Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 129
Filtrar
1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(7): 4421-4432, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334076

RESUMO

Lipids adhere to membrane proteins to stimulate or suppress molecular and ionic transport and signal transduction. Yet, the molecular details of lipid-protein interaction and their functional impact are poorly characterized. Here we combine NMR, coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD), and functional assays to reveal classic cooperativity in the binding and subsequent activation of a bacterial inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channel by phosphatidylglycerol (PG), a common component of many membranes. Past studies of lipid activation of Kir channels focused primarily on phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate, a relatively rare signaling lipid that is tightly regulated in space and time. We use solid-state NMR to quantify the binding of unmodified 13C-PG to the K+ channel KirBac1.1 in liposomes. This specific lipid-protein interaction has a dissociation constant (Kd) of ∼7 mol percentage PG (ΧPG) with positive cooperativity (n = 3.8) and approaches saturation near 20% ΧPG. Liposomal flux assays show that K+ flux also increases with PG in a cooperative manner with an EC50 of ∼20% ΧPG, within the physiological range. Further quantitative fitting of these data reveals that PG acts as a partial (80%) agonist with fivefold K+ flux amplification. Comparisons of NMR chemical shift perturbation and CGMD simulations at different ΧPG confirm the direct interaction of PG with key residues, several of which would not be accessible to lipid headgroups in the closed state of the channel. Allosteric regulation by a common lipid is directly relevant to the activation mechanisms of several human ion channels. This study highlights the role of concentration-dependent lipid-protein interactions and tightly controlled protein allostery in the activation and regulation of ion channels.


Assuntos
Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização , Humanos , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/química , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/metabolismo , Lipossomos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
2.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1869(4): 159467, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382574

RESUMO

Gram-negative bacteria possess an asymmetric outer membrane (OM) primarily composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the outer leaflet and phospholipids on the inner leaflet. The outer membrane functions as an effective permeability barrier to compounds such as antibiotics. Studying LPS biosynthesis is therefore helpful to explore novel strategies for new antibiotic development. Metabolic glycan labeling of the bacterial surface has emerged as a powerful method to investigate LPS biosynthesis. However, the previously reported methods of labeling LPS are based on radioactivity or difficult-to-produce analogs of bacterial sugars. In this study, we report on the incorporation of azido galactose into the LPS of the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi via metabolic labeling. As a common sugar analog, azido galactose successfully labeled both O-antigen and core of Salmonella LPS, but not E. coli LPS. This labeling of Salmonella LPS, as shown by SDS-PAGE analysis and fluorescence microscopy, differs from the previously reported labeling of either O-antigen or core of LPS. Our findings are useful for studying LPS biogenesis pathways in Gram-negative bacteria like Salmonella. In addition, our approach is helpful for screening for agents that target LPS biosynthesis as it allows for the detection of newly synthesized LPS that appears in the OM. Furthermore, this approach may also aid in isolating chemically modified LPS for vaccine development or immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Lipopolissacarídeos , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Galactose/metabolismo , Antígenos O/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Antibacterianos
3.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1866(3): 184282, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218577

RESUMO

Epilancin 15X is a lantibiotic that has an antimicrobial activity in the nanomolar concentration range towards Staphylococcus simulans. Such low MICs usually imply that these peptides employ a mechanism of action (MoA) involving high affinity targets. Here we studied this MoA by using epilancin 15X's ability to dissipate the membrane potential of intact S. simulans cells. These membrane depolarization assays showed that treatment of the bacteria by antibiotics known to affect the bacterial cell wall synthesis pathway decreased the membrane depolarization effects of epilancin 15X. Disruption of the Lipid II cycle in intact bacteria using several methods led to a decrease in the activity of epilancin 15X. Antagonism-based experiments on 96-well plate and agar diffusion plate pointed towards a possible interaction between epilancin 15X and Lipid II and this was confirmed by Circular Dichroism (CD) based experiments. However, this interaction did not lead to a detectable effect on either carboxyfluorescein (CF) leakage or proton permeability. All experiments point to the involvement of a phosphodiester-containing target within a polyisoprene-based biosynthesis pathway, yet the exact identity of the target remains obscure so far.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia
4.
Biophys J ; 122(23): 4503-4517, 2023 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37905401

RESUMO

Lipid oxidation is a universal degradative process of cell membrane lipids that is induced by oxidative stress and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in multiple pathophysiological situations. It has been shown that certain oxidized lipids alter membrane properties, leading to a loss of membrane function. Alteration of membrane properties is thought to depend on the initial membrane lipid composition, such as the number of acyl chain unsaturations. However, it is unclear how oxidative damage is related to biophysical properties of membranes. We therefore set out to quantify lipid oxidation through various analytical methods and determine key biophysical membrane parameters using model membranes containing lipids with different degrees of lipid unsaturation. As source for RONS, we used cold plasma, which is currently developed as treatment for infections and cancer. Our data revealed complex lipid oxidation that can lead to two main permeabilization mechanisms. The first one appears upon direct contact of membranes with RONS and depends on the formation of truncated oxidized phospholipids. These lipids seem to be partly released from the bilayer, implying that they are likely to interact with other membranes and potentially act as signaling molecules. This mechanism is independent of lipid unsaturation, does not rely on large variations in lipid packing, and is most probably mediated via short-living RONS. The second mechanism takes over after longer incubation periods and probably depends on the continued formation of lipid oxygen adducts such as lipid hydroperoxides or ketones. This mechanism depends on lipid unsaturation and involves large variations in lipid packing. This study indicates that polyunsaturated lipids, which are present in mammalian membranes rather than in bacteria, do not sensitize membranes to instant permeabilization by RONS but could promote long-term damage.


Assuntos
Bicamadas Lipídicas , Lipídeos de Membrana , Animais , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Oxigênio , Mamíferos/metabolismo
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 261: 115853, 2023 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37857144

RESUMO

Teixobactin is a cyclic undecadepsipeptide that has shown excellent potency against multidrug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). In this article, we present the design, synthesis, and antibacterial evaluations of 16 different teixobactin analogues. These simplified analogues contain commercially available hydrophobic, non-proteogenic amino acid residues instead of synthetically challenging expensive L-allo-enduracididine amino acid residue at position 10 together with different combinations of arginines at positions 3, 4 and 9. The new teixobactin analogues showed potent antibacterial activity against a broad panel of Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA and VRE strains. Our work also presents the first demonstration of the potent antibiofilm activity of teixobactin analogoues against Staphylococcus species associated with serious chronic infections. Our results suggest that the use of hydrophobic, non-proteogenic amino acids at position 10 in combination with arginine at positions 3, 4 and 9 holds the key to synthesising a new generation of highly potent teixobactin analogues to tackle resistant bacterial infections and biofilms.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
6.
Cell ; 186(19): 4059-4073.e27, 2023 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37611581

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a leading mortality factor worldwide. Here, we report the discovery of clovibactin, an antibiotic isolated from uncultured soil bacteria. Clovibactin efficiently kills drug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial pathogens without detectable resistance. Using biochemical assays, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and atomic force microscopy, we dissect its mode of action. Clovibactin blocks cell wall synthesis by targeting pyrophosphate of multiple essential peptidoglycan precursors (C55PP, lipid II, and lipid IIIWTA). Clovibactin uses an unusual hydrophobic interface to tightly wrap around pyrophosphate but bypasses the variable structural elements of precursors, accounting for the lack of resistance. Selective and efficient target binding is achieved by the sequestration of precursors into supramolecular fibrils that only form on bacterial membranes that contain lipid-anchored pyrophosphate groups. This potent antibiotic holds the promise of enabling the design of improved therapeutics that kill bacterial pathogens without resistance development.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Microbiologia do Solo , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Difosfatos
7.
bioRxiv ; 2023 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37292624

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a leading mortality factor worldwide. Here we report the discovery of clovibactin, a new antibiotic, isolated from uncultured soil bacteria. Clovibactin efficiently kills drug-resistant bacterial pathogens without detectable resistance. Using biochemical assays, solid-state NMR, and atomic force microscopy, we dissect its mode of action. Clovibactin blocks cell wall synthesis by targeting pyrophosphate of multiple essential peptidoglycan precursors (C 55 PP, Lipid II, Lipid WTA ). Clovibactin uses an unusual hydrophobic interface to tightly wrap around pyrophosphate, but bypasses the variable structural elements of precursors, accounting for the lack of resistance. Selective and efficient target binding is achieved by the irreversible sequestration of precursors into supramolecular fibrils that only form on bacterial membranes that contain lipid-anchored pyrophosphate groups. Uncultured bacteria offer a rich reservoir of antibiotics with new mechanisms of action that could replenish the antimicrobial discovery pipeline.

8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1865(6): 184160, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37100361

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) commonly target bacterial membranes and show broad-spectrum activity against microorganisms. In this research we used three AMPs (nisin, epilancin 15×, [R4L10]-teixobactin) and tested their membrane effects towards three strains (Staphylococcus simulans, Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus megaterium) in relation with their antibacterial activity. We describe fluorescence and luminescence-based assays to measure effects on membrane potential, intracellular pH, membrane permeabilization and intracellular ATP levels. The results show that our control peptide, nisin, performed mostly as expected in view of its targeted pore-forming activity, with fast killing kinetics that coincided with severe membrane permeabilization in all three strains. However, the mechanisms of action of both Epilancin 15× as well as [R4L10]-teixobactin appeared to depend strongly on the bacterium tested. In certain specific combinations of assay, peptide and bacterium, deviations from the general picture were observed. This was even the case for nisin, indicating the importance of using multiple assays and bacteria for mode of action studies to be able to draw proper conclusions on the mode of action of AMPs.


Assuntos
Nisina , Nisina/farmacologia , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Bactérias , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química
9.
Chemistry ; 28(70): e202202472, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098094

RESUMO

Specific interactions with phospholipids are often critical for the function of proteins or drugs, but studying these interactions at high resolution remains difficult, especially in complex membranes that mimic biological conditions. In principle, molecular interactions with phospholipids could be directly probed by solid-state NMR (ssNMR). However, due to the challenge to detect specific lipids in mixed liposomes and limited spectral sensitivity, ssNMR studies of specific lipids in complex membranes are scarce. Here, by using purified biological 13 C,15 N-labeled phospholipids, we show that we can selectively detect traces of specific lipids in complex membranes. In combination with 1 H-detected ssNMR, we show that our approach provides unprecedented high-resolution insights into the mechanisms of drugs that target specific lipids. This broadly applicable approach opens new opportunities for the molecular characterization of specific lipid interactions with proteins or drugs in complex fluid membranes.


Assuntos
Lipossomos , Proteínas , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular/métodos , Proteínas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Lipossomos/química , Fosfolipídeos , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química
10.
iScience ; 25(8): 104753, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942089

RESUMO

N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is an essential monosaccharide required in almost all organisms. Fluorescent labeling of the peptidoglycan (PG) on N-acetylglucosamine has been poorly explored. Here, we report on the labeling of the PG with a bioorthogonal handle on the GlcNAc. We developed a facile one-step synthesis of uridine diphosphate N-azidoacetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAz) using the glycosyltransferase OleD, followed by in vitro incorporation of GlcNAz into the peptidoglycan precursor Lipid II and fluorescent labeling of the azido group via click chemistry. In a PG synthesis assay, fluorescent GlcNAz-labeled Lipid II was incorporated into peptidoglycan by the DD-transpeptidase activity of bifunctional class A penicillin-binding proteins. We further demonstrate the incorporation of GlcNAz into the PG layer of OleD-expressed bacteria by feeding with 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl GlcNAz (GlcNAz-CNP). Hence, our labeling method using the heterologous expression of OleD is useful to study PG synthesis and possibly other biological processes involving GlcNAc metabolism in vivo.

11.
Nature ; 608(7922): 390-396, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922513

RESUMO

Antibiotics that use novel mechanisms are needed to combat antimicrobial resistance1-3. Teixobactin4 represents a new class of antibiotics with a unique chemical scaffold and lack of detectable resistance. Teixobactin targets lipid II, a precursor of peptidoglycan5. Here we unravel the mechanism of teixobactin at the atomic level using a combination of solid-state NMR, microscopy, in vivo assays and molecular dynamics simulations. The unique enduracididine C-terminal headgroup of teixobactin specifically binds to the pyrophosphate-sugar moiety of lipid II, whereas the N terminus coordinates the pyrophosphate of another lipid II molecule. This configuration favours the formation of a ß-sheet of teixobactins bound to the target, creating a supramolecular fibrillar structure. Specific binding to the conserved pyrophosphate-sugar moiety accounts for the lack of resistance to teixobactin4. The supramolecular structure compromises membrane integrity. Atomic force microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations show that the supramolecular structure displaces phospholipids, thinning the membrane. The long hydrophobic tails of lipid II concentrated within the supramolecular structure apparently contribute to membrane disruption. Teixobactin hijacks lipid II to help destroy the membrane. Known membrane-acting antibiotics also damage human cells, producing undesirable side effects. Teixobactin damages only membranes that contain lipid II, which is absent in eukaryotes, elegantly resolving the toxicity problem. The two-pronged action against cell wall synthesis and cytoplasmic membrane produces a highly effective compound targeting the bacterial cell envelope. Structural knowledge of the mechanism of teixobactin will enable the rational design of improved drug candidates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Membrana Celular , Depsipeptídeos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/citologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Depsipeptídeos/química , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Difosfatos/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Pirrolidinas/química , Açúcares/química
12.
PLoS Genet ; 18(1): e1009993, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986161

RESUMO

SEDS (Shape, Elongation, Division and Sporulation) proteins are widely conserved peptidoglycan (PG) glycosyltransferases that form complexes with class B penicillin-binding proteins (bPBPs, with transpeptidase activity) to synthesize PG during bacterial cell growth and division. Because of their crucial roles in bacterial morphogenesis, SEDS proteins are one of the most promising targets for the development of new antibiotics. However, how SEDS proteins recognize their substrate lipid II, the building block of the PG layer, and polymerize it into glycan strands is still not clear. In this study, we isolated and characterized dominant-negative alleles of FtsW, a SEDS protein critical for septal PG synthesis during bacterial cytokinesis. Interestingly, most of the dominant-negative FtsW mutations reside in extracellular loops that are highly conserved in the SEDS family. Moreover, these mutations are scattered around a central cavity in a modeled FtsW structure, which has been proposed to be the active site of SEDS proteins. Consistent with this, we found that these mutations blocked septal PG synthesis but did not affect FtsW localization to the division site, interaction with its partners nor its substrate lipid II. Taken together, these results suggest that the residues corresponding to the dominant-negative mutations likely constitute the active site of FtsW, which may aid in the design of FtsW inhibitors.


Assuntos
Bactérias/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Domínio Catalítico , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Peptidoglicano/biossíntese , Conformação Proteica , Uridina Difosfato Ácido N-Acetilmurâmico/análogos & derivados , Uridina Difosfato Ácido N-Acetilmurâmico/metabolismo
13.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 694847, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335524

RESUMO

Lipo-tridecapeptides, a class of bacterial non-ribosomally produced peptides, show strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. However, many of these lipo-tridecapeptides have shown high hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity, which has limited their potential to be developed into antibiotics. Recently, we reported a novel antimicrobial lipo-tridecapeptide, brevibacillin 2V, which showed no hemolytic activity against human red blood cells at a high concentration of 128 mg/L, opposite to other brevibacillins and lipo-tridecapeptides. In addition, brevibacillin 2V showed much lower cytotoxicity than the other members of the brevibacillin family. In this study, we set out to elucidate the antimicrobial mode of action of brevibacillin 2V. The results show that brevibacillin 2V acts as bactericidal antimicrobial agent against S. aureus (MRSA). Further studies show that brevibacillin 2V exerts its bactericidal activity by binding to the bacterial cell wall synthesis precursor Lipid II and permeabilizing the bacterial membrane. Combined solid-state NMR, circular dichroism, and isothermal titration calorimetry assays indicate that brevibacillin 2V binds to the GlcNAc-MurNAc moiety and/or the pentapeptide of Lipid II. This study provides an insight into the antimicrobial mode of action of brevibacillin 2V. As brevibacillin 2V is a novel and promising antibiotic candidate with low hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity, the here-elucidated mode of action will help further studies to develop it as an alternative antimicrobial agent.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 693725, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220785

RESUMO

Bacterial non-ribosomally produced peptides (NRPs) form a rich source of antibiotics, including more than 20 of these antibiotics that are used in the clinic, such as penicillin G, colistin, vancomycin, and chloramphenicol. Here we report the identification, purification, and characterization of a novel NRP, i.e., brevibacillin 2V (lipo-tridecapeptide), from Brevibacillus laterosporus DSM 25. Brevibacillin 2V has a strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacterial pathogens (minimum inhibitory concentration = 2 mg/L), including difficult-to-treat antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Notably, brevibacillin 2V has a much lower hemolytic activity (HC50 > 128 mg/L) and cytotoxicity (CC50 = 45.49 ± 0.24 mg/L) to eukaryotic cells than previously reported NRPs of the lipo-tridecapeptide family, including other brevibacillins, which makes it a promising candidate for antibiotic development. In addition, our results demonstrate that brevibacillins display a synergistic action with established antibiotics against Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Probably due to the presence of non-canonical amino acids and D-amino acids, brevibacillin 2V showed good stability in human plasma. Thus, we identified and characterized a novel and promising antimicrobial candidate (brevibacillin 2V) with low hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity, which can be used either on its own or as a template for further total synthesis and modification.

15.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1865(9): 129951, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides are considered potential alternatives to antibiotics. Here we describe the antibacterial properties of a family of novel cathelicidin-related (CR-) peptides, which we named PepBiotics, against bacteria typically present in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. METHODS: Broth dilution assays were used to determine antibacterial activity of PepBiotics under physiological conditions, as well as development of bacterial resistance against these peptides. Toxicity was tested in mice and cell cultures while molecular interactions of PepBiotics with bacterial membrane components was determined using CD, ITC and LPS/LTA induced macrophage studies. RESULTS: A relatively small number of PepBiotics remained highly antibacterial against CF-related respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, at high ionic strength and low pH. Interestingly, these PepBiotics also prevented LPS/LTA induced activation of macrophages and was shown to be non-toxic to primary human nasal epithelial cells. Furthermore, both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were unable to induce resistance against CR-163 and CR-172, two PepBiotics selected for their excellent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. Toxicity studies in mice indicated that intratracheal administration of CR-163 was well tolerated in vivo. Finally, interaction of CR-163 with bacterial-type anionic membranes but not with mammalian-type (zwitterionic lipid) membranes was confirmed using ITC and 31P solid state NMR. CONCLUSIONS: PepBiotics are a promising novel class of highly active antimicrobial peptides, of which CR-163 showed the most potential for treatment of clinically relevant (CF-) pathogens in physiological conditions. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: These observations emphasize the therapeutic potential of PepBiotics against CF-related bacterial respiratory infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Catelicidinas
16.
Cell Surf ; 7: 100053, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036206

RESUMO

Bacteria encase their cytoplasmic membrane with peptidoglycan (PG) to maintain the shape of the cell and protect it from bursting. The enlargement of the PG layer is facilitated by the coordinated activities of PG synthesising and -cleaving enzymes. In Escherichia coli, the cytoplasmic membrane-bound lytic transglycosylase MltG associates with PG synthases and was suggested to terminate the polymerisation of PG glycan strands. Using pull-down and surface plasmon resonance, we detected interactions between MltG from Bacillus subtilis and two PG synthases; the class A PBP1 and the class B PBP2B. Using in vitro PG synthesis assays with radio-labelled or fluorophore-labelled B. subtilis-type and/or E. coli-type lipid II, we showed that both, BsMltG and EcMltG, are lytic tranglycosylases and that their activity is higher during ongoing glycan strand polymerisation. MltG competed with the transpeptidase activity of class A PBPs, but had no effect on their glycosyltransferase activity, and produced glycan strands with a length of 7 disaccharide units from cleavage in the nascent strands. We hypothesize that MltG cleaves the nascent strands to produce short glycan strands that are used in the cell for a yet unknown process.

17.
Elife ; 102021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625355

RESUMO

Peptidoglycan is an essential component of the bacterial cell envelope that surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane to protect the cell from osmotic lysis. Important antibiotics such as ß-lactams and glycopeptides target peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are bifunctional membrane-bound peptidoglycan synthases that polymerize glycan chains and connect adjacent stem peptides by transpeptidation. How these enzymes work in their physiological membrane environment is poorly understood. Here, we developed a novel Förster resonance energy transfer-based assay to follow in real time both reactions of class A PBPs reconstituted in liposomes or supported lipid bilayers and applied this assay with PBP1B homologues from Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii in the presence or absence of their cognate lipoprotein activator. Our assay will allow unravelling the mechanisms of peptidoglycan synthesis in a lipid-bilayer environment and can be further developed to be used for high-throughput screening for new antimicrobials.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Peptidoglicano Glicosiltransferase/genética , Peptidoglicano/biossíntese , D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxipeptidase Tipo Serina/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano Glicosiltransferase/metabolismo , D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxipeptidase Tipo Serina/metabolismo
18.
mBio ; 11(6)2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144379

RESUMO

Sporulation-related repeat (SPOR) domains are present in many bacterial cell envelope proteins and are known to bind peptidoglycan. Escherichia coli contains four SPOR proteins, DamX, DedD, FtsN, and RlpA, of which FtsN is essential for septal peptidoglycan synthesis. DamX and DedD may also play a role in cell division, based on mild cell division defects observed in strains lacking these SPOR domain proteins. Here, we show by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that the periplasmic part of DedD consists of a disordered region followed by a canonical SPOR domain with a structure similar to that of the SPOR domains of FtsN, DamX, and RlpA. The absence of DamX or DedD decreases the functionality of the bifunctional transglycosylase-transpeptidase penicillin-binding protein 1B (PBP1B). DamX and DedD interact with PBP1B and stimulate its glycosyltransferase activity, and DamX also stimulates the transpeptidase activity. DedD also binds to PBP1A and stimulates its glycosyltransferase activity. Our data support a direct role of DamX and DedD in enhancing the activity of PBP1B and PBP1A, presumably during the synthesis of the cell division septum.IMPORTANCEEscherichia coli has four SPOR proteins that bind peptidoglycan, of which FtsN is essential for cell division. DamX and DedD are suggested to have semiredundant functions in cell division based on genetic evidence. Here, we solved the structure of the SPOR domain of DedD, and we show that both DamX and DedD interact with and stimulate the synthetic activity of the peptidoglycan synthases PBP1A and PBP1B, suggesting that these class A PBP enzymes act in concert with peptidoglycan-binding proteins during cell division.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefsulodina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/química , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano Glicosiltransferase/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica
19.
J Biol Chem ; 295(52): 18256-18265, 2020 12 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109614

RESUMO

Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential constituent of the bacterial cell wall. During cell division, the machinery responsible for PG synthesis localizes mid-cell, at the septum, under the control of a multiprotein complex called the divisome. In Escherichia coli, septal PG synthesis and cell constriction rely on the accumulation of FtsN at the division site. Interestingly, a short sequence of FtsN (Leu75-Gln93, known as EFtsN) was shown to be essential and sufficient for its functioning in vivo, but what exactly this sequence is doing remained unknown. Here, we show that EFtsN binds specifically to the major PG synthase PBP1b and is sufficient to stimulate its biosynthetic glycosyltransferase (GTase) activity. We also report the crystal structure of PBP1b in complex with EFtsN, which demonstrates that EFtsN binds at the junction between the GTase and UB2H domains of PBP1b. Interestingly, mutations to two residues (R141A/R397A) within the EFtsN-binding pocket reduced the activation of PBP1b by FtsN but not by the lipoprotein LpoB. This mutant was unable to rescue the ΔponB-ponAts strain, which lacks PBP1b and has a thermosensitive PBP1a, at nonpermissive temperature and induced a mild cell-chaining phenotype and cell lysis. Altogether, the results show that EFtsN interacts with PBP1b and that this interaction plays a role in the activation of its GTase activity by FtsN, which may contribute to the overall septal PG synthesis and regulation during cell division.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano Glicosiltransferase/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxipeptidase Tipo Serina/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Peptidoglicano Glicosiltransferase/genética , Ligação Proteica , D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxipeptidase Tipo Serina/genética
20.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(7)2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630634

RESUMO

Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential polymer of the bacterial cell wall and a major antibacterial target. Its synthesis requires glycosyltransferase (GTase) and transpeptidase enzymes that, respectively, catalyze glycan chain elongation and their cross-linking to form the protective sacculus of the bacterial cell. The GTase domain of bifunctional penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of class A, such as Escherichia coli PBP1b, belong to the GTase 51 family. These enzymes play an essential role in PG synthesis, and their specific inhibition by moenomycin was shown to lead to bacterial cell death. In this work, we report that the aminosterol squalamine and mimic compounds present an unexpected mode of action consisting in the inhibition of the GTase activity of the model enzyme PBP1b. In addition, selected compounds were able to specifically displace the lipid II from the active site in a fluorescence anisotropy assay, suggesting that they act as competitive inhibitors.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...