuts seemed to be effective to change some oxidative stress biomarkers, however, this topic remains controversial because the benefits depends on nut type, nut dose, and population characteristics.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Selênio , Antioxidantes , Humanos , Nozes , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(2): 771-782, Fev. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356090

RESUMO

Abstract A cross-sectional study enrolled participants from the CUME project (n = 289) who lived in Viçosa, Brazil. The neighborhood unit adopted was the buffer (200 meters), considering the participant's residence as central point. We measure the number of public and private facilities inside the buffer as well as violent criminal occurrences. Food establishments were categorized into establishments with predominant sale of natural or minimally processed foods, mixed establishments, and establishments with predominant sale of ultra-processed foods. Those who attended the face-to-face interview filled two scales of perception of the environment. Overall, 33.6% of participants reported overweight. We observed a higher concentration of individuals close to the central region of the city. Access to different establishments, food environments, and criminal occurrences differed between normal-weight and overweight individuals. The groups deferred in the perception of the location of squares, open public spaces, clubs, and soccer fields. The results indicate the association between environmental characteristics and overweight in Brazilian adults.


Resumo Realizou-se um estudo transversal com participantes do projeto CUME (n = 289) que moravam em Viçosa, Brasil. A unidade de vizinhança adotada foi o buffer (200 metros), considerando a residência do participante como ponto central. Foi contabilizado o número de instalações públicas e privadas dentro do buffer, bem como as ocorrências criminais. Os estabelecimentos alimentares foram categorizados em estabelecimentos com venda predominante de alimentos naturais ou minimamente processados, estabelecimentos mistos e estabelecimentos com venda predominante de alimentos ultraprocessados. Os participantes que compareceram à entrevista presencial, preencheram duas escalas de percepção do ambiente. No total, 33,6% dos participantes apresentaram excesso de peso. Foi observada uma maior concentração de indivíduos próximos à região central da cidade. O acesso a diferentes estabelecimentos, ambientes alimentares e ocorrências criminais diferiram entre indivíduos com eutrofia e com excesso de peso. Os grupos diferiram na percepção da localização de praças, espaços públicos abertos, clubes e campos de futebol. Os resultados indicam a associação entre as características ambientais e o excesso de peso em adultos brasileiros.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Meio Social , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Estudos Transversais
10.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-10, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937583

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the association between legume intake and blood pressure, as well as the mediating role of cardiometabolic risk factors in patients in secondary cardiovascular prevention. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, clinical and food intake data were collected from the baseline of the multicentre study Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program Trial - BALANCE (RCT: NCT01620398). The relationships between variables were explored through path analysis. In total, 2247 individuals with a median age of 63·0 (45-91) years, 58·8 % (n 1321) male and 96·5 % (n 2168) with diagnosis of hypertension were included. Negative associations were observed between histidine intake and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (standardised coefficient (SC) = -0·057; P = 0·012) and between legume intake and BMI (SC = -0·061; P = 0·006). BMI was positively associated with triglycerides-glucose (TyG) index (SC = 0·173; P < 0·001), SBP (SC = 0·144; P < 0·001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (SC = 0·177; P < 0·001), and TyG index was positively associated with DBP (SC = 0·079; P = 0·001). A negative indirect effect was observed between the intake of legumes, SBP and DBP, mediated by BMI (SC = -0·009; P = 0·011; SC = -0·011; P = 0·010, respectively). In addition, an indirect negative effect was found between the intake of legumes and the DBP, mediated simultaneously by BMI and TyG index (SC = -0·001; P = 0·037). In conclusion, legume intake presented a negative indirect association with blood pressure, mediated by insulin resistance (TyG) and adiposity (BMI) in individuals of secondary care in cardiology.

11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peanut consumption has little effect on body weight, despite its high energy density and is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that the consumption of whole peanut would be associated with greater improvements in body composition, lipid profile, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-four women with obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg m-2 ], 33.1 ± 8.7 years old, were assigned to three groups and consumed 56 g of whole peanut (WP), skinned peanut (SP), and no peanut (NP) and consumed energy-restricted diets (250 kcal d-1 less than their customary diet) for 8 weeks. RESULTS: WP group lost an average of 3.2 kg, while SP group lost 2.6 kg and the NP group 1.8 kg. However, only the groups that consumed peanuts showed a significant reduction in BMI. WP group presented lower body weight, BMI, waist circumference, total lean mass, and total body fat than the SP group in the eighth week. There was a significant reduction in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) after 4 weeks of intervention, which was maintained in week-8 for the WP and SP groups. In addition, there was an improvement in platelets and plasma homocysteine with WP group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the regular intake of the whole peanut as part of an energy-restricted diet showed health benefits since it enhanced body weight loss, besides improving body composition and reducing cholesterol, platelets, and homocysteine concentrations. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 4835-4848, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787179

RESUMO

This is a cross-sectional study with 2,909 participants (aged ≥18 years) from the baseline of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais [CUME - Coorte de Universidades Mineiras] which verified the association between alcohol consumption and overweight. Data on sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, eating habits, anthropometric factors and clinical conditions were collected through an online questionnaire. Body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m² was considered an indicator of overweight. The daily consumption of alcohol was evaluated in grams (alcohol) and according to type in milliliters (beer, wine, hard liquor). The prevalence of alcohol consumption and overweight was 73.6% and 40.8%, respectively. There was a significant tendency of an increase in overweight with higher beer consumption (tendency p value of 0.038), which was not observed for the other types of alcohol. After sensitivity analyses, alcohol consumption was associated to overweight, with a tendency of increase in prevalence with higher daily consumption. There is a crucial need to curb the widely accepted idea that a low or moderate alcohol consumption is not harmful to one's health, and to be cautious of such a proposition. The influence of alcohol consumption regarding weight gain must be considered in public health policies and policies of alcohol consumption control.


Estudo transversal com 2.909 participantes (≥ 18 anos) da linha de base da Coorte de Universidades Mineiras (CUME), Brasil, que verificou a associação entre o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e o excesso de peso. Por meio de questionário virtual, coletaram-se dados sociodemográficos, de estilo de vida, hábitos alimentares, antropométricos e condições clínicas. Considerou-se Índice de Massa Corporal ≥ 25 kg/m2 como excesso de peso. Avaliou-se o consumo diário de bebidas alcoólicas no total em gramas (álcool) e segundo tipo em mililitros (cerveja, vinhos e destiladas). As prevalências de consumo de álcool e excesso de peso foram 73,6% e 40,8%, respectivamente. Houve uma tendência significativa de aumento da prevalência de excesso de peso quanto maior o consumo de cerveja (p de tendência = 0,038), fato não observado para os demais tipos de bebidas. Após análises de sensibilidade, a ingestão de álcool associou-se ao excesso de peso, com tendência de aumento da prevalência quanto maior o consumo diário. Ressalta-se a necessidade de reduzir a visão amplamente aceita de que o consumo leve a moderado de álcool não é nocivo à saúde, adotando cautela nesta proposição. Deve-se considerar a influência da ingestão de bebidas alcoólicas no ganho de peso nas políticas públicas de saúde e de controle do consumo do álcool.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Sobrepeso , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
13.
Front Nutr ; 8: 709915, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631764

RESUMO

Background: The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is usually used in epidemiological studies to assess food consumption. However, the FFQ must have good accuracy, requiring its validation and reproducibility for the target population. Thus, this study aimed to describe the construction of the online Food Frequency Questionnaire (oFFQ) used at the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME project, Brazil) and evaluate its validity and reproducibility. Methods: The oFFQ was answered two times in 1 year (March/August 2018-March/April 2019; n = 108 participants-reproducibility), and four 24-h dietary recalls (24hRs) were applied in two seasons of the southern hemisphere [two 24hRs in autumn (March/June 2018) and two 24hRs in winter (August/September 2018); n = 146 participants-validity]. To assess the validity and reproducibility, the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were estimated. Results: The oFFQ had 144 food items separated into eight groups (dairy products; meat and fish; cereals and legumes; fruits; vegetables; fats and oils; drinks; other foods). In assessing the validity, ICCs for energy and macronutrients were considered moderate, ranging from 0.41 (energy) to 0.59 (protein), while the ICCs for micronutrients were considered low to moderate, ranging from 0.25 (fibers) to 0.65 (vitamin B6). Regarding reproducibility assessment, ICCs for energy and all the assessed items were considered moderate to excellent, ranging from 0.60 (vegetables) to 0.91 (vitamin E and retinol). Conclusions: The self-reported oFFQ had satisfactory validity and reproducibility. So, it can be used to analyze the association between food consumption and chronic diseases in the participants of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME project-Brazil).

14.
J Am Coll Nutr ; : 1-12, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648393

RESUMO

Objective:Epidemiological studies have shown associations between polyphenol consumption and reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to assess the association between polyphenol intake and the prevalence of hypertension.Methods:This cross-sectional study was performed on data from the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME) project. Participants completed an online food frequency questionnaire, and polyphenol intake was assessed using the Phenol-Explorer database and articles. Hypertension was determined by a medical diagnosis, having a blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg/80 mmHg, or using antihypertensive drugs. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the prevalence of hypertension.Results:The prevalence of hypertension was 39.57%, and the average intake of total polyphenols was 860.79 mg/day. The highest (5th quintile) intake of flavonoids (mean: 368.46mg/day; OR: 0.83; 95%CI 0.70; 0.97), hydroxybenzoic acids (mean: 379.38mg/day; OR: 0.77; 95%CI: 0.66;0.91), and flavonols (mean: 44.13mg/day; OR: 0.79; 95%CI: 0.67; 0.93) was inversely associated with hypertension prevalence, compared to the lowest intake (1st quintile).Conclusions:Our findings demonstrate that the intake of flavonoids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and flavonols is associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension.

15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.3): 4835-4848, Oct. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345770

RESUMO

Resumo Estudo transversal com 2.909 participantes (≥ 18 anos) da linha de base da Coorte de Universidades Mineiras (CUME), Brasil, que verificou a associação entre o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e o excesso de peso. Por meio de questionário virtual, coletaram-se dados sociodemográficos, de estilo de vida, hábitos alimentares, antropométricos e condições clínicas. Considerou-se Índice de Massa Corporal ≥ 25 kg/m2 como excesso de peso. Avaliou-se o consumo diário de bebidas alcoólicas no total em gramas (álcool) e segundo tipo em mililitros (cerveja, vinhos e destiladas). As prevalências de consumo de álcool e excesso de peso foram 73,6% e 40,8%, respectivamente. Houve uma tendência significativa de aumento da prevalência de excesso de peso quanto maior o consumo de cerveja (p de tendência = 0,038), fato não observado para os demais tipos de bebidas. Após análises de sensibilidade, a ingestão de álcool associou-se ao excesso de peso, com tendência de aumento da prevalência quanto maior o consumo diário. Ressalta-se a necessidade de reduzir a visão amplamente aceita de que o consumo leve a moderado de álcool não é nocivo à saúde, adotando cautela nesta proposição. Deve-se considerar a influência da ingestão de bebidas alcoólicas no ganho de peso nas políticas públicas de saúde e de controle do consumo do álcool.


Abstract This is a cross-sectional study with 2,909 participants (aged ≥18 years) from the baseline of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais [CUME - Coorte de Universidades Mineiras] which verified the association between alcohol consumption and overweight. Data on sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, eating habits, anthropometric factors and clinical conditions were collected through an online questionnaire. Body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m² was considered an indicator of overweight. The daily consumption of alcohol was evaluated in grams (alcohol) and according to type in milliliters (beer, wine, hard liquor). The prevalence of alcohol consumption and overweight was 73.6% and 40.8%, respectively. There was a significant tendency of an increase in overweight with higher beer consumption (tendency p value of 0.038), which was not observed for the other types of alcohol. After sensitivity analyses, alcohol consumption was associated to overweight, with a tendency of increase in prevalence with higher daily consumption. There is a crucial need to curb the widely accepted idea that a low or moderate alcohol consumption is not harmful to one's health, and to be cautious of such a proposition. The influence of alcohol consumption regarding weight gain must be considered in public health policies and policies of alcohol consumption control.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais
16.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(10): 2779-2791, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340900

RESUMO

AIMS: In many individuals (35%) obesity is not accompanied by cardiometabolic disorders, a condition referred to as metabolically healthy obesity. Since the effectiveness of dietary interventions for this condition is not well established, this study reviews the influence of dietary patterns on the phenotype of metabolically healthy obesity in adults and elderly. DATA SYNTHESIS: The review was carried out following the PRISMA guidelines and registered in the PROSPERO. The search was conducted in the MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Science Direct, LILACS, and SciELO databases. A total of 236 articles were identified, seven of which were selected for synthesis after application of the eligibility criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The overall result found out in this synthesis was that the greater adherence to healthy eating patterns was considered a preventive to the transition from metabolically healthy obesity to metabolic unhealthy obese phenotypes, by improving metabolic health, and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality from all causes. In contrast, unhealthy eating patterns resulted in increased inflammation and risks of developing noncommunicable diseases. This review indicates that adherence to healthy eating patterns may interfere with metabolic phenotypes of obesity and positively affect metabolically healthy obesity. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42020159783.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/complicações , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/diagnóstico , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(6): 2961-2977, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251517

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Human sirtuins can be a powerful therapeutic target in preventing and treating obesity and age-related diseases. Some dietary components can modulate sirtuins' activity, such as resveratrol. This systematic review aimed to assess whether resveratrol (RSV), without other interventions, can stimulate sirtuins in the treatment of excess weight and its comorbidities. METHODS: MEDLINE/Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were used for search eligible articles. Randomized clinical trials assessing RSV supplementation on changes in the sirtuins' gene expression/protein levels was the primary outcome. Other possible changes in cardiometabolic markers were considered the second outcome. Following PRISMA guidelines and using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers independently and in parallel screened, assessed the studies' quality, and compiled data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus or consulting a third author. RESULTS: This review included seven randomized control trials. Four articles demonstrated a significant increase in SIRT-1 with different RSV dosages and interventions time. The secondary outcomes showed improvements in insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, metabolic flexibility, total antioxidant capacity, energy expenditure changes, and reduction of ectopic accumulation of fat. CONCLUSION: Data from RCTs studies showed that RSV supplementation could stimulate SIRT-1 in humans, and therefore contribute to the treatment of excess weight and its comorbidities. However, more research is needed because it was not possible to confirm this effect truly. [PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020205571].


Assuntos
Sirtuínas , Dieta , Humanos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resveratrol
18.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2628-2636, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypertension (HTN) is a chronic non-communicable disease influenced by non-modifiable risk factors, such as sex and age, as well as modifiable risk factors such as lifestyle, including diet and smoking. Moreover, diet quality among smokers is worse than that of non-smokers, mainly in terms of antioxidant content. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate whether dietary total antioxidant capacity (dTAC) influences the association between smoking and HTN. METHODS AND RESULTS: This cross-sectional study included 4303 graduates (69.35% women) from the Cohort of Minas Gerais Universities (CUME) project. An online food frequency questionnaire was administered to participants, and dTAC was estimated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power method. In the questionnaires, individuals reported smoking status, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values, previous HTN diagnosis, and use of antihypertensive drugs. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval between smoking and HTN, stratified by the median dTAC. Current and former smokers had higher dTAC values despite their lower fruit intake. Moreover, coffee was the main contributor to dTAC among them. Smoking was associated with a higher likelihood of HTN, mainly among individuals with a higher dTAC. However, after exclusion of coffee antioxidant capacity, there was an association between only smoking and HTN in individuals with lower dTAC. CONCLUSIONS: The controversial association between higher dTAC and HTN can result from high coffee intake. Higher dTAC without coffee intake may mitigate the association between smoking and HTN in this population.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Café/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Ex-Fumantes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , não Fumantes , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
19.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-18, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323627

RESUMO

The evaluation of food intake is important in scientific research and clinical practice to understand the relationship between diet and health conditions of an individual or a population. Large volumes of data are generated daily in the health sector. In this sense, Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools have been increasingly used, for example, the application of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms to extract useful information, find patterns, and predict diseases. This systematic review aimed to identify studies that used ML algorithms to assess food intake in different populations. A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases, and 36 studies met all criteria and were included. According to the results, there has been a growing interest in the use of ML algorithms in the area of nutrition in recent years. Also, supervised learning algorithms were the most used, and the most widely used method of nutritional assessment was the food frequency questionnaire. We observed a trend in using the data analysis programs, such as R and WEKA. The use of ML in nutrition is recent and challenging. Therefore, it is encouraged that more studies are carried out relating these themes for the development of food reeducation programs and public policies.

20.
Front Nutr ; 8: 678648, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124125

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Previous studies have suggested that the specific association between selenium (Se) and diabetes remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se and type-2 diabetes (T2D) in the Brazilian cohort [Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME)]. Methods and Results: This cross-sectional study was conducted with a large sample comprising 4,106 participants of the CUME project, a concurrent open cohort restricted to a highly educated population group, composed of graduates of federal institutions of higher education located in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data on socioeconomic and dietary characteristics, as well as anthropometric measures, were collected from each subject for analysis. The sample was classified into energy-adjusted tertiles of dietary Se intake (µg/day). Differences in the continuous data were evaluated by the Kruskal-Wallis H-test (abnormal data), and the χ2-test assessed differences in qualitative data. As there was no relationship between T2D and Se intake in the bivariate analysis, multivariate analysis was not performed. The prevalence of T2D in the studied population was 2.8%. The mean age was 36 years. Regarding gender, 1,209 are males and 2,807 are females. Among females, the mean Se intake was 165.12 µg/day and the mean intake was 157.4 µg/day. Among males, it was 168.4 µg/day. Significant differences were observed across all Se intake tertiles in terms of age, gender, activity level, alcohol intake, energy intake, sugar, carbohydrates, lipids, fiber, and energy-adjusted meat intake. However, no significant differences were observed across all Se intake tertiles in terms of BMI, smoking status, and T2D. The results indicated that there was no significant association between dietary Se intake and the prevalence of T2D. Conclusion: Dietary Se intake was not associated with the prevalence of T2D, despite the high intake of this micronutrient in the sample. These results contradict studies that identified the association between Se intake and T2D, with values of Se intake much lower than those observed in this study. Thus, this relationship seems to remain controversial.

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