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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503508

RESUMO

Surprisingly little attention has been given to the impact of selfing on speciation, even though selfing reduces gene flow between populations and affects other key population genetics parameters. Here we review recent theoretical work and compile empirical data from crossing experiments and genomic and phylogenetic studies to assess the effect of mating systems on the speciation process. In accordance with theoretical predictions, we find that accumulation of hybrid incompatibilities seems to be accelerated in selfers, but there is so far limited empirical support for a predicted bias toward underdominant loci. Phylogenetic evidence is scarce and contradictory, including studies suggesting that selfing either promotes or hampers speciation rate. Further studies are therefore required, which in addition to measures of reproductive barrier strength and selfing rate should routinely include estimates of demographic history and genetic divergence as a proxy for divergence time.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 12(17)2023 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37687332

RESUMO

The floras on the highest mountains in tropical eastern Africa are among the most unique floras in the world. Despite the exceptionally high concentration of endemic species, these floras remain understudied from an evolutionary point of view. In this study, we focus on the Carduus-Cirsium group (subtribe Carduinae) to unravel the evolutionary relationships of the species endemic to the tropical Afromontane and Afroalpine floras, aiming to improve the systematics of the group. We applied the Hyb-Seq approach using the Compositae1061 probe set on 190 samples (159 species), encompassing representatives of all genera of Carduinae. We used two recently developed pipelines that enabled the processing of raw sequence reads, identification of paralogous sequences and segregation into orthologous alignments. After the implementation of a missing data filter, we retained sequences from 986 nuclear loci and 177 plastid regions. Phylogenomic analyses were conducted using both concatenated and summary-coalescence methods. The resulting phylogenies were highly resolved and revealed three distinct evolutionary lineages consisting of the African species traditionally referred to as Carduus and Cirsium. Consequently, we propose the three new genera Afrocarduus, Afrocirsium and Nuriaea; the latter did notably not belong to the Carduus-Cirsium group. We detected some incongruences between the phylogenies based on concatenation vs. coalescence and on nuclear vs. plastid datasets, likely attributable to incomplete lineage sorting and/or hybridization.

3.
Plants (Basel) ; 12(11)2023 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37299192

RESUMO

The Afromontane and Afroalpine areas constitute some of the main biodiversity hotspots of Africa. They are particularly rich in plant endemics, but the biogeographic origins and evolutionary processes leading to this outstanding diversity are poorly understood. We performed phylogenomic and biogeographic analyses of one of the most species-rich plant genera in these mountains, Helichrysum (Compositae-Gnaphalieae). Most previous studies have focused on Afroalpine elements of Eurasian origin, and the southern African origin of Helichrysum provides an interesting counterexample. We obtained a comprehensive nuclear dataset from 304 species (≈50% of the genus) using target-enrichment with the Compositae1061 probe set. Summary-coalescent and concatenation approaches combined with paralog recovery yielded congruent, well-resolved phylogenies. Ancestral range estimations revealed that Helichrysum originated in arid southern Africa, whereas the southern African grasslands were the source of most lineages that dispersed within and outside Africa. Colonization of the tropical Afromontane and Afroalpine areas occurred repeatedly throughout the Miocene-Pliocene. This timing coincides with mountain uplift and the onset of glacial cycles, which together may have facilitated both speciation and intermountain gene flow, contributing to the evolution of the Afroalpine flora.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 18(12): e1010353, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36520924

RESUMO

Self-fertilisation is widespread among hermaphroditic species across the tree of life. Selfing has many consequences on the genetic diversity and the evolutionary dynamics of populations, which may in turn affect macroevolutionary processes such as speciation. On the one hand, because selfing increases genetic drift and reduces migration rate among populations, it may be expected to promote speciation. On the other hand, because selfing reduces the efficacy of selection, it may be expected to hamper ecological speciation. To better understand under which conditions and in which direction selfing affects the build-up of reproductive isolation, an explicit population genetics model is required. Here, we focus on the interplay between genetic drift, selection and genetic linkage by studying speciation without gene flow. We test how fast populations with different rates of selfing accumulate mutations leading to genetic incompatibilities. When speciation requires populations to pass through a fitness valley caused by underdominant and compensatory mutations, selfing reduces the depth and/or breadth of the valley, and thus overall facilitates the fixation of incompatibilities. When speciation does not require populations to pass through a fitness valley, as for Bateson-Dobzhanzky-Muller incompatibilities (BDMi), the lower effective population size and higher genetic linkage in selfing populations both facilitate the fixation of incompatibilities. Interestingly, and contrary to intuitive expectations, local adaptation does not always accelerate the fixation of incompatibilities in outcrossing relative to selfing populations. Our work helps to clarify how incompatibilities accumulate in selfing vs. outcrossing lineages, and has repercussions on the pace of speciation as well as on the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation.


Assuntos
Deriva Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Evolução Biológica , Genética Populacional , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Especiação Genética
5.
Mol Ecol ; 31(16): 4271-4285, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753053

RESUMO

Little is known about the evolution of cold tolerance in polar plant species and how they differ from temperate relatives. To gain insight into their biology and the evolution of cold tolerance, we compared the molecular basis of cold response in three Arctic Brassicaceae species. We conducted a comparative time series experiment to examine transcriptional responses to low temperature. RNA was sampled at 22°C, and after 3, 6, and 24 at 2°C. We then identified sets of genes that were differentially expressed in response to cold and compared them between species, as well as to published data from the temperate Arabidopsis thaliana. Most differentially expressed genes were species-specific, but a significant portion of the cold response was also shared among species. Among thousands of differentially expressed genes, ~200 were shared among the three Arctic species and A. thaliana, while ~100 were exclusively shared among the three Arctic species. Our results show that cold response differs markedly between Arctic Brassicaceae species, but probably builds on a conserved basis found across the family. They also confirm that highly polygenic traits such as cold tolerance may show little repeatability in their patterns of adaptation.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassicaceae , Aclimatação/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Brassicaceae/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma/genética
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(22): e2112737119, 2022 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617436

RESUMO

Tropical alpine floras are renowned for high endemism, spectacular giant rosette plants testifying to convergent adaptation to harsh climates with nightly frosts, and recruitment dominated by long-distance dispersal from remote areas. In contrast to the larger, more recent (late Miocene onward) and contiguous expanses of tropical alpine habitat in South America, the tropical alpine flora in Africa is extremely fragmented across small patches on distant mountains of variable age (Oligocene onward). How this has affected the colonization and diversification history of the highly endemic but species-poor afroalpine flora is not well known. Here we infer phylogenetic relationships of ∼20% of its species using novel genome skimming data and published matrices and infer a timeframe for species origins in the afroalpine region using fossil-calibrated molecular clocks. Although some of the mountains are old, and although stem node ages may substantially predate colonization, most lineages appear to have colonized the afroalpine during the last 5 or 10 My. The accumulation of species increased exponentially toward the present. Taken together with recent reports of extremely low intrapopulation genetic diversity and recent intermountain population divergence, this points to a young, unsaturated, and dynamic island scenario. Habitat disturbance caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations likely induced cycles of colonization, speciation, extinction, and recolonization. This study contributes to our understanding of differences in the histories of recruitment on different tropical sky islands and on oceanic islands, providing insight into the general processes shaping their remarkable floras.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Plantas , África Oriental , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Humanos , Ilhas , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Plantas/genética , População
7.
Ann Bot ; 129(2): 171-184, 2022 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Arctic tundra, with its extreme temperatures and short growing season, is evolutionarily young and harbours one of the most species-poor floras on Earth. Arctic species often show little phenotypic and genetic divergence across circumpolar ranges. However, strong intraspecific post-zygotic reproductive isolation (RI) in terms of hybrid sterility has frequently evolved within selfing Arctic species of the genus Draba. Here we assess whether incipient biological species are common in the Arctic flora. METHODS: We conducted an extensive crossing experiment including six species representing four phylogenetically distant families collected across the circumpolar Arctic. We crossed conspecific parental populations representing different spatial scales, raised 740 F1 hybrids to maturity and measured fertility under laboratory conditions. We examined genetic divergence between populations for two of these species (Cardamine bellidifolia and Ranunculus pygmaeus). KEY RESULTS: In five of the six species, we find extensive reduction in pollen fertility and seed set in F1 hybrids; 219 (46 %) of the 477 F1 hybrids generated between parents separated by ≥427 km had <20 % pollen fertility. Isolation with migration (IM) and *BEAST analyses of sequences of eight nuclear genes in C. bellidifolia suggests that reproductively isolated populations of this species diverged during, or even after, the last glaciation. Likewise, Arctic populations of R. pygmaeus were genetically very similar despite exhibiting strongly reduced fertility in crosses, suggesting that RI evolved recently also in this species. CONCLUSION: We show that post-zygotic RI has developed multiple times within taxonomically recognized Arctic species belonging to several distantly related lineages, and that RI may have developed over just a few millennia. Rapid and widespread evolution of incipient biological species in the Arctic flora might be associated with frequent bottlenecks due to glacial cycles, and/or selfing mating systems, which are common in the harsh Arctic environment where pollinators are scarce.


Assuntos
Cardamine , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Hibridização Genética , Plantas , Pólen/genética , Reprodução
8.
New Phytol ; 231(1): 75-84, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817798

RESUMO

Phytochromes play a central role in mediating adaptive responses to light and temperature throughout plant life cycles. Despite evidence for adaptive importance of natural variation in phytochromes, little information is known about molecular mechanisms that modulate physiological responses of phytochromes in nature. We show evolutionary divergence in physiological responses relevant to thermal stability of a physiologically active form of phytochrome (Pfr) between two sister species of Brassicaceae growing at different latitudes. The higher latitude species (Cardamine bellidifolia; Cb) responded more strongly to light-limited conditions compared with its lower latitude sister (C. nipponica; Cn). Moreover, CbPHYB conferred stronger responses to both light-limited and warm conditions in the phyB-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana than CnPHYB: that is Pfr CbphyB was more stable in nuclei than CnphyB. Our findings suggest that fine tuning Pfr stability is a fundamental mechanism for plants to optimise phytochrome-related traits in their evolution and adapt to spatially varying environments, and open a new avenue to understand molecular mechanisms that fine tune phytochrome responses in nature.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Fitocromo , Arabidopsis/genética , Luz , Fitocromo B/genética
9.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 21(3): 661-676, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058468

RESUMO

The Arctic is one of the most extreme terrestrial environments on the planet. Here, we present the first chromosome-scale genome assembly of a plant adapted to the high Arctic, Draba nivalis (Brassicaceae), an attractive model species for studying plant adaptation to the stresses imposed by this harsh environment. We used an iterative scaffolding strategy with data from short-reads, single-molecule long reads, proximity ligation data, and a genetic map to produce a 302 Mb assembly that is highly contiguous with 91.6% assembled into eight chromosomes (the base chromosome number). To identify candidate genes and gene families that may have facilitated adaptation to Arctic environmental stresses, we performed comparative genomic analyses with nine non-Arctic Brassicaceae species. We show that the D. nivalis genome contains expanded suites of genes associated with drought and cold stress (e.g., related to the maintenance of oxidation-reduction homeostasis, meiosis, and signaling pathways). The expansions of gene families associated with these functions appear to be driven in part by the activity of transposable elements. Tests of positive selection identify suites of candidate genes associated with meiosis and photoperiodism, as well as cold, drought, and oxidative stress responses. Our results reveal a multifaceted landscape of stress adaptation in the D. nivalis genome, offering avenues for the continued development of this species as an Arctic model plant.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Brassicaceae , Genoma de Planta , Regiões Árticas , Brassicaceae/genética , Genômica
10.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0228979, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187202

RESUMO

Distantly related lineages of the enigmatic giant rosette plants of tropical alpine environments provide classical examples of convergent adaptation. For the giant senecios (Dendrosenecio), the endemic landmarks of the East African sky islands, it has also been suggested that parallel adaptation has been important for within-lineage differentiation. To test this hypothesis and to address potential gene flow and hybridization among the isolated sky islands, we organized field expeditions to all major mountains. We sampled all currently accepted species and all but one subspecies and genotyped 460 plants representing 109 populations. We tested whether genetic structuring corresponds to geography, as predicted by a parallel adaptation hypothesis, or to altitudinal belt and habitat rather than mountains, as predicted by a hypothesis of a single origin of adaptations. Bayesian and Neighbor-Net analyses showed that the main genetic structure is shallow and largely corresponds to geography, supporting a hypothesis of recent, rapid radiation via parallel altitude/habitat adaptation on different mountains. We also found evidence for intermountain admixture, suggesting several long-distance dispersals by wind across vast areas of unsuitable habitat. The combination of parallel adaptation, secondary contact, and hybridization may explain the complex patterns of morphological variation and the contradicting taxonomic treatments of these rare enigmatic giants, supporting the use of wide taxonomic concepts. Notably, the within-population genetic diversity was very low and calls for increased conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/métodos , DNA de Plantas/genética , Senécio/anatomia & histologia , Senécio/classificação , Adaptação Biológica , África Oriental , Fluxo Gênico , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Hibridização Genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Senécio/genética
11.
Mol Biol Evol ; 37(7): 2052-2068, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167553

RESUMO

Extreme environments offer powerful opportunities to study how different organisms have adapted to similar selection pressures at the molecular level. Arctic plants have adapted to some of the coldest and driest biomes on Earth and typically possess suites of similar morphological and physiological adaptations to extremes in light and temperature. Here, we compare patterns of molecular evolution in three Brassicaceae species that have independently colonized the Arctic and present some of the first genetic evidence for plant adaptations to the Arctic environment. By testing for positive selection and identifying convergent substitutions in orthologous gene alignments for a total of 15 Brassicaceae species, we find that positive selection has been acting on different genes, but similar functional pathways in the three Arctic lineages. The positively selected gene sets identified in the three Arctic species showed convergent functional profiles associated with extreme abiotic stress characteristic of the Arctic. However, there was little evidence for independently fixed mutations at the same sites and for positive selection acting on the same genes. The three species appear to have evolved similar suites of adaptations by modifying different components in similar stress response pathways, implying that there could be many genetic trajectories for adaptation to the Arctic environment. By identifying candidate genes and functional pathways potentially involved in Arctic adaptation, our results provide a framework for future studies aimed at testing for the existence of a functional syndrome of Arctic adaptation in the Brassicaceae and perhaps flowering plants in general.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Brassicaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Seleção Genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Regiões Árticas
12.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 35(2): 149-162, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699414

RESUMO

Although logistically challenging to study, the Arctic is a bellwether for global change and is becoming a model for questions pertinent to the persistence of biodiversity. Disruption of Arctic ecosystems is accelerating, with impacts ranging from mixing of biotic communities to individual behavioral responses. Understanding these changes is crucial for conservation and sustainable economic development. Genomic approaches are providing transformative insights into biotic responses to environmental change, but have seen limited application in the Arctic due to a series of limitations. To meet the promise of genome analyses, we urge rigorous development of biorepositories from high latitudes to provide essential libraries to improve the conservation, monitoring, and management of Arctic ecosystems through genomic approaches.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Genômica
13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 139, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321473

RESUMO

DNA-based snapshots of ancient vegetation have shown that the composition of high-latitude plant communities changed considerably during the late Quaternary. However, parallel changes in biotic interactions remain largely uninvestigated. Here we show how mutualisms involving plants and heterotrophic organisms varied during the last 50,000 years. During 50-25 ka BP, a cool period featuring stadial-interstadial fluctuations, arbuscular mycorrhizal and non-N-fixing plants predominated. During 25-15 ka BP, a cold, dry interval, the representation of ectomycorrhizal, non-mycorrhizal and facultatively mycorrhizal plants increased, while that of N-fixing plants decreased further. From 15 ka BP, which marks the transition to and establishment of the Holocene interglaciation, representation of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants decreased further, while that of ectomycorrhizal, non-mycorrhizal, N-fixing and wind-pollinated plants increased. These changes in the mutualist trait structure of vegetation may reflect responses to historical environmental conditions that are without current analogue, or biogeographic processes, such as spatial decoupling of mutualist partners.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , DNA Antigo/análise , Micorrizas/genética , Plantas/genética , Simbiose , Ciclo do Carbono/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clima , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , História Antiga , Micorrizas/classificação , Nitrogênio/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fixação de Nitrogênio/fisiologia , Plantas/classificação , Polinização/fisiologia , Datação Radiométrica
14.
Mol Ecol ; 26(20): 5773-5783, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28815785

RESUMO

The circumarctic ranges of arctic-alpine plants are thought to have been established in the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene, when the modern arctic tundra was formed in response to climate cooling. Previous findings of range-wide genetic structure in arctic-alpine plants have been thought to support this hypothesis, but few studies have explicitly addressed the temporal framework of the genetic structure. Here, we estimated the demographic history of the genetic structure in the circumarctic Kalmia procumbens using sequences of multiple nuclear loci and examined whether its genetic structure reflects prolonged isolation throughout the Pleistocene. Both Bayesian clustering and phylogenetic analyses revealed genetic distinction between alpine and arctic regions, whereas detailed groupings were somewhat discordant between the analyses. By assuming a population grouping based on the phylogenetic analyses, which likely reflects a deeper intraspecific divergence, we conducted model-based analyses and demonstrated that the intraspecific genetic divergence in K. procumbens likely originated during the last glacial period. Thus, there is no need to postulate range separation throughout the Pleistocene to explain the current genetic structure in this species. This study demonstrates that range-wide genetic structure in arctic-alpine plants does not necessarily result from the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene origin of their circumarctic ranges and emphasizes the importance of a temporal framework of the current genetic structure for understanding the biogeographic history of the arctic flora.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ericaceae/genética , Genética Populacional , Filogenia , Regiões Árticas , Teorema de Bayes , Clima , Modelos Genéticos
15.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0178208, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28552970

RESUMO

The scattered eastern African high mountains harbor a renowned and highly endemic flora, but the taxonomy and phylogeographic history of many plant groups are still insufficiently known. The high-alpine populations of the Geranium arabicum/kilimandscharicum complex present intricate morphological variation and have recently been suggested to comprise two new endemic taxa. Here we aim to contribute to a clarification of the taxonomy of these populations by analyzing genetic (AFLP) variation in range-wide high-alpine samples, and we address whether hybridization has contributed to taxonomic problems. We identified only two genetic groups. One corresponded to G. kilimandscharicum, which has been reported as exclusively high-alpine and confined to the eastern Rift mountains in East Africa. The other corresponded to G. arabicum, reported from lower altitudes on the same mountains as well as from a wide altitudinal span in Ethiopia and on the western Rift mountains in East Africa. The four populations analyzed of a recently described species from the Bale Mts in Ethiopia were admixed, indicating that they result from recent long-distance dispersal of G. kilimandscharicum from East Africa followed by hybridization with local G. arabicum in naturally disturbed habitats. Some admixture between the two genetic groups was also inferred on other mountains, supporting earlier suggestions of introgression based on morphology. We did not find support for recognition of the recently suggested new subspecies of G. arabicum in Ethiopia. Interestingly, the high-alpine G. kilimandscharicum lacked clear geographic structuring, suggesting a recent history of colonization of the different mountains or extensive intermountain gene flow.


Assuntos
Altitude , Geranium/genética , Clima Tropical , África Oriental , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Genes de Plantas , Geranium/classificação
16.
Mol Ecol ; 26(13): 3513-3532, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28390111

RESUMO

High tropical mountains harbour remarkable and fragmented biodiversity thought to a large degree to have been shaped by multiple dispersals of cold-adapted lineages from remote areas. Few dated phylogenetic/phylogeographic analyses are however available. Here, we address the hypotheses that the sub-Saharan African sweet vernal grasses have a dual colonization history and that lineages of independent origins have established secondary contact. We carried out rangewide sampling across the eastern African high mountains, inferred dated phylogenies from nuclear ribosomal and plastid DNA using Bayesian methods, and performed flow cytometry and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) analyses. We inferred a single Late Pliocene western Eurasian origin of the eastern African taxa, whose high-ploid populations in one mountain group formed a distinct phylogeographic group and carried plastids that diverged from those of the currently allopatric southern African lineage in the Mid- to Late Pleistocene. We show that Anthoxanthum has an intriguing history in sub-Saharan Africa, including Late Pliocene colonization from southeast and north, followed by secondary contact, hybridization, allopolyploidization and local extinction during one of the last glacial cycles. Our results add to a growing body of evidence showing that isolated tropical high mountain habitats have a dynamic recent history involving niche conservatism and recruitment from remote sources, repeated dispersals, diversification, hybridization and local extinction.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Poaceae/classificação , África do Norte , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Teorema de Bayes , Filogeografia
17.
Ecol Evol ; 6(24): 8931-8941, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28035281

RESUMO

The main aim of this paper is to address consequences of climate warming on loss of habitat and genetic diversity in the enigmatic tropical alpine giant rosette plants using the Ethiopian endemic Lobelia rhynchopetalum as a model. We modeled the habitat suitability of L. rhynchopetalum and assessed how its range is affected under two climate models and four emission scenarios. We used three statistical algorithms calibrated to represent two different complexity levels of the response. We analyzed genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphisms and assessed the impact of the projected range loss. Under all model and scenario combinations and consistent across algorithms and complexity levels, this afro-alpine flagship species faces massive range reduction. Only 3.4% of its habitat seems to remain suitable on average by 2,080, resulting in loss of 82% (CI 75%-87%) of its genetic diversity. The remaining suitable habitat is projected to be fragmented among and reduced to four mountain peaks, further deteriorating the probability of long-term sustainability of viable populations. Because of the similar morphological and physiological traits developed through convergent evolution by tropical alpine giant rosette plants in response to diurnal freeze-thaw cycles, they most likely respond to climate change in a similar way as our study species. We conclude that specialized high-alpine giant rosette plants, such as L. rhynchopetalum, are likely to face very high risk of extinction following climate warming.

18.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0159133, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27416020

RESUMO

Human population expansion and associated degradation of the habitat of many wildlife species cause loss of biodiversity and species extinctions. The small Simen Mountains National Park in Ethiopia is one of the last strongholds for the preservation of a number of afro-alpine mammals, plants and birds, and it is home to the rare endemic Walia ibex, Capra walie. The narrow distribution range of this species as well as potential competition for resources with livestock, especially with domestic goat, Capra hircus, may compromise its future survival. Based on a curated afro-alpine taxonomic reference library constructed for plant taxon identification, we investigated the diet of the Walia ibex and addressed the dietary overlap with domestic goat using DNA metabarcoding of faecal samples. Faeces of both species were collected from different localities in the National Park. We show that both species are browsers, with forbs, shrubs and trees comprising the largest proportion of their diet, supplemented by grasses. There was a considerable overlap in dietary preferences. Several of the preferred diet items of the Walia ibex (Alchemilla sp., Hypericum revolutum, Erica arborea and Rumex sp.) were also among the most preferred diet items of the domestic goat. These results indicate that there is potential for competition between the two species, especially during the dry season, when resources are limited. Our findings, in combination with the expected increase in domestic herbivores, suggest that management plans should consider the potential threat posed by domestic goats to ensure future survival of the endangered Walia ibex.


Assuntos
Dieta , Cabras , Plantas Comestíveis/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Etiópia , Fezes/química , Preferências Alimentares , Cabras/classificação , Plantas Comestíveis/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
New Phytol ; 211(2): 719-34, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27037925

RESUMO

The flora on the isolated high African mountains or 'sky islands' is remarkable for its peculiar adaptations, local endemism and striking biogeographical connections to remote parts of the world. Ages of the plant lineages and the timing of their radiations have frequently been debated but remain contentious as there are few estimates based on explicit models and fossil-calibrated molecular clocks. We used the plastid region maturaseK (matK) and a Caryophylloflora paleogenica fossil to infer the age of the genus Lychnis, and constructed a data set of three plastid (matK; a ribosomal protein S16 (rps16); and an intergenic spacer (psbE-petL)) and two nuclear (internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a region spanning exon 18-24 in the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2)) loci for joint estimation of the species tree and divergence time of the African representatives. The time of divergence of the African high-altitude Lychnis was placed in the late Miocene to early Pliocene. A single speciation event was inferred in the early Pliocene; subsequent speciation took place sporadically from the late Pliocene to the middle Pleistocene. We provide further support for a Eurasian origin of the African 'sky islands' floral elements, which seem to have been recruited via dispersals at different times: some old, as in Lychnis, and others very recent. We show that dispersal and diversification within Africa play an important role in shaping these isolated plant communities.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Lychnis/genética , Datação Radiométrica , África , Calibragem , DNA de Plantas/genética , Loci Gênicos , Geografia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 95: 152-60, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26691641

RESUMO

Many arctic-alpine plants display a highly disjunct distribution between the Arctic/Boreal regions and the southern Asian mountains. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of this biogeographic pattern: (1) south-to-north migration in the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene, and (2) north-to-south migration during the Miocene. The genus Cassiope is disjunctly distributed between the Arctic/Boreal regions and the Himalayan-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) and was selected to test these hypotheses. We constructed a fossil-calibrated phylogeny of Ericaceae using two plastid regions to estimate the crown group age of Cassiope, and used sequence data from thousands of loci produced by restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to reconstruct the phylogeny of Cassiope. We also performed Bayesian divergence time analysis and biogeographic analysis. The Cassiope crown group was estimated to have originated in the Miocene, which predates the onset of Northern hemisphere glaciation. All HHM species formed a clade together with one eastern Siberian species, and this clade was sister to all other Arctic/Boreal species. This topology implies a northern origin of Cassiope, which is confirmed by our biogeographic analysis. Our results thus suggest that the ancient north-to-south migration hypothesis is most consistent with the origin of Cassiope.


Assuntos
Ericaceae/classificação , Ericaceae/genética , Filogeografia , Regiões Árticas , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , China , Fósseis , Especiação Genética , Mianmar , Nepal , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
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