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An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(1): e20191322, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359285


Dry residue of cassava was studied on the digestibility, performance, intestinal measurements, with or without inclusion of carbohydrases, of slow-growing broilers. 160 Label Rouge broiler chickens, 21-d-old, were distributed in a randomized, 2x5 factorial arrangement (male and female x 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% residue) (metabolism trial). 1,100 male chicks were distributed in a 2x5 factorial arrangement (with/without carbohydrases x 0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; and 10.0% residue), with five replicates (performance trial). Increasing residue levels led to increases in energetic values. Feed intake from 1-21-d-old and 1-63-d-old decreased linearly. At 42 d-old, feed intake and weight gain levels exhibited a quadratic response, which predicted a highest value at 3.32% and 4.77%, respectively, for diets without carbohydrases. For 21- and 42-d-old chickens, the inclusion of carbohydrases reduced the weight and length of the small intestine. The energetic values of the diets were positively influenced by the residue and had similar digestibility values for both sexes. Inclusion of up to 10% of residue in slow-growing broiler diets does not impaired performance and intestinal morphology. The addition of carbohydrases reduced the viscosity of the digesta but it was not enough to improve the performance of the birds.

Galinhas , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Manihot , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Manihot/química , Verduras
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(1): 18, 2022 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542179


Two experiments were performed to evaluate the digestibility and growth performance of New Zealand White rabbits fed corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS). For the digestibility trial, 20 rabbits were housed in metabolic cages. The animals were distributed in two treatments, T1 (control diet without inclusion of DDGS) and T2 (control diet + 300 g kg-1 DDGS). For the growth performance trial, 100 rabbits (50 males and 50 females) were assigned in a factorial design 2 × 5 (2 gender × 5 inclusions of DDGS) and five replicates. The treatments were composed of diets with inclusions of 0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 g kg-1 of DDGS. The rabbits were housed at 35 days old, and the experiment lasted 35 days. The DDGS showed high digestibility for protein (74.10%) and lipids (81.51%) and a high content of digestible energy (2979 kcal kg-1). In the second trial, growth performance and carcass yield and organ relative weights were evaluated. There were no interactions between gender and DDGS inclusions (P > 0.05). A linear decrease was observed for feed intake (FI) for the period from days 35 to 50 (FI, P = 0.001) and FI and FCR from days 35 to 70 (FI, P = 0.004; FCR, P = 0.001) with the increasing levels of DDGS. Rabbits supplemented with 240 g kg-1 had lower (P < 0.05) whole carcass yield (WCY) and carcass without head yield compared with the control rabbits. DDGS is highly digestible in rabbits, and when supplemented up to 240 g kg-1 in diets, it improved FCR but reduced FI and WCY.

Tecido Adiposo , Composição Corporal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Coelhos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Grão Comestível , Nutrientes , Zea mays
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(6): 389, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409401


A study was conducted to assess the chemical composition and apparent metabolizable energy (AME), nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEn), and their respective coefficients of dry brewery residue (DBR) for broilers. A second study was conducted to evaluate the increasing inclusions of DBR in broiler diets and its effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood metabolites, and meat quality. In the first trial (metabolism assay), a total of 250 male broilers were assigned to 5 diets (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 g DBR/kg) composed by 5 replications with 10 animals per cage in a completely randomized design in the period from days 11 to 21. There was an increasing linear effect for AME, AMEn, metabolizable coefficient of gross energy (MCGE), and MCGE corrected for N (MCGEn). In the second experiment, a total of 840 one-day-old male broiler chickens were assigned to 6 treatments (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 g DBR/kg) with 7 replications and 20 animals per pen, from days 0 to 42. Growth performance was determined at days 21 and 42. There was an increasing linear effect for weight gain in the period from days 0 to 21 and for feed intake from days 0 to 42. A linear decreasing effect was observed at day 21 for cholesterol and quadratic effect for uric acid (UA), aspartate aminotransferase, and albumin. At day 42, there was a quadratic effect for UA and creatinine. At day 21, an increasing linear effect was observed for protein deposition rate. In conclusion, the inclusion of DBR up to 100 g/kg improved WG in the starter phase and did not negatively affect the productive parameters of broilers from days 0 to 42.

Galinhas , Carne , Animais , Masculino , Albuminas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona
Anim Biosci ; 35(1): 54-63, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332941


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the replacement of degummed soybean oil (DSO) by acid soybean oil (ASO) in diets with or without the inclusion of emulsifier on broiler performance, relative organ weight, lipase activity, intestinal morphometry, and nutrient digestibility. METHODS: A total of 704 1-day-old male broiler chicks were allotted to a 2×2 completely randomized factorial design (with or without emulsifier × two lipid sources [ASO and DSO]), with eight replicates and 22 birds each. The metabolizable energy level in diets with emulsifier was reduced by 40 kcal/kg from 1 to 21 d and 50 kcal/kg from 22 to 49 d. RESULTS: Broilers fed diets containing ASO without emulsifier had higher (p = 0.005) weight gain than DSO-fed animals and with the inclusion of emulsifier had worse (p = 0.018) feed conversion ratio (FCR). Birds fed diets with emulsifier worsened FCR regardless of lipid source from 1 to 21 days (p = 0.006) and from 1 to 49 days (p = 0.0002). There was an increase (p = 0.026) in the relative pancreas weight, at 14 days, in birds fed diets containing ASO. Lipase activity and morphometry of the duodenum and jejunum, at 14 and 21 days, were not affected (p>0.05). The dietary inclusion of emulsifier improved the digestible energy (p = 0.053) in the presence of ASO. For the digestibility coefficients (gross energy, crude protein, and mineral matter), no interference was observed (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The inclusion of emulsifier to energy-restricted diet with ASO maintained broiler performance in the first week, but worsened FCR in subsequent phases. The ASO can be considered as an alternative lipid source to DSO and does not interfere with the morphophysiological characteristics and performance of broilers. The combination of ASO and emulsifier increased the digestible energy content by 6.2%.

Poult Sci ; 100(12): 101490, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768044


This study evaluated the level and length of time of vitamin A supplementation and its effects on carcass and cuts yield, meat quality, and myopathies in 42-day-old broilers. A total of 1,920 birds were divided into 6 groups, and each group received a different level of vitamin A: 0; 6,000; 16,000; 26,000; 36,000 and 46,000 IU/ kg. From d 1 to 21, the treatments were distributed among 16 replicates with 20 birds. From the 22nd d on, 8 repetitions remained with the initial treatment and the others received diets with no vitamin A supplementation. Twelve birds were slaughtered per treatment to evaluate carcass and cuts yield, shear force, cooking loss, water holding capacity, and the presence of substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid. The remaining birds were slaughtered and evaluated in loco for Wooden Breast (WB) and White Striping (WS). Wings weight was affected by vitamin A levels. The duration of the vitamin A supplementation process had effects on the weight of breast, legs with a dorsal portion, and meat color in the yellow intensity (b*). Incidence of WB had higher scores in birds supplemented until 42 d of age. WS showed a quadratic response and a lower response with supplementation of 29,700 IU/ kg. Even for WS, a higher occurrence of the normal score was found in birds supplemented until 21 d of age. Minimal quadratic responses were obtained for normal, moderate, and severe scores, in supplementations of 29,301; 29,959, and 29,827 IU/ kg, respectively. WB had lower occurrence rates in birds supplemented until 21 d of age. Consequently, the severe score was more frequent when supplementation was provided until 42 d of age. The level of vitamin A and the length of time during which this supplementation was provided had influence on cuts yield, meat color and the incidence of WB and WS of the 42-day-old birds.

Galinhas , Vitamina A , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise , Músculos Peitorais
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(5): 2677-2685, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472283


This study evaluated the carcass and portion yield and meat quality of slow-growing broilers fed diets with increasing levels of dry residue of cassava (DRC), with or without the addition of carbohydrases. A total of 1100 Label Rouge male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized 2 × 5 factorial design (with or without the addition of carbohydrases and five levels of DRC [0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0%]), with five replicates and 22 birds per experimental unit. No interaction (P > 0.05) was observed between enzyme addition and DRC levels for the carcass yield, portion yield (back, legs, wings, breast), or abdominal fat variables. There was an interaction (P < 0.05) between the addition of enzyme and DRC on breast pH 15 min post-mortem and the a* intensity of the breast in a colorimetry test. There was a quadratic effect on b* intensity independent of adding enzymes, with the lowest intensity predicted at 8.89% DRC. Regarding feet color, increasing DRC supplementation (independent of enzyme supplementation) led to an increase and decrease in L* and b* intensity, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, there was a quadratic effect on a* intensity, with a lower level of intensity predicted at 6.93% DRC (P < 0.05), regardless of the inclusion of enzymes. The inclusion of up to 10% dry residue of cassava in slow-growing broiler diets does not affect carcass and portion yield or the qualitative characteristics of the meat but does reduce the color of the breast meat and feet.

Galinhas/fisiologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Manihot/química , Carne/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
Ciênc. rural ; 42(11): 2071-2077, nov. 2012. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-654320


O trabalho foi realizado para avaliar as características de carcaça e carne de suínos machos castrados e imunocastrados alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis nutricionais. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos principais (T1-suínos machos castrados alimentados com dieta basal; T2-machos imunocastrados alimentados com dieta basal; T3-machos imunocastrados alimentados com dieta basal+3% aminoácidos e energia; T4-machos imunocastrados alimentados com dieta basal+5% aminoácidos e energia) e dois tratamentos secundários com ou sem ractopamina dentro de cada tratamento principal. Os suínos machos castrados apresentaram peso de abate 3,3% inferior (P<0,05), peso de carcaça fria 1,4% superior (P<0,05) e peso de carré 13% superior (P<0,05) em relação aos machos imunocastrados. Suínos machos imunocastrados suplementados com 5% a mais de aminoácidos e energia apresentaram costela 19% mais (P<0,05) pesada e valores superiores (P<0,05) na coloração b* (amarelo-azul) na carne aos 45min e às 24h pós-abate em relação aos machos castrados alimentados com a dieta basal. A suplementação com 5% de aminoácidos e energia aumenta o peso e rendimento de costela e altera o valor da coloração b* (amarelo-azul) na carne aos 45min e às 24h pós-abate de suínos machos imunocastrados.

The study was carried out to evaluate the carcass characteristics and meat of surgically castrated and immunocastrated pigs fed with different nutritional levels. The animals were distribuited in a completely randomized experimental design with four main treatments (T1-surgically castrated pigs fed with basal diet; T2-immunocastrated pigs fed with basal diet; T3-immunocastrated pigs fed with basal diet+3% amino acids and energy; T4-immunocastrated pigs fed with basal diet+5% amino acids and energy) and two secondary treatments with or without ractopamine within each main treatment. The surgically castrated pigs had slaughter weight 3.3% lower (P<0.05), cold carcass weight 1.4% higher (P<0.05) and loin chop weight 13% higher (P<0.05) compared to immunocastred pigs. The immunocastrated pigs supplemented with 5% more amino acids and energy had rib 19% more heavier (P<0.05) and higher values (P<0.05) in the color b* (yellow-blue) in the meat to 45min and 24h post-slaughter compared with surgically castrated pigs fed with basal diet. Supplementation with 5% amino acids and energy increases weight and yield of rib and changes the value of color b* (yellow-blue) in the meat to 45min and 24h post-slaughter male pigs immunocastrated.