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1.
Glob Health Promot ; : 17579759241232394, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581281

RESUMO

This article proposes a mixed-blended model adapted for Western Balkan countries, advancing the connections between the Icelandic Model of Health Promotion and the assets models for health improvement through the whole school approach and non-formal education methodology. The need to reshape health promotion interventions in Western Balkan countries is urgent, and requires explicit synergies so that a more coherent approach can be taken in their utilization. To this end, we propose a new Albanian Health Promotion Model that integrates key concepts that are associated with the involvement of schoolchildren; parents/caregivers, grandparents, communities, and religious leaders; teachers and school staff; involvement of central and local governments; engagement of the private sector; involvement of non-governmental and civil society organizations; and, importantly, enables the development of supportive environments. The proposed model aims to contribute to a more in-depth theoretical understanding of health and development through integration of the key elements of various models, methods, approaches, and tools employed in health promotion practice. Making the theory of the Icelandic model more feasible for non-Nordic cultures could better contextualize the ideas in public health policy and practice. The Albanian Health Promotion Model may also support interventions to maximize their results in vulnerable communities that have specific requirements and, as a result, could be extrapolated to similar countries in the region and beyond.

2.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 32(1): 63-67, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this analysis was to compare selected health status indicators of the Albanian and Polish populations, pertinent to two former communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). METHODS: This analysis was based on the estimates related to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 study, reported by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). For Poland, IHME uses data mainly from the Central Statistical Office of Poland, whereas for Albania the information is based on the reports from the National Institute of Statistics. RESULTS: In 2019, life expectancy at birth was slightly higher in Albania compared to Poland (78.5 years vs. 78.1 years, respectively). Mortality rate from noncommunicable diseases was similar in both countries (about 520 deaths per 100,000 population). In 2019, the main risk factor for the overall mortality in both countries was the high systolic blood pressure. In Albania, high systolic blood pressure accounted for almost 32% of deaths from all causes, whereas in Poland it accounted for only 21% of all deaths. The second main risk factor in Albania concerned the dietary factors which were responsible for almost one in four deaths. In Poland, the second main risk factor for all-cause mortality concerned tobacco which was responsible for one in five deaths. The third leading risk factor in Albania was tobacco (responsible for one in five deaths), whereas in Poland it concerned the dietary risks (responsible for about 19% of the all-cause mortality). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis provides useful information about the current health status of two populations pertinent to the former Communist Bloc in CEE. While health indicators can provide important information about the differences in health status between populations, it is important to interpret these indicators in the context of the specific challenges and limitations facing each country.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Expectativa de Vida , Albânia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Comunismo , Fatores de Risco , Mortalidade/tendências , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adolescente , Criança , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde
3.
Eur J Public Health ; 34(2): 289-291, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875009

RESUMO

Opting for homemade meals is the healthiest choice. We assessed the change in nutritional practices among parents/caregivers exposed to health promotion campaigns. Pre- and post-intervention surveys inquiring about nutritional practices were conducted respectively in March and June 2022 in a community-based sample of 583 parents/caregivers in Albania (62% females; age: 39.7 ± 7.1 years; response: 83%). The multi-component intervention consisted of community-based 'onsite' events (awareness raising campaigns) and 'online' interventions (knowledge portal and digital applications). After the intervention, the prevalence of home cooking and/or provision of home-made foods to children for eating at school increased by 11% (both P < 0.01). Engagement in healthy nutritional practices 'only after the intervention' increased especially among Roma/Egyptian parents/caregivers.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Pais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Albânia , Promoção da Saúde , Refeições
4.
Eur J Public Health ; 34(1): 52-58, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37793003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 'WHO-ASPHER Roadmap to Professionalizing the Public Health Workforce in the European Region' provides recommendations for strategic and systematic workforce planning around professionalization levers including: (i) competencies, (ii) training and education, (iii) formal organization, (iv) professional credentialing and (v) code of ethics and professional conduct as well as taxonomy and enumeration. It was based on a literature review till 2016. This scoping review aims to explore how the professionalization was documented in the literature between 2016 and 2022. METHODS: Following the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines, we searched Medline via PubMed, Web of Science, ERIC via EBSCO and Google Scholar and included studies on professionalization levers. Four critical appraisal tools were used to assess qualitative, quantitative, mixed methods studies and grey literature. The PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) was used for reporting. RESULTS: Eleven articles included in this review spanned 61 countries, targeting undergraduate, master's, doctoral degrees and continuing professional development. Most of these documents were reviews. About half provided a definition of the public health workforce; more than half covered the taxonomy and included information about competences, but the use of frameworks was sporadic and inconsistent. Formal organization and the necessity of a code of conduct for the public health workforce were acknowledged in only two studies. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of some efforts to professionalize the public health workforce, this process is fragmented and not fully recognized and supported. There is an urgent need to engage policymakers and stakeholders to prioritize investments in strengthening the public health workforce worldwide.


Assuntos
Mão de Obra em Saúde , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Recursos Humanos , Estudantes
5.
Health Promot Int ; 38(4)2023 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37562042

RESUMO

Digital applications can be effective tools for strengthening school-based health education programs as they can provide valuable health information to children through interactive videos, quizzes and games. We aimed at assessing the change in the prevalence of healthy behaviours among children exposed to digital applications (intervention) employed for promoting healthy behaviours. We conducted a cross-sectional study before the intervention in March 2022 including a representative sample of 1500 Albanian schoolchildren (≈54% girls) aged 12-15 years. In June 2022, after 4-month exposure to digital applications aimed at promoting healthy behaviours (intervention), we carried out a second cross-sectional study in the same sample of schoolchildren. In both survey rounds, an anonymous and structured self-administered questionnaire inquired children about a range of behavioural practices including nutrition, oral health, physical activity and hygiene practices. After the intervention, overall, there was evidence of a significant increase in the prevalence of all healthy behavioural practices measured: ~9% for breakfast consumption and/or environmental protection, 12% for toothbrushing, 14% for handwashing, 15% for leisure time physical exercise and 24% for adequate fruit and vegetable intake (all p < 0.001). Engagement in healthy behaviours only after the intervention was higher among rural children (from 18% for breakfast consumption to 37% for handwashing and/or adequate fruit and vegetable intake) and especially those pertinent to Roma/Egyptian communities (from 18% for breakfast consumption to 46% for adequate fruit and vegetable intake), except for engagement in safe environmental protection which was more prevalent among urban residents (28% vs. 15% among rural children) and ethnic Albanian children (24% vs. 13% among Roma/Egyptian children). Our findings from Albania indicate that digital applications can be useful for strengthening school-based health promotion programs.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Verduras , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Frutas
6.
Zdr Varst ; 62(3): 137-144, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37327135

RESUMO

Aim: To develop and validate a comprehensive questionnaire to be used as an instrument in cross-sectional studies among beekeepers. Methods: A comprehensive questionnaire in Slovenian was validated by an expert panel (n=13) for content relevance and a rater panel (n=14) for clarity and comprehensibility. The content validity indices (an item-level content validity index and scale-level content validity index based on the average and universal agreement method) and item-level face validity index were calculated in accordance with the recommended number of both the review panels with their implications on the acceptable cut-off scores. Piloting was performed in a sample (n=50) of the target population (N=1.080) using telephone interviews. Results: The item-level content validity index and scale-level content validity index based on the average method exhibited excellent content validity (0.97), while the scale-level content validity index based on the universal agreement method reached a value of 0.72. The item-level face validity index of 1.00 indicated that all items were clear and comprehensive. Conclusions: The new instrument may be considered valid and feasible for use in nationwide population-based studies among Slovenian beekeepers and eventually in other populations.

7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 151: e19, 2023 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621004

RESUMO

This systematic literature review aimed to provide an overview of the characteristics and methods used in studies applying the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) concept for infectious diseases within European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA)/European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries and the United Kingdom. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched for articles reporting the assessment of DALY and its components. We considered studies in which researchers performed DALY calculations using primary epidemiological data input sources. We screened 3053 studies of which 2948 were excluded and 105 studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 22 were multi-country and 83 were single-country studies, of which 46 were from the Netherlands. Food- and water-borne diseases were the most frequently studied infectious diseases. Between 2015 and 2022, the number of burden of infectious disease studies was 1.6 times higher compared to that published between 2000 and 2014. Almost all studies (97%) estimated DALYs based on the incidence- and pathogen-based approach and without social weighting functions; however, there was less methodological consensus with regards to the disability weights and life tables that were applied. The number of burden of infectious disease studies undertaken across Europe has increased over time. Development and use of guidelines will promote performing burden of infectious disease studies and facilitate comparability of the results.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Países Baixos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença
8.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(10): 776-780, 2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382733

RESUMO

Background: Since winter 2020, excess deaths due to COVID-19 have been higher in Eastern Europe than most of Western Europe, partly because regulatory enforcement was poor. Methods: This paper analysed data from 50 countries in the WHO European Region, in addition to data from USA and Canada. Excess mMortality and vaccination data were retrieved from "Our World In Data" and regulation implementation was assessed using standard methods. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the association between mortality and each covariate. Results: Excess mortality increased by 4.1 per 100 000 (P = 0.038) for every percentage decrease in vaccination rate and with 6/100 000 (p=0.011) for every decreased unit in the regulatory implementation score a country achieved in the Rule of Law Index. Conclusion: Degree of regulation enforcement, likely including public health measure enforcement, may be an important factor in controlling COVID-19's deleterious health impacts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cobertura Vacinal , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
9.
Health Policy ; 126(8): 816-823, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641326

RESUMO

Europeanization is assumed to influence health policy in the Western Balkans, but little is known about the actual impact of this process in these countries which constitute a complex geopolitical region of Europe. In this context, we used time trends to explore the Western Balkans health policies during the Europeanization through a cross-country comparative analysis of six countries. We conducted a health policy analysis by adapting the framework for globalization and population health coined by Huynen et al. in 2005. We analyzed 90 progress reports of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia from 2005 to 2020. In particular, we considered chapter 28 on "Consumer and health protection" and other chapters that contained the words "health" or "population health". Evidence indicates that Europeanization influences Western Balkans' policies at different levels. Western Balkan countries revise national legislation in accordance with new European Union acquis as addressed in the progress reports and build cooperation with international institutions. They build national health reforms and reorganize relevant institutions to better address regulations in accordance to Europeanization. However, it is necessary to monitor law implementation so that the current legislation is enforced and further positive impact can be measured on population health.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Albânia , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Croácia , União Europeia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Seguro Saúde , Montenegro , Saúde da População , República da Macedônia do Norte , Sérvia
10.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 23(Suppl B): B6-B8, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733123

RESUMO

This article discusses the results of the May Measurement Month (MMM) 2019 campaign, which contributed to a third round of MMM hypertension screening campaigns carried out in Albania, a transitional country in the Western Balkans. The hypertension screening campaign in Albania was carried out during the period 1-31 May 2019 in 30 sites in many districts of the country. Overall, 19 154 participants aged ≥18 years were included (approximately 68% of these were women), with an overall mean age of 47.0 ± 15.3 years. Blood pressure (BP) was measured with OMRON sphygmomanometers (Omron Healthcare, Kyoto, Japan). Hypertension was defined as systolic BP ≥140 mmHg, or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, or on treatment for hypertension. Self-reported data consisted of height and weight, pre-existing conditions, including smoking status and alcohol consumption. Overall, the proportion of participants with hypertension was 38.6%. Less than two-thirds (64.7%) of hypertensive individuals were aware of their condition. Also, less than half (48.3%) of participants on antihypertensive medication had controlled BP (<140/90 mmHg). The most sizable correlations of high BP were with known hypertension status, use of antihypertensive medication, and obesity. The MMM campaign contributes to routine hypertension screening in Albania. Hence, health professionals and policymakers in Albania should act on the findings of MMM screening campaigns and continue its support as a valuable tool for early detection of hypertension in the general population.

11.
Obes Facts ; 14(6): 658-674, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818257

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Parents can act as important agents of change and support for healthy childhood growth and development. Studies have found that parents may not be able to accurately perceive their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to measure parental perceptions of their child's weight status and to identify predictors of potential parental misperceptions. METHODS: We used data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative and 22 countries. Parents were asked to identify their perceptions of their children's weight status as "underweight," "normal weight," "a little overweight," or "extremely overweight." We categorized children's (6-9 years; n = 124,296) body mass index (BMI) as BMI-for-age Z-scores based on the 2007 WHO-recommended growth references. For each country included in the analysis and pooled estimates (country level), we calculated the distribution of children according to the WHO weight status classification, distribution by parental perception of child's weight status, percentages of accurate, overestimating, or underestimating perceptions, misclassification levels, and predictors of parental misperceptions using a multilevel logistic regression analysis that included only children with overweight (including obesity). Statistical analyses were performed using Stata version 15 1. RESULTS: Overall, 64.1% of parents categorized their child's weight status accurately relative to the WHO growth charts. However, parents were more likely to underestimate their child's weight if the child had overweight (82.3%) or obesity (93.8%). Parents were more likely to underestimate their child's weight if the child was male (adjusted OR [adjOR]: 1.41; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.28-1.55); the parent had a lower educational level (adjOR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.26-1.57); the father was asked rather than the mother (adjOR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.98-1.33); and the family lived in a rural area (adjOR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.99-1.24). Overall, parents' BMI was not strongly associated with the underestimation of children's weight status, but there was a stronger association in some countries. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Our study supplements the current literature on factors that influence parental perceptions of their child's weight status. Public health interventions aimed at promoting healthy childhood growth and development should consider parents' knowledge and perceptions, as well as the sociocultural contexts in which children and families live.


Assuntos
Obesidade Infantil , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pais , Obesidade Infantil/diagnóstico , Obesidade Infantil/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501834

RESUMO

Background: At present, in Ukraine, there is an insufficient capacity for up-to-date surveillance of the health status of the general population; public health (PH) promotion and disease prevention activities are scarce. Additionally, there is an urgent need to ensure, develop and support an efficient public health workforce (PHW) and appropriately address existing health issues. Ukraine currently introduces PH system reforms in line with its current burden of disease, the epidemiological profile and the Essential Public Health Services (EPHOs). This analysis aims to propose a pragmatic framework to provide guidance and recommendations related to the development, support and planning of the PHW in Ukraine. Methods: We constructed a framework based on a previously published scoping review and analyzed various policy analysis approaches. In line with the recommendations found in the literature and the best practices used elsewhere, this method enabled the construction of a framework for facilitating successful PHW development. In addition, an expert workshop was held, serving as a reality check for identifying crucial areas of the PH system in Ukraine. Results: The proposed framework includes a country's background, the evidence and available policy options, such as the health system (including core functions, organizational resources, regulations and norms), health system capacities (including human resources; PH capacity assessment; datasets and databases; forecasting strategies; licensing, accreditation and quality assurance) and capacity building (including PH education, training, core competencies and ethical and professional codes of conduct). To facilitate and support effective implementation of the framework, we propose (1) implementing strategies to facilitate changes in attitude, behavior and practices among the citizens; (2) implementing strategies to facilitate the necessary behavioral changes in the PHW; (3) implementing strategies to facilitate the necessary organizational and institutional changes; (4) implementing strategies to facilitate system changes and (5) identification of potential barriers and obstacles for the implementation of these strategies. Conclusion: The report highlights the practical tactics and best practices for providing suggestions for PHW support and planning. The employment of prominent analytical tools and procedures in policymaking processes suggests an effective strategy for PHW development in Ukraine.


Assuntos
Mão de Obra em Saúde , Saúde Pública , Fortalecimento Institucional , Humanos , Ucrânia , Recursos Humanos
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 607493, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395349

RESUMO

Aim: Our aim was to assess the prevalence and correlates of lifetime physical abuse among schoolchildren in Albania, a post-communist country in South Eastern Europe which is currently undergoing a rapid socioeconomic transition. Methods: The third wave of Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) in Albania was conducted in 2017-18 including a nationwide representative sample of 1,708 schoolchildren aged 15 years (54% girls; response rate: 95%). Children were asked to report on lifetime physical abuse and a wide range of socio-demographic factors, lifestyle factors and health status characteristics. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the independent association of lifetime physical abuse with covariates. Results: Overall, the prevalence of lifetime physical abuse was about 32% (30% in boys vs. 32% in girls). In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, independent positive correlates of lifetime physical abuse among Albanian schoolchildren included lifetime smoking (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.2), lifetime alcohol consumption (OR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.2-2.1), irritability (OR[dailyvs.rarely/never] = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.3-3.0), and especially lifetime witnessed domestic violence (OR = 4.2, 95%CI = 2.2-7.9). Conversely, a higher score on life satisfaction was inversely related to lifetime physical abuse (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our study provides novel evidence about the magnitude and selected independent correlates of lifetime physical abuse among schoolchildren in Albania, a country still embedded in an everlasting transition which is associated with tremendous changes in family structure, community links and societal norms and values. Irrespective of a wide range of sociodemographic factors and health characteristics, lifetime smoking, alcohol consumption, irritability, a lower score on life satisfaction and, particularly, witnessed domestic violence were strong and significant correlates of lifetime physical abuse among Albanian schoolchildren aged 15 years.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Abuso Físico , Albânia/epidemiologia , Criança , Comunismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
14.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(5): 516-523, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence about the magnitude and determinants of medication intake adherence among patients and the general population in Southeastern Europe is scant. AIMS: To assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of medication intake adherence among adult primary health-care (PHC) users in Albania. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018-2019 in a representative sample of 1553 adult PHC users (response: 94%) selected probabilistically from 5 major regions of Albania. There were 849 (55%) women and 704 (45%) men, with a mean age 54.6 (16.4) years. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire inquired about medication intake adherence prescribed by family physicians, and sociodemographic characteristics. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the sociodemographic correlates of medication intake adherence. RESULTS: Three hundred (19.8%) participants did not take the prescribed medication. In multivariable-adjusted logistic model, significant correlates of nonintake of medication included rural residence, low educational level, unemployment and low economic level. Among these 300 participants, 273 (91%) considered the high cost of the drugs as a reason for not taking the medication. CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence of nonintake of medication prescribed by family physicians. Decision-makers and policy-makers in Albania and elsewhere should consider the provision of essential drugs free of charge or at low cost to low socioeconomic groups and other vulnerable and marginalized population categories, because the costs of noncompliance will eventually be higher.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Albânia , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
15.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 76, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593300

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Erosive reflux esophagitis caused a large clinical spectrum of symptoms. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of extra-esophageal symptoms in individuals with and those without erosive esophagitis in Albania. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted at the Regional Hospital of Durres, the second main district in Albania, a transitional country in South Eastern Europe, including 248 patients with erosive esophagitis (aged 46.5 ± 16.3 years) and 273 controls (aged 46.4 ± 16.0 years; response rate: 70%) enrolled during the period January 2013-June 2014. Both cases and controls underwent upper endoscopy. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors was also collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of erosive esophagitis and extra-esophageal symptoms. RESULTS: Patients with erosive esophagitis had a higher prevalence of excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentarity, non-Mediterranean diet and obesity compared to their control counterparts (9% vs. 5%, 70% vs. 49%, 31% vs. 17%, 61% vs. 49% and 22% vs. 9%, respectively). Upon adjustment for all socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle/behavioral factors, there was evidence of a strong association of erosive esophagitis with chronic cough (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.7-5.8), and even more so with laryngeal disorders (OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.6-7.5). In all models, the association of erosive esophagitis with any extra-esophageal symptoms was strong and mainly consistent with each of the symptoms separately (fully-adjusted model: OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 2.9-7.3). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the prevalence of extra-esophageal symptoms is higher among patients with erosive esophagitis in a transitional country characterized conventionally by employment of a Mediterranean diet.


Assuntos
Esofagite Péptica , Esofagite , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Adulto , Albânia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Esofagite/epidemiologia , Esofagite Péptica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(1): 123-130, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship of health literacy (HL) with objective measures including anthropometric measurements remains an under-researched topic to date. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between body mass index (BMI) and HL among Albanian adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tirana, Albania, in 2012-2014 including a population-based sample of 1154 individuals aged ≥18 years. HL was assessed by the use of HLS-EU-Q instrument. Anthropometrics included measurement of weight and height based on which BMI was calculated. Information on socio-demographic characteristics was also collected. Logistic regression was employed to assess the independent association of BMI and HL controlling all socio-demographic factors. RESULTS: One-fifth of the participants reported an inadequate HL level, whereas almost one-third (31%) reported an excellent HL level. About 41% of study participants were overweight and further 22% were obese. In multivariate analysis, there was evidence of a strong and significant association between BMI and HL: the odds of overweight/obesity were two times higher (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.3-3.1) among inadequate HL individuals compared with excellent HL participants. CONCLUSION: Our findings, pertinent to a transitional country in the South East Europe, point to a strong, consistent and highly significant association between BMI and HL, irrespective of a wide array of socio-demographic characteristics.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Albânia/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243411, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this analysis was to assess the variations in COVID-19 related mortality in relation to the time differences in the commencement of virus circulation and containment measures in the European Region. METHODS: The data for the current analysis (N = 50 countries) were retrieved from the John Hopkins University dataset on the 7th of May 2020, with countries as study units. A piecewise regression analysis was conducted with mortality and cumulative incidence rates introduced as dependent variables and time interval (days from the 22nd of January to the date when 100 first cases were reported) as the main predictor. The country average life expectancy at birth and outpatient contacts per person per year were statistically adjusted for in the regression model. RESULTS: Mortality and incidence were strongly and inversely intercorrelated with days from January 22, respectively -0.83 (p<0.001) and -0.73 (p<0.001). Adjusting for average life expectancy and outpatients contacts per person per year, between days 33 to 50 from the 22nd of the January, the average mortality rate decreased by 30.1/million per day (95% CI: 22.7, 37.6, p<0.001). During interval 51 to 73 days, the change in mortality was no longer statistically significant but still showed a decreasing trend. A similar relationship with time interval was found for incidence. Life expectancy and outpatients contacts per person per year were not associated with mortality rate. CONCLUSION: Countries in Europe that had the earliest COVID-19 circulation suffered the worst consequences in terms of health outcomes, specifically mortality. The drastic social isolation measures, quickly undertaken in response to those initial outbreaks appear effective, especially in Eastern European countries, where community circulation started after March 11th. The study demonstrates that efforts to delay the early spread of the virus may have saved an average 30 deaths daily per one million inhabitants.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Expectativa de Vida , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Front Public Health ; 8: 405, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014957

RESUMO

Aim: Our aim was to assess the independent association between blood glucose level and health literacy (HL) adjusting for many socio-demographic characteristics and body mass index (BMI) in an adult population in Albania, a transitional country in the South Eastern Europe. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Tirana in 2012-2014 including a population-based sample of 1,154 individuals aged ≥18 years (57% women; mean age: 45.5 ± 16.4 years; response rate: 88.6%). HL was assessed by use of HLS-EU-Q instrument. Blood glucose level was measured in a fasting state by use of rapid finger stick method. Information on socio-demographic characteristics was collected, and BMI was calculated based on measurement of height and weight in all participants. General Linear Model (GLM) and binary logistic regression were used to assess the independent association of blood glucose level and HL adjusting for all socio-demographic factors and BMI. Results: One-third of participants had pre-diabetes (100-125.9 mg/dl) and further 11% had diabetes (≥126 mg/dl) based on the measured blood glucose level. In fully-adjusted GLM, mean blood glucose level was significantly lower among individuals with excellent HL compared with their counterparts with inadequate HL (99.3 vs. 106.0, respectively). Furthermore, the odds for the presence of diabetes in the group of study participants whose HL was "inadequate" were 2.6 times higher (95% CI = 1.3-5.4) compared to those whose HL was "excellent." Conclusion: We obtained evidence of a strong and significant inverse relationship between measured blood glucose level and HL, independent of many socio-demographic characteristics and measured BMI in a population-based study in a country of the Western Balkans.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Letramento em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Albânia , Península Balcânica , Estudos Transversais , Europa Oriental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 22(Suppl H): H5-H7, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884455

RESUMO

This article reports on May Measurement Month (MMM) 2018, which consisted of the 2nd round of the hypertension screening campaign conducted in Albania, a former communist country in South Eastern Europe. The hypertension screening campaign in Albania was conducted during the period 13-31 May 2018. Overall, there were eight sites from seven districts of the country involving 7046 participants aged ≥18 years (61% women and 39% men; overall mean age 46.8 ± 15.7 years). Blood pressure was measured with OMRON sphygmomanometers (Omron Healthcare, Kyoto, Japan). Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg, or on treatment for hypertension. Self-reported information included height and weight, diabetes, smoking status, and alcohol intake. The proportion of participants with hypertension was 37.2% of whom only 52.1% exhibited awareness. Furthermore, only a quarter of hypertensive individuals were properly treated and controlled. Significant predictors of high SBP and/or high DBP included a previous diagnosis of hypertension, being on antihypertensive medication, frequent alcohol intake, and being overweight and obese. The MMM 2018 campaign in Albania had a unique value for early detection of hypertension, particularly among younger adults. Policymakers and decision-makers in Albania and elsewhere should also rely on the MMM screening campaigns which have a great potential for prevention and control of hypertension in the general population.

20.
Front Public Health ; 8: 388, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903804

RESUMO

Aim: We aimed to assess adult primary health care (PHC) users' understanding of their medication information in a transitional South Eastern European population across seven domains. Methods: A cross-sectional study, carried out in Albania in 2018-19, included a representative sample of 1,553 PHC users aged ≥18 years (55% women; overall mean age: 54.6 ± 16.4 years; overall response rate: 94%). Participants were asked about their understanding of information they received from their respective family physicians about prescribed medicines in terms of factors like cost, dosage, and side-effects. Socio-demographic data were also gathered. Binary logistic regression was employed to assess the socio-demographic predictors of information about medication use and administration. Results: Across different aspects of use and administration, 21-60% of participants did not understand their medications. Less understanding of medication use was particularly high among the poor and those with low education and among urban residents, irrespective of socioeconomic status. Conclusion: This study provides important evidence about the level and socio-demographic determinants on understanding of information about medication use and administration among adult PHC users in a transitional former communist country in South Eastern Europe. Policymakers should be aware of the joint role and interplay between health literacy (demand side) and information provision (supply side), which both significantly influence the understanding of medication use by the general population.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Albânia , Estudos Transversais , Europa Oriental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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