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1.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 155(2): 1198-1215, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341746

RESUMO

Speech and language development are early indicators of overall analytical and learning ability in children. The preschool classroom is a rich language environment for monitoring and ensuring growth in young children by measuring their vocal interactions with teachers and classmates. Early childhood researchers are naturally interested in analyzing naturalistic vs controlled lab recordings to measure both quality and quantity of such interactions. Unfortunately, present-day speech technologies are not capable of addressing the wide dynamic scenario of early childhood classroom settings. Due to the diversity of acoustic events/conditions in such daylong audio streams, automated speaker diarization technology would need to be advanced to address this challenging domain for segmenting audio as well as information extraction. This study investigates alternate deep learning-based lightweight, knowledge-distilled, diarization solutions for segmenting classroom interactions of 3-5 years old children with teachers. In this context, the focus on speech-type diarization which classifies speech segments as being either from adults or children partitioned across multiple classrooms. Our lightest CNN model achieves a best F1-score of ∼76.0% on data from two classrooms, based on dev and test sets of each classroom. It is utilized with automatic speech recognition-based re-segmentation modules to perform child-adult diarization. Additionally, F1-scores are obtained for individual segments with corresponding speaker tags (e.g., adult vs child), which provide knowledge for educators on child engagement through naturalistic communications. The study demonstrates the prospects of addressing educational assessment needs through communication audio stream analysis, while maintaining both security and privacy of all children and adults. The resulting child communication metrics have been used for broad-based feedback for teachers with the help of visualizations.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Adulto , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
2.
J Early Interv ; 44(1): 3-22, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400984

RESUMO

One of the earliest indicators of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is delay in language and social communication. Despite consensus on the benefits of earlier diagnosis and intervention, our understanding of the language growth of children with ASD during the first years of life remains limited. Therefore, this study compared communication growth patterns of infants and toddlers with ASD to growth benchmarks of a standardized language assessment. We conducted a retrospective analysis of growth on the Early Communication Indicator (ECI) of 23 infants and toddlers who received an ASD diagnosis in the future. At 42 months of age, children with ASD had significantly lower rates of gestures, single words, and multiple words, but significantly higher rates of nonword vocalizations. Children with ASD had significantly slower growth of single and multiple words, but their rate of vocalization growth was significantly greater than benchmark. Although more research is needed with larger samples, because the ECI was designed for practitioners to monitor children's response to intervention over time, these findings show promise for the ECI's use as a progress monitoring measure for young children with ASD. Limitations and the need for future research are discussed.

3.
J Child Lang ; 47(4): 796-816, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178756

RESUMO

For children with normal hearing (NH), early communication skills predict vocabulary, a precursor to grammar. Growth in early communication skills of infants with cochlear implants (CIs) was investigated using the Early Communication Indicator (ECI), a play-based observation measure. Multilevel linear growth modelling on data from six ECI sessions held at three-monthly intervals revealed significant growth overall, with a non-significant slower growth rate than that of children with NH (comparison age centred at 18 months). Analyses of gesture use and of nonword vocalisations revealed the CI group used significantly more of each, with more rapid growth. In contrast, the CI group used significantly fewer single words and multiword utterances, and with slower growth. Maternal education and time to achieve consistent CI use impacted significantly on growth for the CI sample. The results indicate that progression to vocabulary by young CI users can be supported by encouraging their use of prelinguistic communication.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Implantes Cocleares , Comunicação , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Modelos Teóricos , Comportamento Verbal , Pré-Escolar , Surdez/reabilitação , Escolaridade , Feminino , Gestos , Grécia , Humanos , Lactente , Linguística , Masculino , Comunicação não Verbal , Vocabulário
4.
Behav Res Methods ; 50(3): 890-901, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28597234

RESUMO

Children's movement is an important issue in child development and outcome in early childhood research, intervention, and practice. Digital sensor technologies offer improvements in naturalistic movement measurement and analysis. We conducted validity and feasibility testing of a real-time, indoor mapping and location system (Ubisense, Inc.) within a preschool classroom. Real-time indoor mapping has several implications with respect to efficiently and conveniently: (a) determining the activity areas where children are spending the most and least time per day (e.g., music); and (b) mapping a focal child's atypical real-time movements (e.g., lapping behavior). We calibrated the accuracy of Ubisense point-by-point location estimates (i.e., X and Y coordinates) against laser rangefinder measurements using several stationary points and atypical movement patterns as reference standards. Our results indicate that activity areas occupied and atypical movement patterns could be plotted with an accuracy of 30.48 cm (1 ft) using a Ubisense transponder tag attached to the participating child's shirt. The accuracy parallels findings of other researchers employing Ubisense to study atypical movement patterns in individuals at risk for dementia in an assisted living facility. The feasibility of Ubisense was tested in an approximately 90-min assessment of two children, one typically developing and one with Down syndrome, during natural classroom activities, and the results proved positive. Implications for employing Ubisense in early childhood classrooms as a data-based decision-making tool to support children's development and its potential integration with other wearable sensor technologies are discussed.


Assuntos
Movimento , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Calibragem , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Padrões de Referência , Instituições Acadêmicas
5.
Fam Process ; 55(1): 107-22, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25776105

RESUMO

The present paper takes a translational approach in applying the themes of the current special section to prevention and intervention science in Latino families. The paper reviews the current literature on cultural processes in prevention and intervention research with Latino families. Overall, many prevention and intervention programs have either been developed specifically for Latino families or have been modified for Latino families with great attention paid to the socio-cultural needs of these families. Nevertheless, few studies have tested the role of cultural values or acculturation processes on outcomes. We make recommendations based on findings within basic science and in particular this special section on the incorporation of these values and processes into prevention and intervention science with Latino families.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Transtorno Autístico , Hispânico ou Latino/educação , Pais/educação , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Early Child Res Q ; 28(3): 540-554, 2013 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24882940

RESUMO

Progress monitoring measurement is increasingly needed in early childhood to inform practitioners when an intervention change is needed and as a tool for accomplishing individualization and improving results for individual children. The Early Communication Indicator (ECI) is such a measure for infants and toddlers, 6 to 42 months of age. A greater understanding of the ECI key skills (i.e., gestures, vocalizations, single- and multiple-word utterances) could lead to further improvements in the sensitivity and utility of the decisions made compared to ECIs composite total communication score. Thus, we examined the pattern of growth within and between the ECI's four foundational skills in a large sample of children served in Early Head Start. Results confirmed a unique pattern of growth and change within each skill trajectory in terms of (a) age at skill onset and (b) peaks in each trajectory defining an inflection point or change from acceleration to deceleration. Analyses using these inflection points as intercepts with before and after trajectory slopes in a test of an adjacent skills temporal ordering growth model indicated good fit. Implications of a continuum of foundational ECI skills to future validation and decision making utility of the measure are discussed.

7.
Child Maltreat ; 13(4): 334-46, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18843143

RESUMO

There are major obstacles to the effective delivery of mental health services to poor families, particularly for those families in rural areas. The rise of Internet use, however, has created potentially new avenues for service delivery, which, when paired with the many recent advances in computer networking and multimedia technology, is fueling a demand for Internet delivery of mental health services. The authors report on the adaptation of a parenting program for delivery via the Internet, enhanced with participant-created videos of parent-infant interactions and weekly staff contact, which enable distal treatment providers to give feedback and make decisions informed by direct behavioral assessment. This Internet-based, parent-education intervention has the potential to promote healthy and protective parent-infant interactions in families who might not otherwise receive needed mental health services.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Pais/educação , Ensino , Computadores , Humanos , Lactente , Internet , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Multimídia , Relações Pais-Filho , População Rural , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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