Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 70
Filtrar
1.
Emerg Med Australas ; 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In overdose, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors can cause decreased levels of consciousness, coma and death. Here, we aim to describe reported exposure to GHB at four EDs in Sydney, New South Wales (NSW), Australia. METHODS: We searched the ED databases of four Sydney metropolitan hospitals for presentations relating to GHB exposure between 2012 and 2021. We calculated annual number of presentations stratified by hospital, age, sex, mode of arrival and triage category. RESULTS: A total of 3510 GHB-related presentations to ED were recorded across the four hospitals. Data for all hospitals were only available from 2015 onwards and between 2015 and 2021; there was a 114% increase in annual presentations (from 228 to 487). Males represented 68.7% of all presentations and the median age was 31 years (range 16-74 years). There was an increase in the proportion of female presentations between 2012 and 2021 (from 27.9% to 37.9%) along with the severity of presentation over the same period, with the proportion of presentations with a triage category 1 increasing from 19.7% to 34.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in recorded absolute number and severity of GHB-related presentations to Sydney EDs are a major public health concern. There may also be shifts in the demographics of those with GHB-related presentations. Renewed efforts are required to understand the drivers of these increases to optimally target harm reduction approaches.

2.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 48674241242315, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561896

RESUMO

Ketamine is a restricted and regulated medication in Australia and New Zealand, which has implications when considering treatment for patients with treatment-resistant depression and a history of illicit drug use, abuse or dependence. Regulations governing prescription of ketamine for treatment-resistant depression vary between jurisdictions in Australia and New Zealand, though most restrict use in those with drug dependence. There is substantial variation in definitions of drug dependence used in each jurisdiction, and between the legal and clinical definitions, with the latter specified in the current International Classification of Diseases, Eleventh Revision and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. This paper reviews the literature assessing the risk of ketamine misuse and dependence in patients with a history of illicit drug use, abuse or dependence and presents recommendations for psychiatrists who prescribe ketamine in such patients with treatment-resistant depression.

3.
Int J Drug Policy ; 126: 104383, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is little knowledge of the perspectives of people who use methamphetamine and have participated in clinical trials, and none for interventions not intended to address abstinence. A better understanding of these experiences could lead to more patient centred clinical trial design. This study seeks to understand the experiences of people who completed a clinical trial of lisdexamfetamine for the treatment of acute methamphetamine withdrawal. METHODS: Thematic analysis of open-ended, semi-structured interviews with eight people who participated in an inpatient clinical trial of lisdexamfetamine for acute methamphetamine withdrawal. Interviews were conducted between days 3 and 6 of admission to an inner-city Sydney hospital. RESULTS: Participants described how research procedures, the research setting, and the investigational product affected their experiences while enrolled in a clinical trial. Of particular importance to participants were transparent and low burden trial procedures, a welcoming trial environment, trusting relationships and effective communication, which were linked with the participants' subsequent decision to remain enrolled in the trial. DISCUSSION: The experiences of participants in this clinical trial can be distilled into four meta-themes: agency, caring-trust, safety, and communication. Participants spontaneously linked these experiences with a capacity to remain enrolled in the study. By considering the experiences of trial participants in clinical trial design, researchers can improve the experiences of future trial participants and facilitate their choice to remain enrolled in clinical trials.

4.
Med J Aust ; 220(6): 315-322, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the tightened Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescribing rules for immediate release (IR) and controlled release (CR) opioid medicines (1 June 2020), which also eliminated repeat dispensing without authorisation for codeine/paracetamol and tramadol IR and introduced half-pack size item codes for IR formulations. DESIGN, SETTING: Population-based interrupted time series analysis of PBS dispensing data claims for a 10% sample of PBS-eligible residents and IQVIA national opioid medicine sales data (PBS-subsidised and private prescriptions), 28 May 2018 - 6 June 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean amount of PBS-subsidised opioid medicines dispensed per day and mean overall amount sold per day - each expressed as oral morphine equivalent milligrams (OME) - overall, by formulation type (IR, CR), and by specific formulation. RESULTS: During the twelve months following the PBS changes, daily PBS-subsidised opioid medicine dispensing was 81 565 OME lower (95% CI, -106 146 to -56 984 OME) than the mean daily level for 2018-20, a decline of 3.8% after adjusting for the pre-intervention trend; the relative reduction was greater for IR (8.4%) than CR formulations (2.6%). Total daily sales of all, IR formulation, and CR formulation opioid medicines did not change significantly after the PBS changes. Repeat dispensing of prescriptions comprised 7.4% of PBS-subsidised opioid dispensing before 1 June 2020, and 1.3% after the changes. Half-pack sizes comprised 8.4% of PBS-subsidised IR opioid medicine dispensing and 2.8% of all opioid medicines sold in the twelve months after the PBS changes. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of new PBS rules for subsidised opioid medicines was followed by a decline in PBS-subsidised dispensing. Some people may have bypassed the new restrictions by switching to private prescriptions, but our findings suggest that opioid medicine use in Australia declined as a result of the new restrictions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Tramadol , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Austrália , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica
5.
Eur Addict Res ; : 1-5, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498995

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sleep disturbance is common during methamphetamine (MA) use and withdrawal; however, the feasibility of combined subjective-objective measurement of sleep-wake has not been shown in this population. Actigraphy is a well-established, non-invasive measure of sleep-wake cycles with good concordance with polysomnography. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and utility of using actigraphy and sleep diaries to investigate sleep during MA withdrawal. METHODS: We conducted a feasibility and utility study of actigraphy and sleep diaries during a clinical trial of lisdexamfetamine for MA withdrawal. Participants were inpatients for 7 days, wore an actigraph (Philips Actiwatch 2) and completed a modified Consensus Sleep Diary each morning. Participants were interviewed between days 3-5. RESULTS: Ten participants (mean age 37 years, 90% male) were enrolled. No participant removed the device prematurely. Participants interviewed (n = 8) reported that the actigraph was not difficult or distracting to wear or completion of daily sleep diary onerous. Actigraphic average daily sleep duration over 7 days was 568 min, sleep onset latency 22.4 min, wake after sleep onset (WASO) 75.2 min, and sleep efficiency 83.6%. Sleep diaries underreported daily sleep compared with actigraphy (sleep duration was 56 min (p = 0.008) and WASO 47 min (p < 0.001) less). Overall sleep quality was 4.4 on a nine-point Likert scale within the diary. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous actigraphy is feasible to measure sleep-wake in people withdrawing from MA, with low participant burden. We found important differences in self-reported and actigraphic sleep, which need to be explored in more detail.

6.
Intern Med J ; 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sustained-release (SR) tapentadol was listed on Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2014 for chronic severe pain requiring long-term opioid treatment. Dispensings have increased since listing despite declining trends in other PBS-listed opioids. Preferential prescribing of SR opioids may increase the risk of dependence and accidental overdose, particularly when used to treat acute pain. AIMS: To explore the quality use of publicly subsidised tapentadol in Australia. METHODS: We examined annual initiation rates and patterns of use of tapentadol (SR) in the dispensing records of a 10% random sample of PBS-eligible Australians (2014-2021). We used national tapentadol sales data to assess the proportion of sales attributable to the PBS. RESULTS: Tapentadol initiation increased from 2014, peaking at 7.5/1000 adult population in 2019 before declining to 5.3/1000 in 2021. We identified 63 766 new users between 2014 and 2020, of whom 92.8% discontinued in the first year following initiation, 58.0% had only a single dispensing and 34.3% had no other opioids dispensed in the 3 months before or after initiation. 27.8% of new users were dispensed tapentadol on the same day as potentially interacting medicines. There was a sustained drop in the proportion of sales attributable to the PBS from June 2020 onwards, from an average of 69.1%, to 63.9% of pack sales. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of use suggest tapentadol (SR) is generally used for short duration. Although most tapentadol sold in Australia is subsidised, there is evidence of a shift towards private sales.

7.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382554

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to estimate adherence to urate-lowering therapy (ULT), predominately allopurinol, from Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) claims database in association with (1) patient-reported doses and (2) World Health Organization's (WHO) defined daily doses (DDD), namely, allopurinol (400 mg/day) or febuxostat (80 mg/day). METHODS: Proportion of days covered (PDC) was calculated in 108 Gout App (Gout APP) trial participants with at least two recorded ULT dispensings in an approximately 12-month period before provision of intervention or control apps. Adherence was defined as PDC ≥80%. We measured the correlation between the two methods of calculating PDC using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Agreement between ULT-taking status (self-reports) and ULT-dispensed status (PBS records) was tested with Cohen's kappa (κ), and positive and negative percent agreement. RESULTS: Allopurinol was prescribed in 93.5% of participants taking ULT. Their self-reported mean daily dose (SD) was 291 (167) mg/day. Mean PDC (SD) for allopurinol was 83% (21%) calculated using self-reported dose, and 63% (24%) using WHO's DDD. Sixty-three percent of allopurinol users were identified as adherent (PDC ≥80%) using self-reported dose. There was good agreement between self-reported ULT use and PBS dispensing claims (κ = 0.708, P < .001; positive percent agreement = 90%, negative percent agreement = 82%). CONCLUSIONS: Participant-reported allopurinol daily doses, in addition to PBS dispensing claims, may enhance confidence in estimating PDC and adherence compared to using DDD. This approach improves adherence estimations from pharmaceutical claims datasets for medications where daily doses vary between individuals or where there is a wide therapeutic dose range.

8.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 158: 105570, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311046

RESUMO

This systematic review and a meta-analysis synthesised the results from contemporary, randomized and non-randomized controlled studies to assess lasting (one week minimum) changes on cognition/creativity, emotional processing and personality from serotonergic psychedelics. PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo were searched in July 2022. Risk of bias was assessed using Rob 2.0 and ROBINS-I. Ten studies met the eligibility criteria which involved 304 participants. No statistically significant effects were found for the majority outcome measures across the three constructs. A meta-analysis of emotional recognition outcomes found an overall significant effect for faster reaction times in the active treatment groups for disgust (SMD=-0.63, 95% CI=[-1.01 to -0.25], I2 = 65%) and sadness (SMD=-0.45, 95% CI=[-0.85 to -0.06], I2 = 60%). Future research should include larger samples, better control conditions, standardized doses and longer follow-up periods to confirm these preliminary findings.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos , Humanos , Cognição , Personalidade , Emoções
9.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 64(1): 19-29, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37779493

RESUMO

Vancomycin's widespread use as the mainstay antibiotic against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections is complicated by its narrow therapeutic index. Therapeutic drug monitoring using area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)-guided dosing is recommended to optimize therapy and prevent vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity (VAN). In 2018, a consultative therapeutic drug monitoring Advisory Service (the Service) was piloted at an Australian hospital to enable AUC-guided vancomycin dosing. This study sought to compare the incidence of VAN pre- and post-Service implementation. A 4-year retrospective observational study of intravenous vancomycin therapy (greater than 48 hours) in adults (aged 18 years or older), spanning 3 years before and 1-year after implementation of the Service was undertaken. Nephrotoxicity was defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentrations of 26.5 µmol/L or greater or 50% or more from baseline, on 2 or more consecutive days. Univariate analysis was performed to compare patients before and after implementation, and with and without VAN. Independent factors associated with VAN were identified using a multivariate model. In total, 971 courses of vancomycin therapy, administered to 781 patients, were included: 764 courses (603 patients) before implementation and 207 courses (163 patients) after implementation. The incidence of VAN decreased by 5% after Service implementation (15% before implementation vs 10% after implementation; P = .075). Independent factors associated with VAN were sepsis, heart failure, solid-organ transplant, concomitant piperacillin-tazobactam, and average vancomycin AUC during therapy. In conclusion, there was a nonsignificant trend toward a reduced incidence of VAN after the Service. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of the Service.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Adulto , Humanos , Vancomicina , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Harm Reduct J ; 20(1): 121, 2023 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37660058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is used at disproportionately high rates within sexuality and gender diverse communities and carries a high risk of overdose. GHB overdose can result in death. Internationally, recent increases in GHB overdoses have been observed. Coronial reviews of GHB-related death highlight the pivotal roles that bystanders to GHB overdose play in preventing fatality. No research has examined, in detail, how bystanders respond to GHB overdose. This qualitative study was conducted among people who use GHB and explored how they responded upon witnessing a GHB overdose experienced by someone else. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 31 sexuality and gender diverse Australian residents reporting three or more occasions of GHB use in the previous 12 months. Participants were asked questions about witnessed GHB overdose, their actions and decision-making processes throughout overdose. Data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Participants described witnessing GHB overdose, commonly in private settings involving sexualized GHB use. Variable definitions of GHB overdose were reported, ranging from GHB-induced symptoms of distress to comatose intoxication. Drastic actions to keep someone alert and responsive post-GHB ingestion were reported; these included the administration of stimulant substances and citrus. Decisions to call or not call for emergency medical services (EMS) were influenced by many circumstantial variables. In most instances, an EMS call was resisted and response practices deviated from established first aid protocols. CONCLUSIONS: GHB overdose prevention and response training programs targeting people who use GHB are urgently required. These education interventions ought to address inaccuracies that inform street remedies for GHB overdose, teach people how to safely check breathing and response, promote basic first aid principles and address barriers to contacting EMS.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Transtornos Mentais , Oxibato de Sódio , Humanos , Austrália , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Atitude
11.
Eye (Lond) ; 37(14): 3053, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37563428
12.
Intern Med J ; 53(7): 1284-1287, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37409815

RESUMO

With the increasing costs of drug development, repurposing of low-cost medicines for new indications has never been more important. However, there are multiple barriers to repurposing, particularly for off-patent medicines, and limited incentives for the pharmaceutical industry to sponsor registration and public subsidy listing. Here, we explore these barriers and their consequences and provide examples of successful repurposing strategies.


Assuntos
Custos de Medicamentos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Humanos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico
13.
Eye (Lond) ; 37(14): 2886-2895, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37330607

RESUMO

This paper sets out to discover more about the name 'Tarrant' whose ophthalmic paintings have regularly featured in ophthalmic textbooks over the past 50 years. Through a series of telephone calls, I have spoken to Tarrant about his life and work while I research the origins of ophthalmic illustrations charting the story behind this art movement. The paper also explores the eventual decline of retinal painting and the emergence of photography, concluding that due to the continuing advance of technology the ophthalmic photographer may eventually succumb to the same fate as the artist.


Assuntos
Ilustração Médica , Pinturas , Humanos
14.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 89(11): 3411-3420, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37309058

RESUMO

AIMS: There are increasing concerns about harms related to suboptimal antipsychotic use. Here we describe recent population-based trends in antipsychotic use and harms in Australia and identify population groups exhibiting patterns of use likely to contribute to these harms. METHODS: Using population-based data from the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (2015-2020), poisoning calls to the New South Wales (NSW) Poisons Information Centre (2015-2020) and poisoning deaths in all coronial records (2005-2018) in Australia, we measured trends in the prevalence of antipsychotic use and related deaths and poisonings. We applied latent class analyses to identify patterns of antipsychotic use that may contribute to harms. RESULTS: Quetiapine and olanzapine had the highest prevalence of use between 2015 and 2020. Noteworthy trends included increases of 9.1% and 30.8% in quetiapine use and poisonings, while olanzapine use decreased by 4.5% but poisonings increased by 32.7%. Quetiapine and olanzapine poisonings and related deaths had the highest rates of co-ingestion of opioids, benzodiazepines and pregabalin compared to other antipsychotics. We identified six distinct population groups using antipsychotics: (i) ongoing high-dose use with sedatives (8%), (ii) ongoing use (42%), (iii) ongoing use with analgesics and sedatives (11%), (iv) long-term low-dose use (9%), (v) sporadic use (20%) and (vi) sporadic use with analgesics (10%). CONCLUSION: Ongoing potentially suboptimal antipsychotic use and associated harms highlight the need to monitor such patterns of use, for example through prescription monitoring systems.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Humanos , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Fumarato de Quetiapina/efeitos adversos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Olanzapina/efeitos adversos , Dados de Saúde Coletados Rotineiramente , Analgésicos , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos
16.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 1123424, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36998623

RESUMO

Methamphetamine use disorder is a chronic relapsing condition associated with substantial mental, physical, and social harms and increasing rates of mortality. Contingency management and psychotherapy interventions are the mainstays of treatment but are modestly effective with high relapse rates, while pharmacological treatments have shown little to no efficacy. Psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy is emerging as a promising treatment for a range of difficult-to-treat conditions, including substance use disorders; however, no studies have yet been published looking at psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of methamphetamine use disorder. Here we review the rationale for psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy as a potential treatment for this indication, and describe practical considerations based on our early experience designing and implementing four separate clinical trials of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for methamphetamine use disorder.

17.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 89(6): 1896-1902, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662777

RESUMO

Dose-prediction software is recommended to enable area under the curve over 24 h (AUC24 )-guided dosing of the antibiotic vancomycin. However, uncertainty remains about how best to implement software in the clinic. We describe the activity, over 18 months, of a consultative therapeutic drug monitoring Advisory Service (the Service) for vancomycin that used dose-prediction software alongside clinical expertise, identifying factors that influence attainment of therapeutic targets. Of the 408 vancomycin dose reports provided for 182 courses of therapy, most (57%) recommended a dose change. The majority (82.8%, 193/233) of recommended dose adjustments were accepted by treating teams. A dose report was not published for 125 courses of therapy, with reasons including patient in intensive care unit or service error. An estimated 26.6 h of staff time was allocated to Service activities each month. Publication of a dose report facilitated attainment of therapeutic targets (P = .002). Software integration could improve Service outcomes, avoiding errors and reducing staff workload.


Assuntos
Consultores , Vancomicina , Humanos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Antibacterianos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
18.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 42(1): 27-32, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269081

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Management of a withdrawal syndrome following cessation of regular gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) use, and its precursors, can represent a clinical challenge due to rapid onset delirium and/or seizures. Severe GHB withdrawal can be characterised by persistent or worsening features despite increasing benzodiazepine doses and regular baclofen. Barbiturates, such as phenobarbital, are an appealing option in this context due to their unique GABA-A receptor action. CASE SERIES: This series describes the use of phenobarbital in 13 cases, 12 patients, across two hospitals in Sydney, Australia, with persistent or progressive GHB withdrawal despite benzodiazepine-based management. A median cumulative dose of oral diazepam prior to commencing phenobarbital was 120 mg (range 80-255 mg). The median time from the last GHB use to the first dose of phenobarbital was 24 h (range 7-57 h). Eight cases received phenobarbital orally on a general ward and 5 intravenously in intensive care units. An improvement in GHB withdrawal symptoms was observed after phenobarbital in all cases and there were no adverse events related to phenobarbital. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This case series suggests that phenobarbital for the management of benzodiazepine-resistant GHB withdrawal can be safe, even in general inpatient settings, and may avert the progression of delirium. Most data on the management of GHB withdrawal comes from case reports or series, such as this one. This highlights the need for prospective trials to establish an evidence base for therapeutic approaches, including validated measures of withdrawal severity and more information relating to the safe and effective dosing of phenobarbital.


Assuntos
Delírio , Oxibato de Sódio , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Humanos , Oxibato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fenobarbital/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Delírio/induzido quimicamente , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 57(5): 675-685, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: New therapeutic options such as lisdexamfetamine and guanfacine have recently become available for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We described contemporary patterns of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medicine use among children, adolescents and adults in Australia. METHODS: This population-based study used dispensing data for a 10% random sample of Australian residents between July 2012 and December 2020. We estimated the annual prevalence and incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medicines, second-line guanfacine use and examined concurrent medicine use of both stimulants and non-stimulants. We followed incident users for up to 5 years and analysed treatment persistence using a novel proportion of people covered method. Analyses were stratified by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medicine, sex and age group; young children (0-5 years), children (6-12 years), adolescents (13-17 years), young adults (18-24 years) and adults (⩾25 years). RESULTS: We observed a twofold increase in the overall prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medicine use between 2013 and 2020, from 4.9 to 9.7 per 1000 persons. Incident use also increased across all age groups and both sexes, with the most pronounced increases among adolescent females (from 1.4 to 5.3 per 1000 persons). Stimulant treatment persistence after 5 years was highest among those initiating treatment as young children (64%) and children (69%) and lowest among those initiating treatment in adolescence (19%). Concurrent use of stimulants and non-stimulants was more common among males and younger age groups. Most children (87%) initiating guanfacine had prior dispensings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medicines. CONCLUSION: We observed increasing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medicine use in Australia, especially among young females. Nevertheless, treatment rates remain lower than the estimated prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder across all subpopulations. Poor long-term treatment persistence in adolescence may warrant improved clinical monitoring of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in patients transitioning from paediatric to adult care. Reassuringly, use of newly approved guanfacine appeared to be in accordance with guidelines among children.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Guanfacina/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico
20.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 240(1): 127-135, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508055

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Regular consumption of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) may result in a dependence syndrome that can lead to withdrawal symptoms. There are limited data on medications to manage GHB withdrawal. OBJECTIVES: To examine characteristics associated with delirium and discharge against medical advice (DAMA), in the context of implementing a GHB withdrawal management protocol at an inner-city hospital in 2020. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records (01 January 2017-31 March 2021), and included admissions that were ≥ 18 years of age, admitted for GHB withdrawal, and with documented recent GHB use. Admissions were assessed for demographics, medications administered, features of delirium, ICU admission, and DAMA. Exploratory analyses were conducted to examine factors associated (p < 0.2) with features of delirium and DAMA. RESULTS: We identified 135 admissions amongst 91 patients. Medications administered included diazepam (133 admissions, 98.5%), antipsychotics (olanzapine [70 admissions, 51.9%]), baclofen (114 admissions, 84%), and phenobarbital (8 admissions, 5.9%). Features of delirium were diagnosed in 21 (16%) admissions. Delirium was associated with higher daily GHB consumption prior to admission, while duration of GHB use, time from presentation to first dose of diazepam, and concomitant methamphetamine use were inversely associated with delirium. DAMA occurred amongst 41 (30%) admissions, and was associated with a longer time from presentation to first dose of baclofen, while being female and receiving a loading dose of diazepam were inversely associated. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the literature in support of the safety and feasibility of diazepam and baclofen for the management of GHB withdrawal. Prospective, randomised trials are required.


Assuntos
Delírio , Oxibato de Sódio , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Oxibato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Baclofeno/uso terapêutico , Pacientes Internados , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Urbanos , Diazepam , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Registros Médicos , 4-Butirolactona/uso terapêutico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...