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1.
Sci Adv ; 10(20): eadj3301, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758780

RESUMO

Myeloid cells are highly prevalent in glioblastoma (GBM), existing in a spectrum of phenotypic and activation states. We now have limited knowledge of the tumor microenvironment (TME) determinants that influence the localization and the functions of the diverse myeloid cell populations in GBM. Here, we have utilized orthogonal imaging mass cytometry with single-cell and spatial transcriptomic approaches to identify and map the various myeloid populations in the human GBM tumor microenvironment (TME). Our results show that different myeloid populations have distinct and reproducible compartmentalization patterns in the GBM TME that is driven by tissue hypoxia, regional chemokine signaling, and varied homotypic and heterotypic cellular interactions. We subsequently identified specific tumor subregions in GBM, based on composition of identified myeloid cell populations, that were linked to patient survival. Our results provide insight into the spatial organization of myeloid cell subpopulations in GBM, and how this is predictive of clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Células Mieloides , Microambiente Tumoral , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Análise de Célula Única , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
2.
Cell Rep ; 43(5): 114217, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728141

RESUMO

While brain swelling, associated with fluid accumulation, is a known feature of pediatric cerebral malaria (CM), how fluid and macromolecules are drained from the brain during recovery from CM is unknown. Using the experimental CM (ECM) model, we show that fluid accumulation in the brain during CM is driven by vasogenic edema and not by perivascular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) influx. We identify that fluid and molecules are removed from the brain extremely quickly in mice with ECM to the deep cervical lymph nodes (dcLNs), predominantly through basal routes and across the cribriform plate and the nasal lymphatics. In agreement, we demonstrate that ligation of the afferent lymphatic vessels draining to the dcLNs significantly impairs fluid drainage from the brain and lowers anti-malarial drug recovery from the ECM syndrome. Collectively, our results provide insight into the pathways that coordinate recovery from CM.


Assuntos
Edema Encefálico , Malária Cerebral , Animais , Malária Cerebral/patologia , Camundongos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vasos Linfáticos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linfonodos/patologia , Plasmodium berghei , Feminino , Masculino
3.
Dis Model Mech ; 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775430

RESUMO

Hyperinflammatory disease is associated with an aberrant immune response resulting in cytokine storm. One such instance of hyperinflammatory disease is known as macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). The pathology of MAS can be characterised by significantly elevated serum levels of interleukin (IL)-18 and interferon (IFN)-γ. Given the role for IL-18 in MAS, we sought to establish the role of inflammasomes in the disease process. Using a murine model of CpG-DNA induced MAS, we discovered that the expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome was increased and correlated with IL-18 production. Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome, or downstream caspase-1, prevented MAS-mediated upregulation of plasma IL-18 but interestingly did not alleviate key features of hyperinflammatory disease including hyperferritinaemia and splenomegaly. Furthermore IL-1 receptor blockade with IL-1Ra did not prevent the development of CpG-induced MAS, despite being clinically effective in the treatment of MAS. These data demonstrate that in the development of MAS, the NLRP3 inflammasome was essential for the elevation in plasma IL-18, a key cytokine in clinical cases of MAS, but was not a driving factor in the pathogenesis of CpG-induced MAS.

4.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585834

RESUMO

Inflammation is a key contributor to stroke pathogenesis and drives exacerbated brain damage leading to poor outcome. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is an important regulator of post-stroke inflammation, and blocking its actions is beneficial in pre-clinical stroke models and safe in the clinical setting. IL-1α and IL-1ß are the two major IL-1 type 1 receptor (IL-1R1) agonists from the IL-1 family. The distinct roles of both isoforms, and particularly that of IL-1α, remain largely unknown. Here we show that IL-1α and IL-1ß have different spatio-temporal expression profiles in the brain after experimental stroke, with early microglial IL-1α expression (4 h) and delayed IL-1ß expression in infiltrated neutrophils and a small microglial subset (24-72 h). We examined the specific contribution of microglial-derived IL-1α in experimental permanent and transient ischemic stroke through cell-specific tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP-mediated recombination. Microglial IL-1α deletion did not influence acute brain damage, cerebral blood flow, IL-1ß expression, neutrophil infiltration, microglial nor endothelial activation after ischemic stroke. However, microglial IL-1α knock out (KO) mice showed reduced peri-infarct vessel density and reactive astrogliosis at 14 days post-stroke, alongside a worse functional recovery. RNA sequencing analysis and subsequent pathway analysis on ipsilateral/contralateral cortex 4 h after stroke revealed a downregulation of the neuronal CREB signaling pathway in microglial IL-1α KO compared to WT mice. Our study identifies for the first time a critical role for microglial IL-1α on neuronal activity, neurorepair and functional recovery after stroke, highlighting the importance of targeting specific IL-1 mechanisms in brain injury to develop more effective therapies.

5.
ANZ J Surg ; 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38529778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive pancreatic resection has been gathering interest over the last decade due to the technical demands and high morbidity associated with these typically open procedures. We report our experience with robotic pancreatectomy within an Australian context. METHODS: All patients undergoing robotic distal pancreatectomy (DP) and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) at two Australian tertiary academic hospitals between May 2014 and December 2020 were included. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients underwent robotic pancreatectomy during the study period. Thirty-four patients with a median age of 68 years (range 42-84) were in the PD group whilst the DP group included 28 patients with a median age of 60 years (range 18-78). Thirteen patients (46.4%) in the DP group had spleen-preserving procedures. There were 13 conversions (38.2%) in the PD group whilst 0 conversions occurred in the DP group. The Clavien-Dindo grade ≥III complication rate was 26.4% and 17.9% in the PD and DP groups, respectively. Two deaths (5.9%) occurred within 90-days in the PD group whilst none were observed in the DP group. The median length of hospital stay was 11.5 days (range 4-56) in the PD group and 6 days (range 2-22) in the DP group. CONCLUSION: Robotic pancreatectomy outcomes at our institution are comparable with international literature demonstrating it is both safe and feasible to perform. With improved access to this platform, robotic pancreas surgery may prove to be the turning point for patients with regards to post-operative complications as more experience is obtained.

6.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38464243

RESUMO

Hyperinflammatory disease is associated with an aberrant immune response resulting in cytokine storm. One such instance of hyperinflammatory disease is known as macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). The pathology of MAS can be characterised by significantly elevated serum levels of interleukin (IL)-18 and interferon (IFN)-γ. Given the role for IL-18 in MAS, we sought to establish the role of inflammasomes in the disease process. Using a murine model of CpG-DNA induced MAS, we discovered that the expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome was increased and correlated with IL-18 production. Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome, or downstream caspase-1, prevented MAS-mediated upregulation of plasma IL-18 but interestingly did not alleviate key features of hyperinflammatory disease including hyperferritinaemia and splenomegaly. Furthermore IL-1 receptor blockade with IL-1Ra did not prevent the development of CpG-induced MAS, despite being clinically effective in the treatment of MAS. These data demonstrate that in the development of MAS, the NLRP3 inflammasome was essential for the elevation in plasma IL-18, a key cytokine in clinical cases of MAS, but was not a driving factor in the pathogenesis of CpG-induced MAS.

7.
iScience ; 27(2): 108968, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327788

RESUMO

Excessive or aberrant NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been implicated in the progression and initiation of many inflammatory conditions; however, currently no NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors have been approved for therapeutic use in the clinic. Here we have identified that the natural product brazilin effectively inhibits both priming and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in cultured murine macrophages, a human iPSC microglial cell line and in a mouse model of acute peritoneal inflammation. Through computational modeling, we predict that brazilin can adopt a favorable binding pose within a site of the NLRP3 protein which is essential for its conformational activation. Our results not only encourage further evaluation of brazilin as a therapeutic agent for NLRP3-related inflammatory diseases, but also introduce this small-molecule as a promising scaffold structure for the development of derivative NLRP3 inhibitor compounds.

8.
Cell Death Discov ; 9(1): 469, 2023 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38129373

RESUMO

The NLRP3 inflammasome is a component of the inflammatory response to infection and injury, orchestrating the maturation and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-18, and triggering pyroptotic cell death. Appropriate levels of NLRP3 activation are needed to avoid excessive tissue damage while ensuring host protection. Here we report a role for symmetrical diarylsquaramides as selective K+ efflux-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome enhancers. Treatment of macrophages with squaramides potentiated IL-1ß secretion and ASC speck formation in response to K+ efflux-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activators without affecting priming, endosome cargo trafficking, or activation of other inflammasomes. The squaramides lowered intracellular K+ concentration which enabled cells to respond to a below-threshold dose of the inflammasome activator nigericin. Taken together these data further highlight the role of ion flux in inflammasome activation and squaramides as an interesting platform for therapeutic development in conditions where enhanced NLRP3 activity could be beneficial.

9.
Brain Commun ; 5(4): fcad197, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37680691

RESUMO

Bilateral vestibular schwannoma is the hallmark of NF2-related schwannomatosis, a rare tumour predisposition syndrome associated with a lifetime of surgical interventions, radiotherapy and off-label use of the anti-angiogenic drug bevacizumab. Unilateral vestibular schwannoma develops sporadically in non-NF2-related schwannomatosis patients for which there are no drug treatment options available. Tumour-infiltrating immune cells such as macrophages and T-cells correlate with increased vestibular schwannoma growth, which is suggested to be similar in sporadic and NF2-related schwannomatosis tumours. However, differences between NF2-related schwannomatosis and the more common sporadic disease include NF2-related schwannomatosis patients presenting an increased number of tumours, multiple tumour types and younger age at diagnosis. A comparison of the tumour microenvironment in sporadic and NF2-related schwannomatosis tumours is therefore required to underpin the development of immunotherapeutic targets, identify the possibility of extrapolating ex vivo data from sporadic vestibular schwannoma to NF2-related schwannomatosis and help inform clinical trial design with the feasibility of co-recruiting sporadic and NF2-related schwannomatosis patients. This study drew together bulk transcriptomic data from three published Affymetrix microarray datasets to compare the gene expression profiles of sporadic and NF2-related schwannomatosis vestibular schwannoma and subsequently deconvolved to predict the abundances of distinct tumour immune microenvironment populations. Data were validated using quantitative PCR and Hyperion imaging mass cytometry. Comparative bioinformatic analyses revealed close similarities in NF2-related schwannomatosis and sporadic vestibular schwannoma tumours across the three datasets. Significant inflammatory markers and signalling pathways were closely matched in NF2-related schwannomatosis and sporadic vestibular schwannoma, relating to the proliferation of macrophages, angiogenesis and inflammation. Bulk transcriptomic and imaging mass cytometry data identified macrophages as the most abundant immune population in vestibular schwannoma, comprising one-third of the cell mass in both NF2-related schwannomatosis and sporadic tumours. Importantly, there were no robust significant differences in signalling pathways, gene expression, cell type abundance or imaging mass cytometry staining between NF2-related schwannomatosis and sporadic vestibular schwannoma. These data indicate strong similarities in the tumour immune microenvironment of NF2-related schwannomatosis and sporadic vestibular schwannoma.

10.
Neurooncol Adv ; 5(Suppl 1): i94-i104, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37287576

RESUMO

NF2-schwannomatosis is the most common genetic predisposition syndrome associated with meningioma. Meningioma in NF2-schwannomatosis is a major source of morbidity and mortality. This is due to accumulative tumor burden in patients with synchronous schwannomas and ependymomas, sometimes including complex collision tumors. Balancing the impact of multiple interventions against the natural history of various index tumors, and the ongoing risk of de novo tumors over an individual's lifetime makes decision-making complex. The management of any given individual meningioma is often different from a comparable sporadic tumor. There is typically a greater emphasis on conservative management and tolerating growth until a risk boundary is reached, whereby symptomatic deterioration or higher risk from anticipated future treatment is threatened. Management by high-volume multidisciplinary teams improves quality of life and life expectancy. Surgery remains the mainstay treatment for symptomatic and rapidly enlarging meningioma. Radiotherapy has an important role but carries a higher risk compared to its use in sporadic disease. Whilst bevacizumab is effective in NF2-associated schwannoma and cystic ependymoma, it has no value in the management of meningioma. In this review, we describe the natural history of the disease, underlying genetic, molecular, and immune microenvironment changes, current management paradigms, and potential therapeutic targets.

11.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285323, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37141324

RESUMO

Monocytes contribute to the pro-inflammatory immune response during the blood stage of a Plasmodium falciparum infection, but their precise role in malaria pathology is not clear. Besides phagocytosis, monocytes are activated by products from P. falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) and one of the activation pathways is potentially the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a multi-protein complex that leads to the production of interleukin (IL)-1ß. In cerebral malaria cases, monocytes accumulate at IE sequestration sites in the brain microvascular and the locally produced IL-1ß, or other secreted molecules, could contribute to leakage of the blood-brain barrier. To study the activation of monocytes by IE within the brain microvasculature in an in vitro model, we co-cultured IT4var14 IE and the monocyte cell line THP-1 for 24 hours and determined whether generated soluble molecules affect barrier function of human brain microvascular endothelial cells, measured by real time trans-endothelial electrical resistance. The medium produced after co-culture did not affect endothelial barrier function and similarly no effect was measured after inducing oxidative stress by adding xanthine oxidase to the co-culture. While IL-1ß does decrease barrier function, barely any IL-1ß was produced in the co- cultures, indicative of a lack of or incomplete THP-1 activation by IE in this co-culture model.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum , Plasmodium falciparum , Humanos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo
12.
iScience ; 26(5): 106758, 2023 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37216118

RESUMO

Inflammation driven by DNA sensors is now understood to be important to disease pathogenesis. Here, we describe new inhibitors of DNA sensing, primarily of the inflammasome forming sensor AIM2. Biochemistry and molecular modeling has revealed 4-sulfonic calixarenes as potent inhibitors of AIM2 that likely work by binding competitively to the DNA-binding HIN domain. Although less potent, these AIM2 inhibitors also inhibit DNA sensors cGAS and TLR9 demonstrating a broad utility against DNA-driven inflammatory responses. The 4-sulfonic calixarenes inhibited AIM2-dependent post-stroke T cell death, highlighting a proof of concept that the 4-sulfonic calixarenes could be effective at combating post-stroke immunosuppression. By extension, we propose a broad utility against DNA-driven inflammation in disease. Finally, we reveal that the drug suramin, by virtue of its structural similarities, is an inhibitor of DNA-dependent inflammation and propose that suramin could be rapidly repurposed to meet an increasing clinical need.

13.
Clin Immunol ; 249: 109287, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36907540

RESUMO

Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common type of hearing loss in adults and occurs due to damage of the inner ear caused by a range of factors including ageing, excessive noise, toxins, and cancer. Auto-inflammatory disease is also a cause of hearing loss and there is evidence that inflammation could contribute to hearing loss in other conditions. Within the inner ear there are resident macrophage cells that respond to insults and whose activation correlates with damage. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-molecular pro-inflammatory protein complex that forms in activated macrophages and may contribute to hearing loss. The aim of this article is to discuss the evidence for the NLRP3 inflammasome and associated cytokines as potential therapeutic targets for sensorineural hearing loss in conditions ranging from auto-inflammatory disease to tumour-induced hearing loss in vestibular schwannoma.


Assuntos
Orelha Interna , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial , Perda Auditiva , Adulto , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/etiologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/metabolismo , Orelha Interna/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva/complicações
14.
Sci Signal ; 16(773): eabm7134, 2023 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36809026

RESUMO

Inflammation driven by the NLRP3 inflammasome is coordinated through multiple signaling pathways and is regulated by subcellular organelles. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NLRP3 senses disrupted endosome trafficking to trigger inflammasome formation and inflammatory cytokine secretion. NLRP3-activating stimuli disrupted endosome trafficking and triggered localization of NLRP3 to vesicles positive for endolysosomal markers and for the inositol lipid PI4P. Chemical disruption of endosome trafficking sensitized macrophages to the NLRP3 activator imiquimod, driving enhanced inflammasome activation and cytokine secretion. Together, these data suggest that NLRP3 can sense disruptions in the trafficking of endosomal cargoes, which may explain in part the spatial activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. These data highlight mechanisms that could be exploited in the therapeutic targeting of NLRP3.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo
15.
Neurosurgery ; 92(3): 581-589, 2023 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36729787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that macrophage infiltration in the tumor microenvironment promotes vestibular schwannoma (VS) growth. Efficacy of bevacizumab in NF2-associated VS demonstrates the value of therapies targeting the microvascular tumor microenvironment, and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) may represent another druggable target. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationship between growth, TAM infiltration, and circulating monocyte chemokines in a large cohort of patients with VS. METHODS: Immunostaining for Iba1 (macrophages), CD31 (endothelium), and fibrinogen (permeability) was performed on 101 growing and 19 static sporadic VS. The concentrations of monocyte-specific chemokines were measured in the plasma of 50 patients with growing VS and 25 patients with static VS. RESULTS: The Iba1 + cell count was significantly higher in growing as compared with static VS (592 vs 226/×20 HPF, P =<0.001). Similarly, the CD31 + % surface area was higher in growing VS (2.19% vs 1.32%, P = .01). There was a positive correlation between TAM infiltration and VS growth rate, which persisted after controlling for the effect of tumor volume (aR2 = 0.263, P =<0.001). The plasma concentrations of several monocytic chemokines were higher in patients with growing rather than static VS. CONCLUSION: There is a strong positive correlation between TAM infiltration and volumetric growth of VS, and this relationship is independent of tumor size. There is a colinear relationship between TAM infiltration and tumor vascularity, implying that inflammation and angiogenesis are interlinked in VS. Chemokines known to induce monocyte chemotaxis are found in higher concentrations in patients with growing VS, suggestive of a potential pathophysiological mechanism.


Assuntos
Neuroma Acústico , Humanos , Neuroma Acústico/patologia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
Neuropharmacology ; 224: 109330, 2023 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375694

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation, specifically the NLRP3 inflammasome cascade, is a common underlying pathological feature of many neurodegenerative diseases. Evidence suggests that NLRP3 activation involves changes in intracellular K+. Nuclear Enriched Transcript Sort Sequencing (NETSseq), which allows for deep sequencing of purified cell types from human post-mortem brain tissue, demonstrated a highly specific expression of the tandem pore domain halothane-inhibited K+ channel 1 (THIK-1) in microglia compared to other glial and neuronal cell types in the human brain. NETSseq also showed a significant increase of THIK-1 in microglia isolated from cortical regions of brains with Alzheimer's disease (AD) relative to control donors. Herein, we report the discovery and pharmacological characterisation of C101248, the first selective small-molecule inhibitor of THIK-1. C101248 showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of both mouse and human THIK-1 (IC50: ∼50 nM) and was inactive against K2P family members TREK-1 and TWIK-2, and Kv2.1. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of microglia from mouse hippocampal slices showed that C101248 potently blocked both tonic and ATP-evoked THIK-1 K+ currents. Notably, C101248 had no effect on other constitutively active resting conductance in slices from THIK-1-depleted mice. In isolated microglia, C101248 prevented NLRP3-dependent release of IL-1ß, an effect not seen in THIK-1-depleted microglia. In conclusion, we demonstrated that inhibiting THIK-1 (a microglia specific gene that is upregulated in brains from donors with AD) using a novel selective modulator attenuates the NLRP3-dependent release of IL-1ß from microglia, which suggests that this channel may be a potential therapeutic target for the modulation of neuroinflammation in AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Inflamassomos , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Microglia , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
Glia ; 70(7): 1301-1316, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35353387

RESUMO

The NLRP3 (NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome is a multi-protein complex responsible for the activation of caspase-1 and the subsequent cleavage and activation of the potent proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-18, and pyroptotic cell death. NLRP3 is implicated as a driver of inflammation in a range of disorders including neurodegenerative diseases, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. A commonly reported mechanism contributing to NLRP3 inflammasome activation is potassium ion (K+ ) efflux across the plasma membrane. Identification of K+ channels involved in NLRP3 activation remains incomplete. Here, we investigated the role of the K+ channel THIK-1 in NLRP3 activation. Both pharmacological inhibitors and cells from THIK-1 knockout (KO) mice were used to assess THIK-1 contribution to macrophage NLRP3 activation in vitro. Pharmacological inhibition of THIK-1 inhibited caspase-1 activation and IL-1ß release from mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), mixed glia, and microglia in response to NLRP3 agonists. Similarly, BMDMs and microglia from THIK-1 KO mice had reduced NLRP3-dependent IL-1ß release in response to P2X7 receptor activation with ATP. Overall, these data suggest that THIK-1 is a regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in response to ATP and identify THIK-1 as a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inflamassomos , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio
18.
Glia ; 70(6): 1068-1083, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150591

RESUMO

Microglia, resident brain immune cells, are critical in orchestrating responses to central nervous system (CNS) injury. Many microglial functions, such as phagocytosis, motility and chemotaxis, are suggested to rely on chloride channels, including the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC), but studies to date have relied on the use of pharmacological tools with limited specificity. VRAC has also been proposed as a drug target for acute CNS injury, and its role in microglial function is of considerable interest for developing CNS therapeutics. This study aimed to definitively confirm the contribution of VRAC in microglia function by using conditional LRRC8A-knockout mice, which lacked the essential VRAC subunit LRRC8A in microglia. We demonstrated that while VRAC contributed to cell volume regulation, it had no effect on phagocytic activity, cell migration or P2YR12-dependent chemotaxis. Moreover, loss of microglial VRAC did not affect microglial morphology or the extent of ischemic damage following stroke. We conclude that VRAC does not critically regulate microglial responses to brain injury and could be targetable in other CNS cell types (e.g., astrocytes) without impeding microglial function. Our results also demonstrate a role for VRAC in cell volume regulation but show that VRAC is not involved in several major cellular functions that it was previously thought to regulate, and point to other, alternative mechanisms of chloride transport in innate immunity.


Assuntos
Microglia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Tamanho Celular , Transporte de Íons , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo
19.
Immunology ; 165(4): 460-480, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137954

RESUMO

The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that regulates caspase-1 activation and subsequent interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-18 release from innate immune cells in response to infection or injury. Derivatives of the metabolites itaconate and fumarate, dimethyl itaconate (DMI), 4-octyl itaconate (4OI) and dimethyl fumarate (DMF) limit both expression and release of IL-1ß following NLRP3 inflammasome activation. However, the direct effects of these metabolite derivatives on NLRP3 inflammasome responses require further investigation. Using murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, mixed glia and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs), we demonstrate that DMI, 4OI and DMF pretreatments inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as inhibit subsequent NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by nigericin. DMI, 4OI, DMF and monomethyl fumarate (MMF), another fumarate derivative, also directly inhibited biochemical markers of NLRP3 activation in LPS-primed macrophages, mixed glia, OHSCs and human macrophages in response to nigericin and imiquimod, including ASC speck formation, caspase-1 activation, gasdermin D cleavage and IL-1ß release. DMF, an approved treatment of multiple sclerosis, as well as DMI, 4OI and MMF, inhibited NLRP3 activation in macrophages in response to lysophosphatidylcholine, which is used to induce demyelination, suggesting a possible mechanism for DMF in multiple sclerosis through NLRP3 inhibition. The derivatives also reduced pro-IL-1α cleavage in response to the calcium ionophore ionomycin. Together, these findings reveal the immunometabolic regulation of both the priming and activation steps of NLRP3 activation in macrophages. Furthermore, we highlight itaconate and fumarate derivatives as potential therapeutic options in NLRP3- and IL-1α-driven diseases, including in the brain.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Esclerose Múltipla , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo , Fumaratos/metabolismo , Fumaratos/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Nigericina/farmacologia , Succinatos
20.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 83(1): 1-10, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35155063

RESUMO

Introduction Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are histologically benign tumors arising from cranial nerve VIII. Far from a homogenous proliferation of Schwann cells, mounting evidence has highlighted the complex nature of the inflammatory microenvironment in these tumors. Methods A review of the literature pertaining to inflammation, inflammatory molecular pathways, and immune-related therapeutic targets in VS was performed. Relevant studies published up to June 2020 were identified based on a literature search in the PubMed and MEDLINE databases and the findings were synthesized into a concise narrative review of the topic. Results The VS microenvironment is characterized by a dense infiltrate of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages. Significantly higher levels of immune cell infiltration are observed in growing versus static tumors, and there is a demonstrable interplay between inflammation and angiogenesis in growing VS. While further mechanistic studies are required to ascertain the exact role of inflammation in angiogenesis, tumor growth, and Schwann cell control, we are beginning to understand the key molecular pathways driving this inflammatory microenvironment, and how these processes can be monitored and targeted in vivo . Conclusion Observational research has revealed a complex and heterogeneous tumor microenvironment in VS. The functional landscape and roles of macrophages and other immune cells in the VS inflammatory infiltrate are, however, yet to be established. The antiangiogenic drug bevacizumab has shown the efficacy of targeted molecular therapies in VS and there is hope that agents targeting another major component of the VS microenvironment, inflammation, will also find a place in their future management.

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