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3.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 61(1): 103360, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165038
6.
Ultramicroscopy ; 215: 112993, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516700

RESUMO

This paper discusses the reconstruction of partially sampled spectrum-images to accelerate the acquisition in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The problem of image reconstruction has been widely considered in the literature for many imaging modalities, but only a few attempts handled 3D data such as spectral images acquired by STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Besides, among the methods proposed in the microscopy literature, some are fast but inaccurate while others provide accurate reconstruction but at the price of a high computation burden. Thus none of the proposed reconstruction methods fulfills our expectations in terms of accuracy and computation complexity. In this paper, we propose a fast and accurate reconstruction method suited for atomic-scale EELS. This method is compared to popular solutions such as beta process factor analysis (BPFA) which is used for the first time on STEM-EELS images. Experiments based on real as synthetic data will be conducted.

7.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 59(1): 102701, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992533
8.
Ultramicroscopy ; 212: 112912, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812451

RESUMO

The evolution of the scanning modules for scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM) allows now to generate arbitrary scan pathways, an approach currently explored to improve acquisition speed and to reduce electron dose effects. In this work, we present the implementation of a random scan operating mode in STEM achieved at the hardware level via a custom scan control module. A pre-defined pattern with fully shuffled raster order is used to sample the entire region of interest. Subsampled random sparse images can then be extracted at successive time frames, to which suitable image reconstruction techniques can be applied. With respect to the conventional raster scan mode, this method permits to limit dose accumulation effects, but also to decouple the spatial and temporal information in hyperspectral images. We provide some proofs of concept of the flexibility of the random scan operating mode, presenting examples of its applications in different spectro-microscopy contexts: atomically-resolved elemental maps with electron energy loss spectroscopy and nanoscale-cathodoluminescence spectrum images. By employing adapted post-processing tools, it is demonstrated that the method allows to precisely track and correct for sample instabilities and to follow spectral diffusion with a high spatial resolution.

9.
Small ; 14(24): e1801038, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770993

RESUMO

Lithium cobalt oxide nanobatteries offer exciting prospects in the field of nonvolatile memories and neuromorphic circuits. However, the precise underlying resistive switching (RS) mechanism remains a matter of debate in two-terminal cells. Herein, intriguing results, obtained by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) 3D imaging, clearly demonstrate that the RS mechanism corresponds to lithium migration toward the outside of the Lix CoO2 layer. These observations are very well correlated with the observed insulator-to-metal transition of the oxide. Besides, smaller device area experimentally yields much faster switching kinetics, which is qualitatively well accounted for by a simple numerical simulation. Write/erase endurance is also highly improved with downscaling - much further than the present cycling life of usual lithium-ion batteries. Hence very attractive possibilities can be envisaged for this class of materials in nanoelectronics.

10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 12(508): 435-9, 2016 Mar 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27089599

RESUMO

Familial dyslipidemia, a frequent genetic cause of premature cardiovascular disease, is still underdiagnosed and undertreated. According to recent European studies, the prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia is higher than previously suspected and reaches 1/200-300 persons, while familial combined hyperlipidemia affects 1-3% of the population. Screening is important, as familial dyslipidemia often leads to cardiovascular event before 60 years of age, and usual scores of risk are not appropriate for these patients. Screening is recommended in childhood in case of family history of premature cardiovascular disease or severe hyperlipidemia in first degree relatives. Lifestyle modifications, eviction of any additive cardiovascular risk factor and tailored drug therapy are the cornerstones of an optimal management.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Estilo de Vida , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 10: 24, 2013 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23800198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are a family of materials featuring a large range of length, diameter, numbers of walls and, quite often metallic impurities coming from the catalyst used for their synthesis. They exhibit unique physical properties, which have already led to an extensive development of CNT for numerous applications. Because of this development and the resulting potential increase of human exposure, an important body of literature has been published with the aim to evaluate the health impact of CNT. However, despite evidences of uptake and long-term persistence of CNT within macrophages and the central role of those cells in the CNT-induced pulmonary inflammatory response, a limited amount of data is available so far on the CNT fate inside macrophages. Therefore, the overall aim of our study was to investigate the fate of pristine single walled CNT (SWCNT) after their internalization by macrophages. METHODS: To achieve our aim, we used a broad range of techniques that aimed at getting a comprehensive characterization of the SWCNT and their catalyst residues before and after exposure of murine macrophages: X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution (HR) Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), High Angle Annular Dark Field-Scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM) coupled to Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS), as well as micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping (µXRF), using synchrotron radiation. RESULTS: We showed 1) the rapid detachment of part of the iron nanoparticles initially attached to SWCNT which appeared as free iron nanoparticles in the cytoplasm and nucleus of CNT-exposed murine macrophages, and 2) that blockade of intracellular lysosomal acidification prevented iron nanoparticles detachment from CNT bundles and protected cells from CNT downstream toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The present results, while obtained with pristine SWCNT, could likely be extended to other catalyst-containing nanomaterials and surely open new ways in the interpretation and understanding of CNT toxicity.


Assuntos
Compostos de Ferro/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanotubos de Carbono/análise , Animais , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Compostos de Ferro/toxicidade , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Perda de Energia de Elétrons , Síncrotrons , Difração de Raios X
12.
Ultramicroscopy ; 120: 25-34, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22796556

RESUMO

Recent advances in detectors and computer science have enabled the acquisition and the processing of multidimensional datasets, in particular in the field of spectral imaging. Benefiting from these new developments, Earth scientists try to recover the reflectance spectra of macroscopic materials (e.g., water, grass, mineral types…) present in an observed scene and to estimate their respective proportions in each mixed pixel of the acquired image. This task is usually referred to as spectral mixture analysis or spectral unmixing (SU). SU aims at decomposing the measured pixel spectrum into a collection of constituent spectra, called endmembers, and a set of corresponding fractions (abundances) that indicate the proportion of each endmember present in the pixel. Similarly, when processing spectrum-images, microscopists usually try to map elemental, physical and chemical state information of a given material. This paper reports how a SU algorithm dedicated to remote sensing hyperspectral images can be successfully applied to analyze spectrum-image resulting from electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). SU generally overcomes standard limitations inherent to other multivariate statistical analysis methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) or independent component analysis (ICA), that have been previously used to analyze EELS maps. Indeed, ICA and PCA may perform poorly for linear spectral mixture analysis due to the strong dependence between the abundances of the different materials. One example is presented here to demonstrate the potential of this technique for EELS analysis.

13.
Rev Med Suisse ; 8(331): 494-6, 498-500, 2012 Mar 07.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22471110

RESUMO

Familial dyslipidemias are common in the population and correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease at young age. The early detection of individuals at high-risk may delay the vascular events and offer an increased quality of life and life expectancy. Screening is recommended in infancy in case of positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle modifications and eviction of any additive cardiovascular risk are the first step before considering treatment. Statins may be introduced between age 10 to 50 depending on the severity of the familial history, the elevation of the lipid values and the presence of vascular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/terapia , Algoritmos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dislipidemias/complicações , Dislipidemias/genética , Humanos , Medição de Risco
14.
Nano Lett ; 8(9): 2659-63, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18672943

RESUMO

X-ray fluorescence microscopy (microXRF) is applied for the first time to study macrophages exposed to unpurified and purified single-walled (SW) and multiwalled (MW) carbon nanotubes (CNT). Investigating chemical elemental distributions allows one to (i) image nanotube localization within a cell and (ii) detect chemical modification of the cell after CNT internalization. An excess of calcium is detected for cells exposed to unpurified SWCNT and MWCNT and related toxicological assays are discussed.

15.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 98(2): 211-7, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18353356

RESUMO

Isolation and identification of native nematode-bacterial associations in the field are necessary for successful control of endemic pests in a particular location. No study has yet been undertaken to recover and identify EPN in metropolitan France. In the present paper, we provide results of a survey of EPN and their symbiotic bacteria conducted in Hérault and Gard regions in Southern France. Molecular characterization of isolated nematodes depicted three different Steinernema species and one Heterorhabditis species, H. bacteriophora. Steinernema species recovered were identified as: S. feltiae and S. affine and an undescribed species. Xenorhabdus symbionts were identified as X. bovienii for both S. feltiae and S. affine. Phylogenetic analysis placed the new undescribed Steinernema sp. as closely related to S. arenarium but divergent enough to postulate that it belongs to a new species within the "glaseri-group". The Xenorhabdus symbiont from this Steinernema sp. was identified as X. kozodoii. All Heterorhabditis isolates recovered were diagnosed as H. bacteriophora and their bacterial symbionts were identified as Photorhabdus luminescens. Molecular characterization of these nematodes enabled the distinction of two different H. bacteriophora strains. Bacterial symbiontic strains of these two H. bacteriophora strains were identified as P. luminescens ssp. kayaii and P. luminescens ssp. laumondii.


Assuntos
Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/microbiologia , Photorhabdus/isolamento & purificação , Simbiose , Xenorhabdus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/análise , DNA de Helmintos/classificação , Feminino , França , Nematoides/genética , Photorhabdus/genética , Filogenia , Xenorhabdus/classificação , Xenorhabdus/genética
16.
Evolution ; 62(4): 932-42, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18194474

RESUMO

In this work, we investigate the investment of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes (Rhabditidae) in their symbiotic association with Xenorhabdus bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae). Their life cycle comprises two phases: (1) a free stage in the soil, where infective juveniles (IJs) of the nematode carry bacteria in a digestive vesicle and search for insect hosts, and (2) a parasitic stage into the insect where bacterial multiplication, nematode reproduction, and production of new IJs occur. Previous studies clearly showed benefits to the association for the nematode during the parasitic stage, but preliminary data suggest the existence of costs to the association for the nematode in free stage. IJs deprived from their bacteria indeed survive longer than symbiotic ones. Here we show that those bacteria-linked costs and benefits lead to a trade-off between fitness traits of the symbiotic nematodes. Indeed IJs mortality positively correlates with their parasitic success in the insect host for symbiotic IJs and not for aposymbiotic ones. Moreover mortality and parasitic success both positively correlate with the number of bacteria carried per IJ, indicating that the trade-off is induced by symbiosis. Finally, the trade-off intensity depends on parental effects and, more generally, is greater under restrictive environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Mariposas/parasitologia , Rabditídios/microbiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Xenorhabdus/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Lineares , Reprodução/fisiologia , Rabditídios/fisiologia
17.
Parasitol Res ; 100(3): 657-9, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16944202

RESUMO

Steinernema species are entomopathogenic nematodes associated with Xenorhabdus bacteria. The life cycle of these associations is composed of two stages: (1) a free stage in the soil, where infective juveniles (IJs), which carry bacteria in their guts, search for new insect hosts; and (2) a parasitic stage, where the IJs infect insects, release their Xenorhabdus symbionts and reproduce in order to produce new IJs. Previous studies clearly showed benefits to the association for several Steinernema species during the parasitic stage. Nevertheless, no study has so far explored, during the free stage, the existence of costs or benefits to the association for different Steinernema. Here, we compared the survival of both symbiotic and aposymbiotic IJs in two nematode species: (1) Steinernema carpocapsae-exhibiting IJs that carry a high number of Xenorhabdus cells in their guts; and (2) its closely relative species, S. scapterisci-exhibiting IJs, that carry very few Xenorhabdus cells in their guts. We showed that the bacterial symbionts were costly for S. carpocapsae by increasing IJs' mortality but not for S. scapterisci. This difference in cost induced by bacteria to IJs during the free stage could be correlated with the difference in the numbers of bacteria carried by IJs of each nematode species.


Assuntos
Nematoides/microbiologia , Xenorhabdus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Especificidade da Espécie , Simbiose
18.
BMC Evol Biol ; 6: 68, 2006 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16953880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symbioses between invertebrates and prokaryotes are biological systems of particular interest in order to study the evolution of mutualism. The symbioses between the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema and their bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus are very tractable model systems. Previous studies demonstrated (i) a highly specialized relationship between each strain of nematodes and its naturally associated bacterial strain and (ii) that mutualism plays a role in several important life history traits of each partner such as access to insect host resources, dispersal and protection against various biotic and abiotic factors. The goal of the present study was to address the question of the impact of Xenorhabdus symbionts on the progression and outcome of interspecific competition between individuals belonging to different Steinernema species. For this, we monitored experimental interspecific competition between (i) two nematode species: S. carpocapsae and S. scapterisci and (ii) their respective symbionts: X. nematophila and X. innexi within an experimental insect-host (Galleria mellonella). Three conditions of competition between nematodes were tested: (i) infection of insects with aposymbiotic IJs (i.e. without symbiont) of both species (ii) infection of insects with aposymbiotic IJs of both species in presence of variable proportion of their two Xenorhabdus symbionts and (iii) infection of insects with symbiotic IJs (i.e. naturally associated with their symbionts) of both species. RESULTS: We found that both the progression and the outcome of interspecific competition between entomopathogenic nematodes were influenced by their bacterial symbionts. Thus, the results obtained with aposymbiotic nematodes were totally opposite to those obtained with symbiotic nematodes. Moreover, the experimental introduction of different ratios of Xenorhabdus symbionts in the insect-host during competition between Steinernema modified the proportion of each species in the adults and in the global offspring. CONCLUSION: We showed that Xenorhabdus symbionts modified the competition between their Steinernema associates. This suggests that Xenorhabdus not only provides Steinernema with access to food sources but also furnishes new abilities to deal with biotic parameters such as competitors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Rabditídios/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Hemolinfa/microbiologia , Rabditídios/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Biochemistry ; 45(6): 1591-8, 2006 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16460006

RESUMO

Using a previously described FRET technique, we measured the distance between the ends of DNA fragments on which nucleosomes were reconstituted from recombinant and native histones. This distance was analyzed in its dependence on the DNA fragment length, concentration of mono- and divalent counterions, presence of linker histone H1, and histone modifications. We found that the linker DNA arms do not cross under all conditions studied but diverge slightly as they leave the histone core surface. Histone H1 leads to a global approach of the linker DNA arms, confirming the notion of a "stem structure". Increasing salt concentration also leads to an approach of the linker DNAs. To study the effect of acetylation, we compared chemically acetylated recombinant histones with histones prepared from HeLa cells, characterizing the sites of acetylation by mass spectroscopy. Nucleosomes from chemically acetylated histones have few modifications in the core domain and form nucleosomes normally. Acetylating all histones or selectively only H3 causes an opening of the nucleosome structure, indicated by the larger distances between the linker DNA ends. Selective acetylation of H4 distances the linker ends for short fragments but causes them to approach each other for fragments longer than 180 bp.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , DNA/análise , Histonas/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Acetilação , Pareamento de Bases , Cromatina/química , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Células HeLa , Histonas/química , Humanos , Cloreto de Magnésio/farmacologia , Nucleossomos/química , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
20.
Naturwissenschaften ; 92(10): 472-6, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16163505

RESUMO

The level of specialization of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema scapterisci with its native Xenorhabdus symbiont was investigated by testing (1) the influence of non-native bacterial strains on nematode fitness within an insect-host (Galleria mellonella) and (2) specificity of the association between the nematode infective juveniles and non-native bacteria. All non-native Xenorhabdus spp. or Photorhabdus spp. strains tested were mutualistically associated with other entomopathogenic nematodes in nature. We showed that most of the Xenorhabdus spp. strains tested led to an insignificant difference of the nematode's fitness compared to the one obtained with the native bacterium. Conversely, Photorhabdus spp. strains almost entirely abolished nematode reproduction. The phylogenetic analysis of bacterial strains tested, showed that there was a negative correlation between S. scapterisci's reproduction rate with a bacterial strain and the genetic distance of this bacterial strain from the native one. We also showed that the native bacterium was the only one which was transmitted by S. scapterisci's infective juveniles. All these results, suggested a specialization between S. scapterisci and its native Xenorhabdus. As the same phenomenon was already demonstrated in the association between S. carpocapsae and X. nematophila, specialization between partners would not be an exception in entomopathogenic nematode-bacteria interactions. Nevertheless, S. scapterisci showed a dramatically higher compatibility with non-native Xenorhabdus spp. strains than did S. carpocapsae, suggesting differences in the co-evolutionary processes between nematodes and bacteria in these two model systems.


Assuntos
Rabditídios/microbiologia , Simbiose , Xenorhabdus/fisiologia , Animais , Geografia , Insetos/parasitologia , Filogenia , Rabditídios/anatomia & histologia , Rabditídios/fisiologia , Xenorhabdus/classificação
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