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1.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 578, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding why patients experience loss to follow-up (LTFU) is essential for TB control. This analysis examines the impact of travel distance to RR-TB treatment on LTFU, which has yet to be analyzed within South Africa. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1436 patients treated for RR-TB at ten South African public hospitals. We linked patients to their residential ward using data reported to NHLS and maps available from the Municipal Demarcation Board. Travel distance was calculated from each patient's ward centroid to their RR-TB treatment site using the georoute command in Stata. The relationship between LTFU and travel distance was modeled using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 1436 participants, 75.6% successfully completed treatment and 24.4% were LTFU. The median travel distance was 40.96 km (IQR: 17.12, 63.49). A travel distance > 60 km increased odds of LTFU by 91% (p = 0.001) when adjusting for HIV status, age, sex, education level, employment status, residential locale, treatment regimen, and treatment site. CONCLUSION: People living in KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape travel long distances to receive RR-TB care, placing them at increased risk for LTFU. Policies that bring RR-TB treatment closer to patients, such as further decentralization to PHCs, are necessary to improve RR-TB outcomes.


Assuntos
Rifampina , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Política , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 124, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326786

RESUMO

The PRIME-NP (Professional-Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator/Evaluation-Nurse Practitioner) Model is adapted from the RIME (Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator) model used in medical education to guide medical student and resident education. The Delphi technique was used to validate the PRIME-NP Model. After two rounds of review by a group of experts in NP curriculum, the model was determined to be valid based on expert consensus. Agreement percent increase from the first round to the second round in all categories. Interrater reliability (IRR) was assessed using interclass correlation after instrument validation was completed for each of the five levels of the PRIME-NP model. Overall, the IRR of the instrument was found to be acceptable with some notable exceptions. No variance was noted in professional behaviors at any level. Variance was increased in management and educator/evaluator behaviors in higher/later course levels. The PRIME-NP Model and PRIME-NP OSCE Rubric is a valid and reliable instrument to assess NP student progression in objective structured clinical examinations. This instrument has the potential for adaptation for use in other types of health sciences education and settings.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Competência Clínica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Currículo , Profissionais de Enfermagem/educação
3.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; : 10499091241228835, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospice family caregivers (HFCGs) support the needs of their loved ones but are at risk of developing distress and anxiety. NOVELA is a four-chapter telenovela-style educational video to support topics related to hospice caregiving. Telehealth visits are scheduled in 4 weekly sessions consisting of a chapter and subsequent discussion with an interventionist. This feasibility pilot study tested NOVELA's effect to change HFCGs' outcomes, session and outcome measure completion (defined a priori as >70%). METHODS: This is a single-group pretest-posttest study of HFCGs of care recipients with PPS score >20% from 3 hospices in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic region. At baseline and at final posttest, participants completed a web-based survey assessing 3 outcomes: anxiety, self-efficacy, and satisfaction with intervention. Descriptive, t-test, and chi-square statistics were computed. RESULTS: Participants in our study (N = 59) were mainly collage educated, White, female, adult children of home-bound people with a non-cancer diagnosis. Outcomes changed in the expected direction (P > .05) with higher self-efficacy (Cohen's d = -.08 [95% CI -.4 to .2) and lower anxiety (Cohen's d = .2 [95% CI -.1 to .5]) scores from final to baseline, 86% of HFCGs were satisfied or very satisfied with NOVELA, session (33/59) and outcome measure (43/59) completion averaged 68%. CONCLUSION: Encouraging trends in NOVELA's estimation of effect suggests that NOVELA may buffer stressful aspects of hospice caregiving. However, further refinement of NOVELA is needed. Supporting HFCGs through supportive educational interventions may reduce distress and anxiety with broad implications for quality improvement.

4.
PLOS Glob Public Health ; 4(1): e0001860, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190356

RESUMO

In 2020, 149.2 million children worldwide under 5 years suffered from stunting, and 45.4 million experienced wasting. Many infants are born already stunted, while others are at high risk for growth faltering early after birth. Growth faltering is linked to transgenerational impacts of poverty and marginalization. Few interventions address growth faltering in infants under 6 months, despite a likely increasing prevalence due to the negative global economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Breastfeeding is a critical intervention to alleviate malnutrition and improve child health outcomes, but rarely receives adequate attention in growth faltering interventions. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to identify and evaluate interventions addressing growth faltering among infants under 6 months that employed supplemental milks. The review was carried out following guidelines from the USA National Academy of Medicine. A total of 10,405 references were identified, and after deduplication 7390 studies were screened for eligibility. Of these, 227 were assessed for full text eligibility and relevance. Two randomized controlled trials were ultimately included, which differed in inclusion criteria and methodology and had few shared outcomes. Both studies had small sample sizes, high attrition and high risk of bias. A Bangladeshi study (n = 153) found significantly higher rates of weight gain for F-100 and diluted F-100 (DF-100) compared with infant formula (IF), while a DRC trial (n = 146) did not find statistically significant differences in rate of weight gain for DF-100 compared with IF offered in the context of broader lactation and relactation support. The meta-analysis of rate of weight gain showed no statistical difference and some evidence of moderate heterogeneity. Few interventions address growth faltering among infants under 6 months. These studies have limited generalizability and have not comprehensively supported lactation. Greater investment is necessary to accelerate research that addresses growth faltering following a new research framework that calls for comprehensive lactation support.

5.
J Appl Gerontol ; 43(2): 182-193, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37863099

RESUMO

Wearable activity trackers (WAT) have shown high potential to improve health in the aging population. Evidence links various social factors with WAT use in older adults, but mainly within small samples and the prevalence of their WAT use during the COVID-19 is unknown. We reported WAT use prevalence before and during the first wave of COVID-19 and examined social factors associated with WAT use frequency using a nationally representative sample of 3302 U.S. older adults. We used Multinomial Logistic Regression to identify social factors associated with WAT use frequency. Only 10.3% of pre-COVID-19 and 10.9% of first-wave subsamples were frequent WAT users. Older adults aged 75 and above and those with low incomes were less likely to frequently use WATs. Our findings suggest socioeconomic and age disparities in WAT use among older Americans. Future studies should focus on enhancing low-income older adults' WAT adoption to enable equal access to WAT-related health benefits.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Fatores Sociais , Envelhecimento
6.
PLoS One ; 18(12): e0295225, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38039322

RESUMO

Lifetime exposures to violence among men who have sex with men (MSM) are associated with multiple psychosocial health risks and can affect engagement and outcomes of HIV treatment. This study a) explored relationships between levels of exposures to violence and HIV care continuum outcomes among MSM living with HIV in India, and b) identified psychosocial correlates of HIV care continuum outcomes among MSM living with HIV and those with lifetime cumulative exposures to violence (CVE). CVE referred to exposures to violence in both childhood and adulthood. This cross-sectional analysis used survey data collected between August 2016 and May 2017 from 1763 men who have sex with men living with HIV across 10 cities in India, using respondent-driven sampling. We found that higher levels of violence exposure were significantly associated with lower awareness of HIV positive status, and lower likelihood of initiating antiretroviral therapy. Compared with MSM living with HIV that had no CVE, those with CVE were more likely to report perpetration of interpersonal violence, alcohol misuse, depressive symptoms, and HIV transmission risk behaviors and to have two to four co-occurring psychosocial problems. In multivariable analysis with the subset of MSM with CVE, psychosocial correlates significantly associated with at least one HIV care continuum outcome were HIV transmission risk behaviors, perpetration of interpersonal violence, depression, and alcohol misuse. The findings highlight the need for integrating care for lifetime violence exposures and associated behavioral problems in HIV care settings for men who have sex with men living with HIV in India.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Exposição à Violência , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Masculino , Humanos , Criança , Homossexualidade Masculina , Parceiros Sexuais , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Violência , Índia/epidemiologia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Prevalência
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 94(3): 253-261, 2023 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37757847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coinfection with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and HIV is common, but few published studies examine how undergoing MDR-TB treatment affects HIV disease indicators. METHODS: Using data from a nested, retrospective cohort of people with HIV (PWH) and successful MDR-TB treatment outcomes, we built multivariable regression models to explore correlates of HIV viral suppression at MDR-TB treatment completion. RESULTS: Among 531 PWH successfully treated for MDR-TB, mean age was 37.4 years (SD 10.2, interquartile range 30-43), 270 (50.8%) were male, 395 (74.4%) were virally suppressed at MDR-TB outcome, and 259 (48.8%) took bedaquiline. Older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 1.06) increased odds of viral suppression, while having a prior TB episode (aOR 0.45, 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.64), having a detectable viral load at MDR-TB treatment initiation (aOR 0.17, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.30), living in a township (aOR 0.49, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.87), and being changed from efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) to a protease inhibitor due to bedaquiline usage (aOR 0.19, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.82) or not having an ART change while on bedaquiline (aOR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.75) lowered odds of viral suppression. Changing from efavirenz to nevirapine due to bedaquiline usage did not significantly affect odds of viral suppression (aOR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.16 to 1.04). CONCLUSIONS: Increased pill burden and adverse treatment effects did not significantly affect HIV viral suppression while switching ART to a protease inhibitor to accommodate bedaquiline or not changing ART while taking bedaquiline did, suggesting that PWH and MDR-TB may benefit from additional support if they must switch ART.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico
8.
Digit Health ; 9: 20552076231181213, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37361436

RESUMO

Objective: Almost 80% of people, who are caring for someone with dementia, have one or more chronic conditions and require self-management support. New technologies offer promising solutions; however, little is known about what technologies caregivers use for their health or in general. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of mobile application (app) and health-related technology use among caregivers who have chronic conditions and care for someone with dementia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 122 caregivers recruited online and from communities in the Baltimore-metropolitan area. Data were collected with online surveys and computer-assisted telephone interviews. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze survey data. Results: Study participants were primarily female (95 of 122, 77.9%), middle-aged (average 53 years, standard deviation (SD) 17), well educated (average 16 years, SD 3.3), an adult child of the person with dementia (53 of 122, 43.4%), and had 4 chronic conditions on average (SD 2.6). Over 90% of caregivers used mobile apps (116 of 122), spending a range of 9 to 82 min on each app. Most caregivers reported using social media apps (96 of 116, 82.8%), weather apps (96 of 116, 82.8%), and/or music or entertainment apps (89 of 116, 76.7%). Among caregivers using each app type, more than half of caregivers used social media (66 of 96, 69%), games (49 of 74, 66%), weather (62 of 96, 65%), and/or music or entertainment apps (51 of 89, 57%) daily. Caregivers also used several technologies to support their own health-the most common being websites, mobile devices, and health-related mobile apps. Conclusion: This study supports the feasibility of using technologies to promote health behavior change and support self-management among caregivers.

9.
Am J Crit Care ; 31(6): 499-507, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the critical care environment, individuals who undergo tracheostomy are highly susceptible to tracheostomy-related pressure injuries. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce tracheostomy-related pressure injury in the critical care setting. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies of pediatric or adult patients in intensive care units conducted to evaluate interventions to reduce tracheostomy-related pressure injury. Reviewers independently extracted data on study and patient characteristics, incidence of tracheostomy-related pressure injury, characteristics of the interventions, and outcomes. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk-of-bias criteria. RESULTS: Ten studies (2 randomized clinical trials, 5 quasi-experimental, 3 observational) involving 2023 critically ill adult and pediatric patients met eligibility criteria. The incidence of tracheostomy-related pressure injury was 17.0% before intervention and 3.5% after intervention, a 79% decrease. Pressure injury most commonly involved skin in the peristomal area and under tracheostomy ties and flanges. Interventions to mitigate risk of tracheostomy-related pressure injury included modifications to tracheostomy flange securement with foam collars, hydrophilic dressings, and extended-length tracheostomy tubes. Interventions were often investigated as part of care bundles, and there was limited standardization of interventions between studies. Meta-analysis supported the benefit of hydrophilic dressings under tracheostomy flanges for decreasing tracheostomy-related pressure injury. CONCLUSIONS: Use of hydrophilic dressings and foam collars decreases the incidence of tracheostomy-related pressure injury in critically ill patients. Evidence regarding individual interventions is limited by lack of sensitive measurement tools and by use of bundled interventions. Further research is necessary to delineate optimal interventions for preventing tracheostomy-related pressure injury.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Lesão por Pressão , Traqueostomia , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Bandagens , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle
10.
Am J Crit Care ; 31(5): 416-424, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired pressure injuries, including those related to airway devices, are a significant source of morbidity in critically ill patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of endotracheal tube-related pressure injuries in critically ill patients and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent injury. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies of pediatric or adult patients in intensive care units that evaluated interventions to reduce endotracheal tube-related pressure injury. Reviewers extracted data on study and patient characteristics, incidence of pressure injury, type and duration of intervention, and outcomes. Risk of bias assessment followed the Cochrane Collaboration's criteria. RESULTS: Twelve studies (5 randomized clinical trials, 3 quasi-experimental, 4 observational) representing 9611 adult and 152 pediatric patients met eligibility criteria. The incidence of pressure injury was 4.2% for orotracheal tubes and 21.1% for nasotracheal tubes. Interventions included anchor devices, serial endotracheal tube assessment or repositioning, and barrier dressings for nasotracheal tubes. Meta-analysis revealed that endotracheal tube stabilization was the most effective individual intervention for preventing pressure injury. Nasal alar barrier dressings decreased the incidence of skin or mucosal injury in patients undergoing nasotracheal intubation, and data on effectiveness of serial assessment and repositioning were inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Airway device-related pressure injuries are common in critically ill patients, and patients with nasotracheal tubes are particularly susceptible to iatrogenic harm. Fastening devices and barrier dressings decrease the incidence of injury. Evidence regarding interventions is limited by lack of standardized assessments.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Intubação Intratraqueal , Lesão por Pressão , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos
11.
Prog Transplant ; 32(3): 219-225, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35726196

RESUMO

Introduction: The left ventricular assist device (VAD) is commonly used as the bridge-to-transplantation therapy for heart failure patients who are on waitlist of heart transplant. The caregivers' adherence to the homecare regimen plays a vital role in patient outcomes. There is little evidence about the factors related to the caregiver adherence. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing adherence in caring for patients living with a left ventricular device. Methods: The data were collected from 4 online caregiver support groups. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine associations between key variables. The structure equation modeling was used to identify the mediators of caregiver adherence. Results: A total of 96 participants' data entered the final analysis. The average age of the participants was 49.8 (SD = 12.88) years, majority were white (84%), female (80%), and married (81%). Caregiver self-efficacy was positively related to their adherence (r = 0.460, P < 0.001). Caregiver knowledge did not mediate the effect of training on self-efficacy. Caregiver self-efficacy did not mediate the effect of knowledge on adherence. There was no interaction between practice hours and knowledge on adherence. Discussion: The findings suggest significant association between caregiver self-efficacy and adherence to left ventricular assist home-care regimens. Additional research is needed to identify factors influencing caregiver adherence, leading to the development of evidence-based practice guidelines and to improve the outcomes in advanced heart failure patients living with left VAD.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Adulto , Cuidadores , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoeficácia
12.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(9): 7205-7218, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486227

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mucositis is severely painful and often reported as one of the most distressing adverse effects of cancer therapy; it is a significant threat to quality of life as well as life itself. Anti-inflammatory agents may modulate physiologic mechanisms that perpetuate mucositis and be useful in prevention efforts. Because systemic anti-inflammatory agents are not appropriate for many patients, locally acting agents (mouthwashes) may be more feasible for use. This review and meta-analysis evaluates the role that anti-inflammatory mouthwashes have in preventing or reducing oral mucositis associated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies evaluating the efficacy of anti-inflammatory mouthwashes to prevent therapy-associated mucositis. Meta-analysis was conducted to determine efficacy in preventing any mucositis and dose-limiting mucositis. RESULTS: Eight peer-reviewed publications were identified; corticosteroid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory mouthwashes are effective in reducing overall incidence of mucositis and are associated with lower severity of mucositis. Meta-analysis reveals significant reduction in symptomatic mucositis incidence (OR 6.00, 95% CI 4.39-8.20, p < 0.0001) and reduction of dose-limiting mucositis (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.07-4.28, p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Mouthwashes containing anti-inflammatory agents are a potential effective means to prevent or reduce mucositis associated with cancer therapy. There are limited adverse effects from these agents, and adherence is high, indicating safety and feasibility of use. Anti-inflammatory mouthwashes should be considered for supportive care in persons at risk for mucositis and must be further evaluated to investigate efficacy across multiple chemotherapy agents, adverse effects, and impacts on symptoms, pain, and quality of life.


Assuntos
Mucosite , Neoplasias , Estomatite , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Mucosite/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente , Estomatite/prevenção & controle
13.
J Palliat Med ; 25(6): 945-951, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446674

RESUMO

Background: Telenovelas show significant promise as a mode of education that could potentially enhance hospice family caregivers' (HFCG) ability to manage distress or pain for themselves and the care recipient. Objectives: We sought to understand HFCGs' perceived benefits and challenges of NOVELA using the Levels of Kirkpatrick as a conceptual framework. Setting/Subjects: HFCGs from two hospices in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Measurements: Semistructured interviews were conducted to understand perceptions of HFCGs on the benefits and challenges of the NOVELA intervention. Results: Participants (N = 20) in our study were mainly homebound, well educated, White female, and adult children of people with advanced cancer who reported mild anxiety and moderate self-efficacy at baseline. Three unique themes were identified: acceptability of NOVELA, usability and relevance of NOVELA, and the effect of NOVELA. According to our conceptual model, the intervention positively affects all three adult learning categories: reaction, learning, and behavior. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that HFCGs support the proposed NOVELA intervention and it appears to be an acceptable educational tool during hospice care (NCT04533594).


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Hospitais para Doentes Terminais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidadores , Dor , Manejo da Dor , Estados Unidos
14.
J Nurs Adm ; 52(5): 258-265, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Researchers examined professional nursing governance perception differences by RN type (clinical, manager, and other RNs), and nurse-related outcome associations. BACKGROUND: Shared governance is associated with improved nurse-related outcomes. Understanding differences in RN types regarding shared governance perceptions is important and not well studied. METHODS: Mean Index of Professional Nursing Governance (IPNG) scores from 3 hospitals' 502 RNs were used to evaluate associations by RN type and unit-based nurse-related outcomes. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used. RESULTS: Shared governance was the predominant finding (overall score and 4 of 6 subscale scores) with no significant differences by RN type. Traditional governance was scored for 1 subscale (control over personnel), which was not significant. There were no significant differences in the IPNG score associations with outcomes data by RN type. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical nurses, managers, and other RN types perceived their governance as shared, without significant difference in the nurses' perceptions based on role.


Assuntos
Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Humanos
15.
Qual Health Res ; 32(6): 887-901, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343318

RESUMO

While the supporting role of families and friends has been widely recognized in cancer care, little data exist on how they influence patients' decisions regarding clinical trial participation, accounting for patients' decisional preferences. The goal of our study was to examine the process of clinical trial decision-making from the perspective of adults with cancer and their decision partners. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 patients and 12 decision partners-family and friends engaged in the medical decision-making. Themes included: (1) having the ability and confidence to make decisions; (2) gaining insight about clinical trials; (3) trusting someone in the process; and (4) realizing readiness and context. Our findings will enhance understanding of how patients make clinical trial decisions based on decisional preferences from the perspectives of patients and decision partners. The findings may also help to increase clinician awareness and inclusion of decision partners in conversations regarding clinical trials.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Neoplasias , Adulto , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Comunicação , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Participação do Paciente , Preferência do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
J Artif Organs ; 25(2): 91-104, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342807

RESUMO

Self-management is a health behavior known to predict treatment outcomes in patients with multiple co-morbidities and/or chronic conditions. However, the self-management process and outcomes in the left-ventricular assist device (LVAD) population are understudied. This pilot randomized control trial (RCT) evaluated the feasibility of a novel "smartphone app-directed and nurse-supported self-management intervention" in patients implanted with durable LVADs. Assessments included behavioral (self-efficacy and adherence), clinical (complications), and healthcare utilization (unplanned clinic, emergency room (ER) visits, and re-hospitalization) outcomes, completed at baseline (pre-hospital discharge) and months 1, 3, and 6 post-hospital discharge. Intervention patients (n = 14) had favorable patterns/trends of results across study outcomes than control patients (n = 16). Notably, intervention patients had much lower complications and healthcare utilization rates than controls. For example, intervention patients had 2 (14.3%) driveline infections in 6 months while control patients had 3 (19.0%). Additionally, at month 3, intervention patients had 0% ER visits versus 36% of control patients. At month 6, the mean cumulative number of re-hospitalizations for the control group was higher (0.9 ± 0.93) than intervention (0.3 ± 0.61) group. Despite the small sample size and limitations of feasibility/pilot studies, our outcomes data appeared to favor the novel intervention. Lessons learned from this study suggest the intervention should be implemented for 6 months post-hospital discharge. Further research is needed including large and rigorous multi-center RCTs to generate knowledge explaining the mechanism of the effect of self-management on LVAD treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Autogestão , Hospitalização , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Heart Lung Circ ; 31(1): 85-94, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is increasing in many low-income and middle-income countries, but the limited availability of data on patient profiles and clinical outcomes, particularly at a community level, challenges health service planning. METHODS: The Thai HF Snapshot Study was a multi-site, observational study conducted in Thailand between June 2017 to June 2019. It aimed to document demographic, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, and to compare clinical outcomes by the level of the hospital. RESULTS: A total of 512 participants were recruited across Thailand: mean age was 64.9±15.3 years and 286 were female (55.9%). The most frequently identified admitting diagnosis was ischaemic heart disease (45.1%). Most patients (70.3%) were classified as New York Heart Association class II at discharge. Patients in university hospitals were frailer (3.2 vs 2.9; p=0.015), had more depressive symptoms (8.1 vs 5.7; p<0.001), and had lower functional status (66.2 vs 73.3; p<0.001) than those in tertiary care. CONCLUSION: Although HF patients admitted to university hospitals had access to advanced technology and health care specialists, clinical outcomes likely affected patient acuity. Interventions are urgently needed to ensure improved HF management considering the social determinants of health in Thailand.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Tailândia/epidemiologia
18.
Prof Case Manag ; 26(6): 286-297, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609341

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF STUDY: The specific aims of this study were to examine whether sociodemographic variables and medical-surgical diagnoses were associated with telephone follow-up (TFU) reach rates, emergency department visits, and hospital readmissions. PRIMARY PRACTICE OF SETTING: Acute care inpatient units in an academic medical center. METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLE: A correlational design was utilized, and a prospective medical record review of patients was conducted while implementing face-to-face prehospital discharge meeting interventions. The study sample (N = 176) included adult patients in two neurosurgical wards who were admitted between June 2016 and September 2016. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used to explore the balance between the intervention group receiving a face-to-face prehospital discharge meeting and comparison group receiving standard prehospital discharge care. Bivariate statistics were employed to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: A total of 15 sociodemographic and medical-surgical variables were used to correlate TFU reach rates, emergency department (ED) visits, and readmission rates. Educational attainment (p = .002), employment status (p = .014), parental status (p = .010), and hospital service (p = .039) had significant differences between the intervention and comparison groups. Results demonstrated an improved reach rate for the intervention group but despite the differences in the groups, phi and Cramer's V coefficients did not correlate any associations with TFU reach rate, ED visits, and readmission rates with sociodemographic and surgical variables. This outcome affirmed that despite the similarities and differences in the sample, a face-to-face meeting prehospital discharge is an effective intervention to improve telephone outreach. IMPLICATIONS TO CASE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE: There is a need to determine the most cost-effective way to increase TFU reach rates to prevent subsequent ED visits and hospital readmissions. There is also a need to develop a tool that can predict the hardest-to-reach patients posthospital discharge, so that case managers can meet those patients before leaving the hospital. In addition, it is important to identify alternative methods of "face-to-face" interactions during the COVID-19 pandemic crises. Case managers must explore ways with caution to leverage secured digital technology to bridge the gap of communicating with patients and family members when hospital visitations are limited.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Hospitalização , Alta do Paciente , Telefone , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(8): e27926, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, nearly 80% of family caregivers of people with dementia have at least one chronic condition. Dementia caregivers experience high stress and burden that adversely affect their health and self-management. mHealth apps can improve health and self-management among dementia caregivers with a chronic condition. However, mHealth app adoption by dementia caregivers is low, and reasons for this are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore factors associated with dementia caregivers' intention to adopt mHealth apps for chronic disease self-management. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, correlational study and recruited a convenience sample of dementia caregivers. We created a survey using validated instruments and collected data through computer-assisted telephone interviews and web-based surveys. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, we recruited dementia caregivers through community-based strategies, such as attending community events. After nationwide closures due to the pandemic, the team focused on web-based recruitment. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to test the relationships between the independent and dependent variables. RESULTS: Our sample of 117 caregivers had an average age of 53 (SD 17.4) years, 16 (SD 3.3) years of education, and 4 (SD 2.5) chronic conditions. The caregivers were predominantly women (92/117, 78.6%) and minorities (63/117, 53.8%), experienced some to extreme income difficulties (64/117, 54.7%), and were the child or child-in-law (53/117, 45.3%) of the person with dementia. In logistic regression models adjusting for the control variables, caregiver burden (odds ratio [OR] 1.3, 95% CI 0.57-2.8; P=.57), time spent caregiving per week (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.77-3.9; P=.18), and burden of chronic disease and treatment (OR 2.3, 95% CI 0.91-5.7; P=.08) were not significantly associated with the intention to adopt mHealth apps. In the final multiple logistic regression model, only perceived usefulness (OR 23, 95% CI 5.6-97; P<.001) and the interaction term for caregivers' education and burden of chronic disease and treatment (OR 31, 95% CI 2.2-430; P=.01) were significantly associated with their intention to adopt mHealth apps. Perceived ease of use (OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.67-8.7; P=.18) and social influence (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.58-5.7; P=.31) were not significantly associated with the intention to adopt mHealth apps. CONCLUSIONS: When designing mHealth app interventions for dementia caregivers with a chronic condition, it is important to consider caregivers' perceptions about how well mHealth apps can help their self-management and which app features would be most useful for self-management. Caregiving factors may not be relevant to caregivers' intention to adopt mHealth apps. This is promising because mHealth strategies may overcome barriers to caregivers' self-management. Future research should investigate reasons why caregivers with a low education level and low burden of chronic disease and treatment have significantly lower intention to adopt mHealth apps for self-management.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Demência , Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina , Cuidadores , Estudos Transversais , Demência/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(7-8): 379-388, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Researchers examined associations between Index for Professional Nursing Governance (IPNG) types and outcomes. BACKGROUND: Effects of professional nursing governance on nurse-related outcomes by Magnet® status are not well studied. METHODS: Associations were evaluated between average IPNG scores from 2170 RNs, and nurse-sensitive indicators (NSIs) as well as patient and RN satisfaction outcomes (N = 205 study units; 20 hospitals), following Magnet requirements. RESULTS: Magnet hospitals had significantly better IPNG shared governance scores than non-Magnet hospitals (Magnet, 106.7; non-Magnet, 101.3). For Magnet hospitals, units scoring as shared governance outperformed traditional governance for 9 of 19 outcomes (47.4%) (NSI, 2; patient satisfaction, 3; RN satisfaction, 4). Self-governance outperformed shared governance for 8 of 15 outcomes (53.3%) (NSI, 2; patient satisfaction, 6; RN satisfaction, 0). For non-Magnet hospitals, shared governance significantly outperformed traditional governance for 1 of 15 outcomes (6.7%) (patient satisfaction). CONCLUSIONS: Having shared or self-governance is a strategy that can be considered by nurse leaders to improve select nurse-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Liderança , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/organização & administração , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Administração Hospitalar , Humanos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estados Unidos
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