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1.
Cureus ; 16(4): e58186, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741831

RESUMO

A 30-year-old African American male presented with pain and swelling of the right foot one month after receiving a tattoo on this foot in prison. During his admission for presumed cellulitis, he developed a rash on his contralateral (left) leg, which had been tattooed 10 months prior. A biopsy of the contralateral (left) leg showed acute, chronic, and granulomatous inflammation with a differential diagnosis including infection. His overall condition and both legs worsened, prompting biopsy and tissue culture of the right ankle and foot. Pathology of the right foot showed a granulomatous reaction. Culture grew Mycobacterium chelonae. This case highlights the importance of considering infectious etiologies for rashes appearing within tattoos and represents the importance of a full investigation to obtain the correct diagnosis.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(9): e030403, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies have used cross-sectional or limited follow-up data to evaluate the relationship between social isolation (SI) and hypertension in older populations. The objective of this analysis was to examine the relationship between longitudinal SI and hypertension in a younger population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present analysis used data from waves I to V of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1994-2018) and logistic regression models to describe the association of timing, duration, and transitional patterns of SI with hypertension in early middle adulthood. Models were adjusted for demographic variables and adolescent socioeconomic and health-related confounders. SI was higher across life stages among individuals with hypertension (adolescence: 38% versus 35%, young adulthood: 52% versus 44%, and early middle adulthood: 61% versus 52%). Individuals who were socially isolated in young adulthood or early middle adulthood had greater odds of hypertension in early middle adulthood than those who were not (odds ratio [OR], 1.30 [95% CI, 1.07-1.56]; OR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.15-1.76], respectively). Early middle adulthood hypertension was significantly associated with persistent SI across all life stages and for those who moved into persistent SI after adolescence (OR, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.02-1.93]; OR, 1.61 [95% CI, 1.18-2.19], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: SI in young or early middle adulthood significantly increased the odds of hypertension, as did moving into SI and the accumulation of SI across life stages. Our analysis provides insights regarding timing for effective interventions to reduce hypertension earlier in the life course, which may prevent future adverse cardiovascular-related events.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Isolamento Social , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Longitudinais , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Etários , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9532, 2024 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664507

RESUMO

The Arabian Peninsula accounts for approximately 6% of the world's coral reefs. Some thrive in extreme environments of temperature and salinity. Using 51 Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS), a standardized non-destructive monitoring device, we investigated the spatial patterns of coral reef cryptobenthic diversity in four ecoregions around the Arabian Peninsula and analyzed how geographical and/or environmental drivers shape those patterns. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used to identify Amplicon Sequence Variants and assign taxonomy of the cryptobenthic organisms collected from the sessile and mobile fractions of each ARMS. Cryptobenthic communities sampled from the two ecoregions in the Red Sea showed to be more diverse than those inhabiting the Arabian (Persian) Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Geographic distance revealed a stronger relationship with beta diversity in the Mantel partial correlation than environmental distance. However, the two mobile fractions (106-500 µm and 500-2000 µm) also had a significant correlation between environmental distance and beta diversity. In our study, dispersal limitations explained the beta diversity patterns in the selected reefs, supporting the neutral theory of ecology. Still, increasing differences in environmental variables (environmental filtering) also had an effect on the distribution patterns of assemblages inhabiting reefs within short geographic distances. The influence of geographical distance in the cryptofauna assemblages makes these relevant, yet usually ignored, communities in reef functioning vulnerable to large scale coastal development and should be considered in ecosystem management of such projects.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Recifes de Corais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Antozoários/genética , Antozoários/classificação , Oceano Índico
4.
Int J Ment Health ; 53(1): 83-110, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577222

RESUMO

This study aimed to a) compute the prevalence of violence exposure types, polyvictimization, and self-reported depression, anxiety, and using substances to cope among youth ages 12 to 18 years living on the streets or in the slums of Kampala, Uganda, (b) examine the independent associations among orphan status, violence exposure types, and self-reported mental health concerns, and c) explore the association between polyvictimization and mental health concerns. Data are from a 2014 cross-sectional survey of service-seeking youth ages 12 to 18 years (N = 1134) in Kampala, Uganda. Violence exposure types explored in this study were: witnessing family physical violence, direct physical abuse by a parent, any rape history, and physical dating violence. We used descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression to test study objectives. Over half of the sample (60.5%) reported experiencing at least one type of violence exposure; many youth endorsed self-reported depression (57.8%), anxiety (76.8%), and substance use to cope (37.0%). Exposure to violence was associated with higher odds for self-reported depression, anxiety, and using substances to cope. These findings underscore the urgent need to implement evidence-based interventions among this young, underserved population and their families to prevent violence, improve mental health outcomes, and promote resilience.

5.
Cureus ; 16(1): e53343, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435877

RESUMO

Verrucous cysts are uncommon types that cannot be distinguished from epidermal inclusion cysts clinically and require histopathological analysis and human papillomavirus (HPV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for accurate diagnosis. The pathogenesis of verrucous cysts is thought to involve HPV infection, either of an existing cyst or through direct infection of keratinocytes, leading to new cyst formation. While verrucous cysts can affect individuals of any sex and are typically found on the trunk, extremities, and face, they are particularly notable for their potential association with high-risk HPV types, such as 16 and 18, which may lead to malignant transformation. In this report, we present the case of a 48-year-old female with a history of endometriosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, who sought evaluation for a persistent subcutaneous nodule on her right flank. The patient reported pain, a recent color change, and an increase in the nodule size. Clinical examination revealed a 2.7 cm subcutaneous nodule with a central brown-gray papule. Despite no history of dermatologic malignancies, the nodule was excised, and subsequent histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of a ruptured verrucous cyst. The cyst exhibited acanthotic papillomatous squamous epithelium without cytologic atypia and koilocytic change in cells. This case offers direct and valuable insights into the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of verrucous cysts. It highlights the importance of a thorough diagnostic approach, combining histopathological examination with HPV PCR testing, to accurately differentiate verrucous cysts from other similar cutaneous lesions. The report also emphasizes the need for vigilance in managing these cysts due to their potential association with high-risk HPV types and the consequent risk of malignant transformation. These insights contribute significantly to the existing body of literature on verrucous cysts and aim to enhance clinical awareness and patient care in dermatology.

7.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1324656, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515599

RESUMO

Background: Firearms used in pediatric firearm deaths are most often obtained from the child's home, making secure firearm storage initiatives imperative in prevention efforts. Evidence-based home visiting (EBHV) programs are implemented with over 277,000 families annually, providing an opportunity for secure firearm storage counseling. The purpose of this study was to assess EBHV providers' experiences with firearm screening ("assessment"), secure storage counseling, and their perceptions for related training needs. Methods: Providers in the U.S. from SafeCare®, an EBHV program often implemented with families experiencing increased risk of child neglect and physical or emotional abuse, were invited to participate in a survey to examine firearm assessment and attitudes toward and experiences with firearm safety counseling. Survey items were primarily Likert scale ratings to indicate level of agreement, with some open-ended follow-up questions. Descriptive statistics (i.e., frequencies and percentages) were used to report item-level agreement. A post hoc analysis was conducted using Spearman correlation to examine the association between assessment and counseling and provider-level factors. Results: Sixty-three SafeCare providers consented to and completed the survey items. Almost three-quarters (74.6%) agreed/strongly agreed that they assess in-home firearm availability. However, 66.7% agreed/strongly agreed that they have not been adequately trained to discuss firearm safety topics. A substantial proportion (80.6%) indicated they would counsel more if materials and training on this topic were available. Response variability emerged by level of urbanicity. A post hoc analysis found that providers' self-reported frequency of assessment and counseling were associated with their comfort level discussing firearm safety and whether or not they had worked with families impacted by firearm injury. Conclusion: SafeCare providers report a need for materials and training on secure firearm storage, and a willingness to provide more counseling with proper training to the families they serve. Findings illuminate the need for secure storage initiatives for EBHV programs, which have broad service reach to a substantial number of at-risk U.S. families annually.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Humanos , Criança , Segurança , Estudos Transversais , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Aconselhamento
8.
Child Abuse Negl ; 150: 106701, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been understudied in low- and middle-income countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES, PARTICIPANTS, SETTING: We explored associations between mental distress, self-harm or suicidality, and HIV risk and individual and cumulative ACEs (sexual, emotional, and physical violence; witnessing community and interparental violence; orphanhood) among youth aged 13-24 in Lesotho. METHODS: Multivariable logistic regressions stratified by sex using nationally representative 2018 Lesotho Violence Against Children and Youth Survey (nfemale = 7101; nmale = 1467) data. RESULTS: Over 75 % of males and females experienced at least 1 ACE. Among males, physical and community violence were significantly associated with mental distress; orphan status and emotional violence was associated with self-harm/suicidality. Males who witnessed interparental violence had higher odds of disclosing 2 types and 3 or more types of HIV risk versus none. Among females, being a double orphan and having experienced sexual, emotional, physical, community, and interparental violence were significantly associated with mental distress and any self-harm/suicidality in both models. Females who experienced physical violence had higher odds of disclosing 3 or more risk types versus no risk. Statistically significant associations emerged between cumulative ACEs and mental distress, self-harm/suicidality, and higher levels of HIV risk for both males and females. CONCLUSIONS: Differential patterns of associations between ACEs and mental health problems and HIV risk emerged by sex. Scalable, integrated individual and community efforts to prevent ACEs, provide mental health supports, and encourage safer sexual behaviors among those exposed are needed and could benefit youth in Lesotho.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Infecções por HIV , Suicídio , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lesoto/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
9.
Rheumatol Int ; 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376558

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of over 100 different types of autoimmune conditions. In RA, the cells of the immune system attack the tissue lining the joints, triggering inflammation. A large body of research suggests that the underlying trigger(s) of RA are unique to an individual. For example, increased risk of RA can be driven by smoking tobacco in one individual and mercury exposure in another. Due to the development of next-generation sequencing technology, the critical role of the microbiota in shaping RA risk has been elucidated. Therefore, it is surprising that diet, arguably the most important lever in shaping the gut microbiota, is ineffective in the treatment of RA, even in a sub-set of patients. To attempt to rationalise this apparent paradox, we conducted an umbrella review to address the question as to whether diet can affect outcomes in RA.

10.
Adm Policy Ment Health ; 51(2): 240-253, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183521

RESUMO

Evidence-based practice (EBP) fidelity, understood as the extent to which a program is implemented as the developers intended, is a key implementation variable which likely relates to consumer outcomes. However, studies that track fidelity longitudinally and at large scale are uncommon, and finding reliable predictors of fidelity has proven to be a complex challenge. Further, attitudes toward EBP are a potentially important predictor of fidelity, but results across the literature have been mixed. The purpose of the present study is to use data from the ongoing implementation and dissemination of the SafeCare model to better understand (1) the characteristics of SafeCare implementation fidelity trajectories, and (2) whether individual level factors predict differences in fidelity and fidelity trajectories, especially provider attitudes toward EBP. The analyses reported here include 14,778 observed fidelity sessions by 868 providers in 172 agencies. We use multilevel modeling to examine fidelity, fidelity trajectories over time, and several potential individual-level predictors of fidelity, including demographics, work history, and attitudes toward EBP. We found: (1) that SafeCare fidelity begins high at baseline (93.85% on average); (2) that SafeCare fidelity displays a statistically significant trend of positive linear growth, even among those with less positive attitudes; and (3) that positive attitudes are associated with slightly higher fidelity on average and at baseline, while negative attitudes are associated with slightly lower fidelity on average and at baseline. To our knowledge, this is the largest longitudinal analysis of EBP fidelity in a child welfare program to date, and our findings support the notion that intensive coaching supports which are titrated over time can be sufficient to ensure sustained high fidelity, at least in some cases. Further, these findings indicate that robust training and coaching processes can ensure high fidelity and fidelity growth even among providers with less positive attitudes toward EBP.


Assuntos
Proteção da Criança , Poder Familiar , Criança , Humanos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Estudos Longitudinais
11.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; : 15248380231221279, 2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281156

RESUMO

Health and allied health professionals are uniquely positioned to collaborate in prevention, early intervention and responses to child maltreatment. Effective collaboration requires comprehensive interprofessional education (IPE), and inadequate collaboration across sectors and professions continually contributes to poor outcomes for children. Little is known about what interprofessional preparation health and allied health professionals receive before initial qualification (preservice) that equips them for interprofessional collaboration and provision of culturally safe care in child protection. This scoping review aimed to identify what is known internationally about IPE in child protection for preservice health and allied health professionals. Thirteen manuscripts reporting 12 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the synthesis. Key characteristics of the educational interventions are presented, including target disciplines, core content and their learning objectives and activities. Findings demonstrated primarily low-quality methodologies and educational interventions that had not been replicated beyond their initial context. Many educational interventions did not provide comprehensive content covering the spectrum of prevention, early intervention and responses for all types of child maltreatment, and/or did not clearly indicate how IPE was achieved. Key challenges to delivering comprehensive interprofessional child protection include lack of institutional support and competing priorities across disciplines who must meet requirements of separate regulatory bodies. Consequently, there is a need for further development and robust evaluation of educational interventions to explore how interprofessional collaborative skills for child protection can be developed and delivered in preservice health and allied health professional education.

12.
Psychol Health Med ; 29(3): 655-669, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37434351

RESUMO

HIV and violence among orphans are key measures of vulnerability in low-resource settings. Although Lesotho has the second highest HIV adult prevalence rate (21.1%) in the world, and the prevalence of orphanhood (44.2%) and violence exposure (67.0%) is high, little research exist on orphanhood vulnerabilities for violence and HIV in Lesotho. Using data from 4,408 youth (18-24 years old) from Lesotho's 2018 Violence Against Children and Youth survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey, the study examined associations among orphan status, violence, and HIV and assessed how associations differed by education, sex, and orphan type, using logistic regression. Orphans had higher odds of violence (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.01-1.46) and HIV (aOR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.24-2.29). Having primary education or less (aOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02-2.02), male sex (aOR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.27-2.36), and being a paternal orphan (aOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.14-1.80) were significant interaction terms for violence. Orphans who completed primary school or less (aOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.09-2.39), female (aOR, 3.08; 95% CI, 2.14-4.42) and double orphans (aOR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.56-4.13) had higher odds of HIV. These relationships highlight the importance of comprehensive strategies to support education and family strengthening for orphans as core violence and HIV prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Lesoto/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Educação Sexual , Pai , Violência , Prevalência
13.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; 25(1): 613-629, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36935570

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has fostered an environment for increased risk of child maltreatment (CM) as families experience increased psychosocial and financial burdens and spend unprecedented amounts of time together in the home. This narrative review aimed to summarize empirical findings on existing or new pandemic-related risk factors among caregivers. A combination of search terms related to CM and COVID-19 were used to identify articles published within five databases between February 2020 and July 2022. Literature searches produced 113 articles, of which 26 published across 12 countries met inclusion criteria. Four previously well-established risk factors for CM perpetration continued to persist during the pandemic, including stress, parental mental health, financial concerns, and parental substance use. Of note, inconsistent definitions and measures were used to capture these risk factors. Several additional emerging and understudied risk factors were also identified among limited articles, such as food insecurity and parental education. Findings emphasize the ongoing need for evidence-based interventions to address CM risk during the pandemic, including parent training programs. However, consolidated measures and consistent conceptualization of risk factors are needed to advance the study of CM. Going forward, practitioners and researchers should (a) strengthen the identification process for families at greatest risk for CM, and particularly those vulnerable to pandemic-related stressors; and (b) augment delivery of CM prevention strategies and evidence-based programs to fit the pandemic context.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , Cuidadores/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
14.
JBI Evid Synth ; 22(5): 881-888, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38126266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to investigate the effectiveness of workplace violence management or prevention interventions, including strategies, protocols, and policies, to address violence against, and provide support to, registered nursing students (RNS) following incidents of violence during clinical placement. INTRODUCTION: Workplace violence is a global issue that affects victims' physical and mental health. RNS are especially vulnerable to workplace violence because of their limited work experience and confidence. These students often feel shocked and unprepared when experiencing workplace violence due to limited education and support provided by educational institutions or clinical sites. Workplace violence can lead to anxiety, decreased confidence, and professional attrition. There is a need to systematically synthesize the evidence on workplace violence management and prevention to support nursing students during clinical placement. INCLUSION CRITERIA: The review will consider studies assessing the effectiveness of interventions to address workplace violence or improve support for RNS. Studies that report on educational interventions or pre-clinical placement strategies and measure the preparedness of students will also be considered. Study designs will be limited to quantitative methods that evaluate intervention effectiveness. METHODS: Databases to be searched include MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Web of Science Core Collection, Scopus, Embase (Ovid), Cochrane Central, ERIC (ProQuest), ProQuest Central, ProQuest Social Science Premium Collection, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. Two independent reviewers will screen, review, appraise, and extract data from eligible articles. For data synthesis, studies will be pooled using JBI SUMARI. The GRADE approach for grading the certainty of evidence will be followed and a Summary of Findings will be created. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42022377318.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Enfermagem , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Violência no Trabalho , Humanos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Violência no Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia
15.
Int J Integr Care ; 23(4): 17, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38107834

RESUMO

Introduction: Failings in providing continuity of care following an acute event for a chronic disease contribute to care inequities for First Nations Peoples in Australia, Canada, and Aotearoa (New Zealand). Methods: A rapid narrative review, including primary studies published in English from Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Central, concerning chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and related complications), was conducted. Barriers and enablers to continuity of care for First Nations Peoples were explored considering an empirical lens from the World Health Organization framework on integrated person-centred health services. Results: Barriers included a need for more community initiatives, health and social care networks, and coaching and peer support. Enabling strategies included care adapted to patients' cultural beliefs and behavioural, personal, and family influences; continued and trusting relationships among providers, patients, and caregivers; and provision of flexible, consistent, adaptable care along the continuum. Discussion: The support and co-creation of care solutions must be a dialogical participatory process adapted to each community. Conclusions: Health and social care should be harmonised with First Nations Peoples' cultural beliefs and family influences. Sustainable strategies require a co-design commitment for well-funded flexible care plans considering coaching and peer support across the lifespan.

16.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 8(10): 1128-1131, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37928402

RESUMO

The amphipod Cyphocaris challengeri is a globally distributed, highly abundant species of zooplankton. Here, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of C. challengeri obtained using the Illumina sequencing platform from a specimen collected from Puget Sound, Washington. The mitogenome is a circular DNA molecule with a size of 14,338 bp and 26.7% GC content, with 13 protein-encoding genes, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs annotated. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis including C. challengeri and all other available mitogenomes from Amphipoda places our mitogenome firmly within the Lysianassoidea superfamily, as expected. The newly described mitochondrial genome of C. challengeri fills a gap in valuable reference data for detecting this organism using molecular methods such as environmental DNA.

17.
JMIR Form Res ; 7: e50833, 2023 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37917146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use, sexual assault, and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents and are interrelated. Nearly 1 in 5 adolescents use substances before sexual encounters, placing these young people at risk for both sexual assault and sexual risk behaviors. Primary care visits present a unique opportunity to address multiple health risk behaviors. OBJECTIVE: Teen Well Check is a web-based integrated prevention program for substance use, sexual assault, and sexual risk behaviors with demonstrated usability and acceptability among patients and providers. The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial to assess feasibility. METHODS: Adolescents (n=123) aged 14 to 18 years from diverse backgrounds were recruited from primarily Medicaid-serving pediatric primary care clinics. Participants completed a baseline survey; were randomized to receive Teen Well Check or an assessment-only control; and completed 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up surveys. Feasibility was assessed in terms of recruitment and retention rates. Preliminary changes from baseline to follow-up periods were examined separately in the Teen Well Check and control conditions. RESULTS: We recruited 123 participants (Teen Well Check: n=61, 49.6%; control: n=62, 50.4%). Of the 61 participants assigned to the Teen Well Check condition, 55 (90%) completed the full program and viewed all intervention content. Of the 123 participants, 105 (85.4%) were retained across at least 1 follow-up period, and there was no difference in follow-up rates between the conditions (χ21=0.6; P=.43). The completion of Teen Well Check took an average of 6.2 (SD 5.8) minutes. Preliminary analyses revealed that there were significant reductions in perceived peer norms (descriptive norms) for substance use before sex across follow-ups among participants in the Teen Well Check condition (P=.001 from baseline to 6 months), whereas there were significant increases among participants in the control condition (P=.003 from baseline to 6 months). In addition, there were nonsignificant reductions in substance misuse risk from baseline to the 6-month follow-up among participants in the Teen Well Check condition (P=.16). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the feasibility of Teen Well Check delivery within pediatric primary care clinics. A randomized clinical trial is needed to assess efficacy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT3489434; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT03489434.

18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(20)2023 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37896648

RESUMO

This manuscript presents the Microwave Temperature and Humidity Profiler (MTHP), a dual-band spectroradiometer designed for measuring multi-incidence angle temperature and humidity atmospheric profiles from an aircraft platform. The MTHP bands are at 60 GHz for measuring the oxygen complex lines, therefore at this band, MTHP has a hyperspectral radiometer able to provide 2048 channels over an 8 GHz bandwidth, and 183 GHz for measuring water vapor, which only uses four channels since this absorption band's spectral richness is simpler. The MTHP builds upon the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) with the inclusion of the hyperspectral radiometer. The instrument's design, components, and calibration methods are discussed in detail, with a focus on the three-point calibration scheme involving internal calibration loads and static air temperature readings. Preliminary results from the Technological Innovation into Iodine and GV aircraft Environmental Research (TI3GER) campaign are presented, showcasing the instrument's performance during flights across diverse geographical regions. The manuscript presents successful antenna temperature measurements at 60 GHz and 183 GHz. The hyperspectral measurements are compared with a simulated antenna temperature using the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) showing an agreement better than R2 > 0.88 for three of the flights analyzed. Additionally, the manuscript draws attention to potential Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) effects observed during a specific flight, underscoring the instrument's sensitivity to external interference. This is the first-ever airborne demonstration of a broadband and hyperspectral multi-incidence angle 60 GHz measurement. Future work on the MTHP could result in an improved spatial resolution of the atmospheric temperature vertical profile and, hence, help in estimating the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) with better accuracy. The MTHP and its hyperspectral multi-incidence angle at 60 GHz have the potential to be a valuable tool for investigating the PBL's role in atmospheric dynamics, offering insights into its impact on Earth's energy, water, and carbon cycles.

19.
Front Digit Health ; 5: 1224582, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37483318

RESUMO

Introduction: Technology has been used in evidence-based child maltreatment (CM) programs for over a decade. Although advancements have been made, the extent of the application of technology in these programs, and its influence on parental and child outcomes, remains unclear within the context of changes that emerged because of the COVID-19 pandemic. This scoping review provides a contextualized overview and summary of the use of technology in evidence-based parenting and child programs serving families impacted by child maltreatment and the effects of technology-enhanced programs on target outcomes. Materials and methods: Using Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework, we searched seven databases to identify peer-reviewed and grey literature published in English from 2000 to 2023 on evidence-based programs, according to the California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse (CEBC), that included technological supports for two populations: at-risk parents for child maltreatment prevention, and children and youth 0-18 years exposed to child maltreatment. All study designs were included. Results: Eight evidence-based parenting programs and one evidence-based child trauma program were identified as using technology across a total of 25 peer-reviewed articles and 2 peer-reviewed abstracts meeting inclusion criteria (n = 19 on parent-level programs; n = 8 on child-level programs). Four studies were published in the context of COVID-19. Two main uses of technology emerged: (1) remote programmatic delivery (i.e., delivering all or part of the program virtually using technology) and (2) programmatic enhancement (i.e., augmenting program content with technology). Improvements across parenting and child mental health and behavioral outcomes were generally observed. Discussion: Technology use in evidence-based child maltreatment programs is not new; however, the small sample since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in this review that met inclusion criteria highlight the dearth of research published on the topic. Findings also suggest the need for the inclusion of implementation outcomes related to adoption and engagement, which could inform equitable dissemination and implementation of these programs. Additional considerations for research and practice are discussed.

20.
Cureus ; 15(5): e38592, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37288175

RESUMO

We present a rare case of linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) in a 72-year-old male associated with the use of azithromycin. LABD presents as subepidermal blisters due to IgA antibodies targeting BPAG2, a component of hemidesmosomes. LABD is a rare diagnosis and may be idiopathic, associated with illness, or medication-induced. The patient experienced a rash five days after completing a course of azithromycin for pneumonia. The diagnosis of LABD was confirmed with a biopsy and direct immunofluorescence. Lesions resolved over two weeks with an oral prednisone taper and topical clobetasol. This case represents just one of two previously reported cases in the literature of azithromycin-associated LABD. While LABD is well known to be induced by certain medications, this is only the second report of it being associated with the use of a macrolide. We propose that macrolides be included as a potential cause of medication-induced LABD.

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