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1.
Am Surg ; : 31348241241690, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569206

RESUMO

Idiopathic acute rectal necrosis (IARN) is a rare condition due to a robust rectal blood supply. This report describes an 83-year-old man presenting with septic shock due to distal sigmoid and complete rectal necrosis with perforation. He underwent emergent exploratory laparotomy, sigmoid and proximal rectum resection, and end sigmoid colostomy creation with delayed distal rectal evaluation. Bedside proctoscopy revealed pale, viable-appearing distal rectal mucosa on postoperative day 3. The patient had a protracted, complicated hospital stay but required no further operative intervention. Subsequent colostomy reversal was done 8 months postoperatively, and the patient did well and has been discharged with normal gastrointestinal function. Our successful conservative operative management of IARN deviates from previously described management in the literature which is emergent abdominoperineal resection. This conservative surgical strategy appears to have contributed to the patient's positive outcomes, highlighting the importance of considering a similar approach for future IARN cases.

2.
Am Surg ; : 31348241241744, 2024 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38523078

RESUMO

Despite the effectiveness of seatbelts, concerns persist about compliance, especially among teenagers. Survey data from a local high school and registry data from a level 1 trauma center were used to observe seatbelt and motor vehicle accident trends. The survey data was analyzed to gauge student's sentiments on seatbelt education. The trauma center data was analyzed to identify characteristics and trends among teenage motor vehicle accidents. Social media was the most common strategy selected for seatbelt safety awareness. Random seatbelt checks performed over 4 months revealed seatbelt compliance rates of 90%, 93.55%, and 96.94% after education intervention. Trauma center data showed that lack of seatbelt usage resulted in greater morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for targeted interventions. This study provides insights into creating effective education campaigns that can be used to enhance safety belt compliance and potentially reduce injury.

3.
Am Surg ; : 31348241241719, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516714

RESUMO

This study sought to define and analyze rates of futile trauma transfers (FTTs) after the consolidation of two rural level 1 trauma centers into one. Data was extracted from the regional trauma registry for a period of 5 years (2017-2022) for all trauma patients transferred into our level 1 trauma center (n = 3369). An FTT was defined as a transfer that (1) received no major interventions and (2) died or was discharged to a hospice facility within 72 hours. Out of the 3369 transfer patients analyzed during the 33-month pre-consolidation and 33-month post-consolidation periods, 34 patients met the criteria of an FTT within the transfer-to-discharge window. The pre-consolidation category contained 12, and the post-consolidation category contained 22. Chi-square analysis indicated no significant difference in FTT rate between categories. Furthermore, the post-consolidation FTT rate of 1.1% remained consistent with the estimated national average of 1.5%.

4.
Am Surg ; : 31348241241624, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively apply the Geriatric Trauma Outcome (GTO) score to the patient population of a rural South Central Appalachian level 1 trauma center and identify the potential utility of the GTO score in guiding goals of care discussions. METHODS: Trauma registry data was extracted for 5,627 patients aged 65+ from 2017 to 2021. GTO score was calculated for each patient. Descriptive statistics were calculated for age, Injury Severity Score (ISS), GTO score, receipt of red blood cells, discharge status, and code status. A simple logistic regression model was used to determine the relationship between GTO score and discharge status. The probability of mortality was then calculated using GTO score, and the distribution of code status among patients with ≤50, 51-75%, and >75% probability of mortality was examined. RESULTS: For every 10-point increase in GTO score, odds of mortality increased by 79% (OR = 1.79; P < .001). Patients had an estimated 50% probability of mortality with a GTO score of 156, 75% with 174, and 99% with a score of 234, respectively. Seventeen patients had a GTO score associated with >75% probability of mortality. Of those 17 patients, four retained a full code status. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis demonstrates that the GTO score is a validated measure in a rural setting and can be an easily calculated metric to help determine a geriatric patient's probability of mortality following a trauma. The results of our study also found that GTO score can be used to inform goals of care discussions with patients.

5.
Am Surg ; : 31348241241633, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551607

RESUMO

Firearm injuries are a major public health concern with much focus on injuries due to violent crimes in urban areas. Less focus has been on self-inflicted injuries and rural settings. This study included 201 patients, of which 124 (61.7%) were accidental and 77 (38.3%) were intentional self-inflicted gunshot wounds (GSWs) sustained over 6 years at a rural level 1 trauma center. Injury severity scores (P < .001), hospital days (P < .001), and mortality (P < .001) were significantly higher among intentional self-inflicted GSWs. Injuries to the head were the most common injury among patients with intentional self-inflicted GSWs (P < .001).Accidental and intentional self-inflicted GSWs make up a large portion of firearm injuries seen at our rural level 1 trauma center, and defining these injuries can facilitate the need for targeted gun safety and injury prevention efforts.

6.
Am Surg ; : 31348241241703, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the impact of consolidation of two rural level 1 trauma centers on adult trauma patients presenting to the remaining level 1 trauma center. To our knowledge, a study assessing the impact of trauma center consolidation on adult trauma patients had yet to be performed. METHODS: A single institution, retrospective study was conducted at a rural level 1 trauma center. Adult trauma patients who presented to our center from January 2017 to January 2022 were included. The cohorts spanned 33 months pre- and post-consolidation. Multiple demographic and outcome measures were gathered. Data were analyzed using the student's t-test and Chi-squared testing. RESULTS: There was a 33% increase in overall trauma activations and 9% increase in transfers from outside facilities post-consolidation. The post-consolidation group was significantly older, had higher mean injury severity score, and decreased hospital-free days. The post-consolidation group also saw an increase in ICU admission and surgical intervention. While there were no significant differences in ICU-free days or ventilator days, patients in the post-consolidation group with the highest level of activation who required both surgical intervention and ICU admission experienced decreased mortality. CONCLUSION: The consolidation of trauma services to a single level 1 trauma center in a rural Appalachian health system led to higher trauma volume and acuity, but most importantly decreased mortality for the most severely injured trauma patients.

7.
Am Surg ; : 31348241241733, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532271

RESUMO

Falls are the leading cause of hospitalizations following trauma nationwide, resulting in over 3 million admissions in 2020. This population is typically aged, and many are prescribed antithrombotic (AT) therapy. In this prospective study, we aimed to analyze fall history while assessing appropriateness of AT regimen relative to fall risk. Patients presenting following ground level fall (GLF) and meeting inclusion criteria during the study period were enrolled. Primary outcome was the relationship between AT therapy necessity (CHA2DS2-VASc) and fall risk (Morse Fall Risk). The cohort of 30 patients had an average age of 77. CHA2DS2-VASc and Morse Fall Risk showed a moderate-positive correlation (r = 0.47; P = 0.012); however, 17% of patients categorized as high fall risk had a <5% 1-year risk of VTE. This study demonstrates that risks of hemorrhage may outweigh thromboembolism prophylaxis in a significant number of patients and sheds light on the astonishing fall volume in this population.

8.
J Trauma Nurs ; 30(4): 228-234, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37417674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the role of a dedicated trauma nurse has been implemented in an urban setting, it has not been studied in the rural trauma setting. We instituted a trauma resuscitation emergency care (TREC) nurse role to respond to trauma activations at our rural trauma center. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the impact of TREC nurse deployment on the timeliness of resuscitation interventions in trauma activations. METHODS: This pre- and postintervention study at a rural Level I trauma center compared the time to resuscitation interventions before (August 2018 to July 2019) and after (August 2019 to July 2020) deploying TREC nurses to trauma activations. RESULTS: A total of 2,593 participants were studied, of which 1,153 (44%) were in the pre-TREC group and 1,440 (56%) in the post-TREC group. After TREC deployment, the median (interquartile range [IQR]) emergency department times within the first hour decreased from 45 (31.23-53) to 35 (16-51) min ( p = .013). The median (IQR) time to the operating room within the first hour decreased from 46 (37-52) to 29 (12-46) min ( p = .001), and within the first 2 hr, decreased from 59 (43.8-86) to 48 (23-72) min ( p = .014). CONCLUSION: Our study found that TREC nurse deployment improved resuscitation intervention timeliness during the first 2 hr (early phase) of trauma activations.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Centros de Traumatologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Ressuscitação , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
9.
Environ Res ; 233: 116330, 2023 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37348639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported associations of anti-androgenic phthalate metabolite concentrations with later onset of male puberty, but few have assessed associations with progression. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association of prepubertal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with trajectories of pubertal progression among Russian boys. METHODS: At enrollment (ages 8-9 years), medical history, dietary, and demographic information were collected. At entry and annually to age 19 years, physical examinations including testicular volume (TV) were performed and spot urines collected. Each boy's prepubertal urine samples were pooled, and 15 phthalate metabolites were quantified by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS at Moscow State University. Metabolites of anti-androgenic parent phthalates were included: butylbenzyl (BBzP), di-n-butyl (DnBP), diisobutyl (DiBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) (DEHP) and diisononyl (DiNP) phthalates. We calculated the molar sums of DEHP, DiNP, and all AAP metabolites. We used group-based trajectory models (GBTMs) to identify subgroups of boys who followed similar pubertal trajectories from ages 8-19 years based on annual TV. We used multinomial and ordinal regression models to evaluate whether prepubertal log-transformed phthalate metabolite concentrations were associated with slower or faster pubertal progression trajectories, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: 304 boys contributed a total of 752 prepubertal urine samples (median 2, range: 1-6) for creation of individual pools. The median length of follow-up was 10.0 years; 79% of boys were followed beyond age 15. We identified three pubertal progression groups: slower (34%), moderate (43%), and faster (23%) progression. A standard deviation increase in urinary log-monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) concentrations was associated with higher adjusted odds of being in the slow versus faster pubertal progression trajectory (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.06-2.04). None of the other phthalate metabolites were associated with pubertal progression. CONCLUSIONS: On average, boys with higher concentrations of prepubertal urinary MBzP had a slower tempo of pubertal progression, perhaps attributable to the disruption of androgen-dependent biological pathways.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Adolescente , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Exposição Ambiental/análise
10.
Am Surg ; 89(7): 3153-3156, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36876596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ground level falls are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. Delayed presentation in many conditions has been proven to lead to worsened outcomes. Currently, there are limited data on outcomes of those who have a delayed presentation after a ground level fall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of the Trauma Registry at our center. Any adult patient who presented after a ground level fall was grouped based on their time to presentation post-injury: less than or greater than 24 h. Age, gender, hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, mechanical ventilation days, Injury Severity Score, and mortality were patient characteristics gathered. A Student's t-test and Chi-squared testing were utilized to determine the presence of significant differences between the groups. Significance was set at P < .05. RESULTS: Two hundred of 4018 patients had delayed presentation. Those with delayed presentation were more likely to be male (P = .028), younger in age (71 vs 74 years old, P < .01), had greater hospital LOS (6 vs. 5, P < .01), ICU LOS (5 vs. 3, P < .01), and mechanical ventilation days (13 vs. 5 days, P < .01). They also had higher ISS (8 vs. 7, P < .01), and mortality was significantly higher in those who presented after 24 h (P = .034). CONCLUSION: Patients with delayed presentation after a ground level fall have worsened Injury Severity Scores and outcomes to include hospital and ICU LOS, ventilator days, and overall mortality.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Tempo de Internação
11.
Am Surg ; 89(7): 3316-3318, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36802908

RESUMO

Blast injuries are both complex and rare in the civilian population. This combination can often lead to missed opportunities for early, effective intervention. This is a case report of a 31-year-old male who suffered a lower extremity blast injury while using an industrial sandblaster. This blast injury presented as a closed degloving, or Morel-Lavallee lesion, which can easily be mistreated and lead to infection and further disability. Following assessment, identification, and confirmation of the Morel-Lavallee lesion via radiographic imaging, this patient underwent debridement surgery, wound vac therapy, and antibiotic treatment before being discharged home with no major physiologic or neurologic deficits. The purpose of this report is to highlight the importance of assessing for closed degloving injuries when presented with blast injury traumas in the civilian trauma setting, and outlines the process utilized for assessment and treatment.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões , Traumatismos da Perna , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Traumatismos por Explosões/diagnóstico , Traumatismos por Explosões/etiologia , Traumatismos por Explosões/cirurgia , Desbridamento , Radiografia , Traumatismos da Perna/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos da Perna/etiologia , Traumatismos da Perna/cirurgia , Extremidade Inferior
12.
Am Surg ; 89(7): 3267-3269, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36815669

RESUMO

Sunken Skin Flap Syndrome (or Syndrome of the Trephined) following a head trauma is rare, but most often results from complications after decompressive craniectomy. This syndrome is most often characterized by neurological dysfunction that improves with cranioplasty. Early diagnosis and treatment are critically important to long term neurological improvement. This is a case report of a 49-year-old male who fell down a flight of stairs and was found unresponsive. Initial imaging revealed extensive head trauma. Neurosurgery performed an emergency decompressive craniectomy, but his post-operative course was complicated by the development of sunken flap syndrome one month after his initial surgery, diagnosed by an acute neurological decline and emergent CT imaging. A review of the literature indicates that this is a rarely documented finding, and this case report discusses the critical components of diagnosis and treatment of this unusual and potentially lethal condition.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Craniectomia Descompressiva , Procedimentos de Cirurgia Plástica , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Craniectomia Descompressiva/efeitos adversos , Craniectomia Descompressiva/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/cirurgia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/cirurgia , Síndrome
13.
J Intellect Disabil ; 27(1): 104-120, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176890

RESUMO

Our aim was to identify the suitability of three assessment tools (i.e., Flanker test, Updating Word Span, and Color Trails Test) for future inclusion in the classification process of elite Paralympic athletes with intellectual disability and to assess the strength of the relation between Executive function (EF) and intelligence. Cognitive and EF assessments were performed on 59 participants, divided into four groups according to their cognitive level (with versus without intellectual disability) and sport expertise (athlete versus novice). Inhibition and working memory update skills were implicated in people with intellectual disability. For set-shifting, a more nuanced picture was observed. Strong associations between EF and intelligence was found in people with intellectual disability. Working memory updating and set-shifting are relevant EF skills to assess in the context of elite sport; however, culture-free alternatives for the Updating Word Span test are needed, and alternatives to the Color Trails Test, less reliant on literacy skills are required.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Deficiência Intelectual , Humanos , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Atletas , Cognição/fisiologia
14.
Surgeon ; 21(5): 267-272, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consideration of ergonomic factors is important for the practice of safe and efficient minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Surgeons with smaller glove sizes have previously been reported to have increased difficulties with some minimally invasive instruments. We aim to investigate hand anthropometrics and their relationship to surgeon comfort when using MIS instruments. METHODS: Male and female surgeons from two centres were surveyed on their experience of handling MIS instruments and images obtained of the dorsal and palmar aspects of their dominant hand. Photographs of hands were transformed to calibrated coordinates to enable anthropometric measurements of finger length and width as well as palm width and hand span photogrammetrically. Surgeon-perceived discomfort, fatigue, pressure points and techniques to mitigate difficulty handling instruments were compared to hand measurements. RESULTS: Questionnaires were completed by 58 surgeons; 20 (34%) were consultants, 17 (29%) were women. Glove size ranged from 6 to 8 (median 7.5). Male participants had significantly larger hands than females in all measured dimensions. Female surgeons and those with smaller finger and hand dimensions were significantly more likely to experience difficulty or discomfort across a range of variables when using MIS instruments. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons with smaller hands reported increased problems handling MIS instruments. This represents an issue of equity in surgery, with women being more significantly affected than men. Hand size varies greatly between surgeons and anthropometric variability should be considered in design of MIS instruments.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Mãos/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Dedos , Ergonomia/métodos
15.
Community Dent Health ; 39(4): 254-259, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A key aspect of the public health response to COVID-19 in Scotland was enhanced community surveillance, including testing in dental settings. Across Scotland, dental settings offered patients over 5-years-old the opportunity to participate in community surveillance of COVID-19. METHODS: A Health Inequalities Impact Assessment (HIIA) was conducted to understand the differential impacts the programme would have on the population and to improve the accessibility of the programme. HIIA is a tool to allow the assessment, understanding, and mitigation of impacts on people of a proposed policy or practice. It fulfils an organisational duty to meet the requirements of the Equality Act and Fairer Scotland Duty. The HIIA was conducted rapidly in parallel with the programme development. An action research approach included an online workshop, consultation, review of population data and a literature search. RESULTS: Adjustments were required to improve the programme's accessibility. Stakeholders, including dental teams from across Scotland were involved in the consultation and brought their front-line experience in different settings. Common issues identified included digital literacy and access, language and cultural barriers to participation, and issues relating to the implications of a positive COVID-19 result. Literature indicated limited evidence on the acceptability, accessibility, and equity of asymptomatic COVID-19 surveillance. CONCLUSION: This HIIA was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. As an example of good practice in tackling inequalities in access to programmes it should represent the benchmark for other similar initiatives.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Escócia/epidemiologia
16.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 7(1): e000886, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36312819

RESUMO

Background: Antibiotic prophylaxis is routinely administered for most operative procedures, but their utility for certain bedside procedures remains controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis and developed evidence-based recommendations on whether trauma patients receiving tube thoracostomy (TT) for traumatic hemothorax or pneumothorax should receive antibiotic prophylaxis. Methods: Published literature was searched through MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase (via Elsevier), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (via Wiley), Web of Science and ClinicalTrials.gov databases by a professional librarian. The date ranges for our literature search were January 1900 to March 2020. A systematic review and meta-analysis of currently available evidence were performed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. Results: Fourteen relevant studies were identified and analyzed. All but one were prospective, with eight being prospective randomized control studies. Antibiotic prophylaxis protocols ranged from a single dose at insertion to 48 hours post-TT removal. The pooled data showed that patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis were significantly less likely to develop empyema (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.86, p=0.01). The benefit was greater in patients with penetrating injuries (penetrating OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.59, p=0.002, vs blunt OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.12, p=0.07). Administration of antibiotic prophylaxis did not significantly affect pneumonia incidence or mortality. Discussion: In adult trauma patients who require TT insertion, we conditionally recommend antibiotic prophylaxis be given at the time of insertion to reduce incidence of empyema. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018088759.

17.
Cureus ; 14(8): e27980, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120256

RESUMO

Introduction The fellowship match process is convoluted, with each specialty having its match on its timeline- with some programs having a Post Graduate Year (PGY) 4th-year or 5th-year match. This study aims to identify tangible recommendations for osteopathic surgery residents to use to improve their applications and, ultimately, the success rate for matching into post-graduate fellowship training. Methods In October 2021, as a part of the American College of Osteopathic Surgeons (ACOS) Strategic Planning efforts, the ACOS Resident Student Section sent a questionnaire to the listed email contact for each surgical fellowship program. Fellowship coordinators and program directors were included in the survey. The programs that were included in the study were vascular, thoracic (which included cardiothoracic), surgical critical care, endocrine, hepatobiliary, transplant, pediatric, surgical oncology, breast, minimally invasive, and colorectal surgery. Results Of the 108 programs that answered the survey, 36% of them reported they currently had an osteopathic fellow, and another 29% said they had an osteopathic fellow in the past. 35% of the programs listed that they had never had an osteopathic fellow in their program. In regards to how residents can improve their application for fellowship matches the most common answer was research in the field, they were trying to match into. They wanted to see high scores on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) exams. They also noted that they wanted candidates from more well know residency programs, where they knew the residents would have gotten good training. Conclusion We recommend that any potential fellowship applicant focus on the following three areas increase competitiveness for matching into fellowship training: publication in the desired field, increased overall scholarly activity, and increased ABSITE scores.

18.
Animal ; 16(6): 100535, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588584

RESUMO

Breeding objectives of livestock and other agricultural species are usually profit maximising. The selection emphasis placed on specific traits to achieve a breeding objective is often informed by the financial value of a trait to a farm system. However, there are alternative, and complementary approaches to defining both the breeding objective and the selection emphasis placed on traits that are included in associated selection tools. These are based on the preferences of stakeholders, which are often heterogeneous and include broader values and motivations than profit. In this regard, stated preference methods are useful when considering traits that have either no discernible market value or whose value is not fully transferred via the market. Such approaches can guide more appropriate breeding decisions that are amenable to changing societal values, for example with reduced negative environmental externalities. However, while stated preference methods offer promising conceptualisations of value in genetic improvement programmes, there is still a substantial knowledge gap in terms of the current state of research and a catalogue of publications to date. This paper reviews publications of stated preference approaches in the field of livestock breeding (and some relevant crop breeding examples), providing a knowledge base of published applications and promoting their continued development and implementation towards the formulation of appropriate breeding objectives and selection indices. A systematic review of 84 peer-reviewed publications and an aggregate ranking of traits for the most commonly studied subject (cattle) reveals uncertainty in preference estimates which may be driven by (i) a diverse set of non-standardised methodologies, (ii) common oversights in the selection, inclusion and description of traits, and (iii) inaccurate representations of the respondent population. We discuss key considerations to help overcome these limitations, including avoiding methodological confinement to a disciplinary silo and reducing complexity so that the values of broader respondent groups may be accounted for.


Assuntos
Gado , Animais , Bovinos , Gado/genética , Fenótipo
19.
Am Surg ; 88(8): 1885-1887, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404705

RESUMO

With the increase in hospital consolidation over the past decade, multiple studies have been performed evaluating patient outcomes after consolidation. To date, there have not been studies performed to assess outcomes in pediatric trauma patients. The goal was to assess pediatric patient outcomes in a children's hospital after consolidation of two Level 1 Trauma centers in a rural Appalachian health system. A retrospective analysis of data from the Trauma Registry between October 2015 - September 2020 was performed. The variables included in analysis were age, injury severity score (ISS), hospital days, intensive care unit days, ventilator days, mortality, discharge disposition, consults, and hospital visit cost. Despite increased ISS, there was no difference in in-patient outcomes. However, these patients were more likely to require orthopedic evaluation and further outpatient care after discharge, suggesting more severely injured patients were evaluated by the trauma service post consolidation.


Assuntos
Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões , Criança , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
20.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 74(3): 78-82, Feb 1, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-217572

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: La Charcot-Marie-Tooth Pediatric Scale (CMTPedS) es una herramienta validada y sensible al cambio para evaluar la gravedad de la neuropatía en niños y adolescentes entre 3 y 20 años. El objetivo de este artículo es traducir y validar una versión española de la CMTPedS para difundir su utilización en países de habla hispana. Material y métodos: El proceso para la traducción al español de la CMTPedS ha sido el método de traducción paralela invertida basado en los principios de buena práctica para la traducción y el proceso de adaptación cultural de las Food and Drug Administration Guidelines. Se realizó primero una traducción directa de la fuente original de la CMTPedS al español que fue revisada por expertos en la enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) formados en la utilización de la herramienta CMTPedS. La versión española fue traducida de nuevo al inglés por un lingüista especialista de la traducción. Resultados: La versión preliminar en español de la CMTPedS se evaluó en 18 niños con CMT entre 6 y 20 años (media: 13,27). La escala fue bien tolerada y fácil de comprender en los niños y fácil de aplicar para los clínicos. Ningún paciente tuvo dificultad en completar la escala.Conclusiones: La versión española de la CMTPedS se puede utilizar para el seguimiento y la realización de ensayos clínicos en población española y países de habla hispana.(AU)


Introduction and aims: The Charcot-Marie-Tooth Pediatric Scale (CMTPedS) is a validated and change-sensitive tool for assessing the severity of neuropathy in children and adolescents between 3 and 20 years of age. The aim of this article is to translate and validate a Spanish version of the CMTPedS in order to disseminate its use in Spanish-speaking countries. Materials and methods: The process used to translate the CMTPedS into Spanish was the reverse parallel translation method based on the principles of good practice for translation and the cultural adaptation process of the Food and Drug Administration Guidelines. A direct translation of the original source of the CMTPedS into Spanish was performed first and reviewed by experts in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease trained in the use of the CMTPedS tool. The Spanish version was then translated back into English by a linguist specialised in translation. Results: The preliminary Spanish version of the CMTPedS was evaluated in 18 children with CMT aged 6-20 years (mean: 13.27). The scale was well tolerated and easy for children to understand and easy for clinicians to apply. None of the patients had any difficulty completing the scale. Conclusions: The Spanish version of the CMTPedS can be used for monitoring and conducting clinical trials in the Spanish population and in Spanish-speaking countries.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Tradução , Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth , Neurologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Espanha , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso
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