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1.
Mol Ecol ; 28(4): 818-832, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582776

RESUMO

Quaternary glaciations have played a major role in shaping the genetic diversity and distribution of plant species. Strong palaeoecological and genetic evidence supports a postglacial recolonization of most plant species to northern Europe from southern, eastern and even western glacial refugia. Although highly controversial, the existence of small in situ glacial refugia in northern Europe has recently gained molecular support. We used genomic analyses to examine the phylogeography of a species that is critical in this debate. Carex scirpoidea Michx subsp. scirpoidea is a dioecious, amphi-Atlantic arctic-alpine sedge that is widely distributed in North America, but absent from most of Eurasia, apart from three extremely disjunct populations in Norway, all well within the limits of the Weichselian ice sheet. Range-wide population sampling and variation at 5,307 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that the three Norwegian populations comprise unique evolutionary lineages divergent from Greenland with high between-population divergence. The Norwegian populations have low within-population genetic diversity consistent with having experienced genetic bottlenecks in glacial refugia, and host private alleles that probably accumulated in long-term isolated populations. Demographic analyses support a single, pre-Weichselian colonization into Norway from East Greenland, and subsequent divergence of the three populations in separate refugia. Other refugial areas are identified in North-east Greenland, Minnesota/Michigan, Colorado and Alaska. Admixed populations in British Columbia and West Greenland indicate postglacial contact. Taken together, evidence from this study strongly indicates in situ glacial survival in Scandinavia.


Assuntos
Carex (Planta)/genética , Camada de Gelo , Metagenômica/métodos , Plantas/genética , Alaska , Colúmbia Britânica , Colorado , Demografia , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Groenlândia , Michigan , Minnesota , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205423, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335779

RESUMO

Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) is a widely-distributed but rapidly declining high elevation western North American tree and a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Our objectives were to develop reliable nuclear microsatellite markers that can be used to assess within-population genetic diversity as well as seed and pollen migration dynamics, and to validate markers using two geographically proximal P. albicaulis populations. We identified 1,667 microsatellite-containing sequences from shotgun DNA libraries of P. albicaulis. Primer pairs were designed for 308 unique microsatellite-containing loci, and these were evaluated for PCR amplification success and segregation in a panel of diploid needle tissue. DNA was extracted with an SDS protocol, and primers were screened through gel electrophoresis. Microsatellites were genotyped through fluorescent primer fragment analysis. Ten novel and 13 transferred loci were found to be reproducible in analyses based on 20 foliage samples from each of two locations: Henderson Mountain, Custer Gallatin National Forest, Montana, and Mt. Washburn, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Transferred loci had higher numbers of alleles and expected heterozygosities than novel loci, but also revealed evidence for a higher frequency of null alleles. Eight of the 13 transferred loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, and showed large positive FIS values that were likely inflated by null alleles. Mantel's tests of transferred and novel markers showed no correlation between genetic and geographic distances within or among the two sampled populations. AMOVA suggests that 91% of genetic variability occurs within populations and 9% between the two populations. Studies assessing genetic diversity using these microsatellite loci can help guide future management and restoration activities for P. albicaulis.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pinus/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Primers do DNA/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Ligação Genética , Genética Populacional , Pinus/fisiologia , Pólen/genética , Pólen/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Sementes/genética , Sementes/fisiologia , Estados Unidos
3.
J Environ Manage ; 139: 32-7, 2014 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24681362

RESUMO

The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management.


Assuntos
Besouros , Pinus/parasitologia , Animais , Colorado , Água Doce , Densidade Demográfica , Movimentos da Água
4.
Am J Bot ; 95(10): 1287-96, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21632333

RESUMO

Factors leading to endemism, and the evolutionary implications of endemism, can be explored by studying closely related taxa with variously restricted distributions. Such a model is provided by Carex section Ceratocystis (Cyperaceae); Carex cryptolepis, Carex sp. nov., and C. lutea are North American endemics with broad, restricted, and highly restricted distributions, respectively. The prediction that levels of genetic diversity are a consequence of distribution size was tested within a phylogenetic context using population level genetic variation at 18 allozyme loci. In contrast to expectations, mean proportion of loci polymorphic, number of alleles per polymorphic locus, and expected heterozygosity were significantly greater in C. lutea than either C. cryptolepis or Carex sp. nov. Although the possibility of a shift in breeding system, past introgression, or progenitor-derivative relationships could explain the relatively high levels of variation observed in C. lutea, these were dismissed on the basis of allozyme and nuclear ribosomal sequence data. We conclude that C. lutea maintains levels of genetic diversity typical of caespitose carices despite its narrow endemism and that the low levels of genetic variation in C. cryptolepis and Carex sp. nov. are likely the result of population fluctuations during Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles.

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