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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(6): e019135, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682438

RESUMO

Background Significant associations have been reported between serum total nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and incident nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) in some prospective cohort studies. Little is known about whether individual or subclasses (saturated, polyunsaturated [n-6 and n-3], and trans fatty acids) of serum NEFAs relate to CHD mortality and nonfatal MI. Methods and Results CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study) participants (N=1681) who had no history of MI, angina, or revascularization or were free of MI at baseline (1996-1997) were included. NEFAs were quantified using gas chromatography. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate associations of 5 subclasses and individual NEFAs with CHD composite (CHD mortality and nonfatal MI), CHD mortality, and incident nonfatal MI. During a median follow-up of 11.7 years, 266 cases of CHD death and 271 cases of nonfatal MI occurred. In the fully adjusted model, no significant associations were identified between individual NEFA and CHD composite. Exploratory analyses indicated that lauric acid (12:0) was negatively associated (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.98; P=0.0328) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3n-6) was positively associated with CHD mortality (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.76; P=0.0351). Elaidic acid (18:1n-7t) was positively associated with incident nonfatal MI (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.01-2.12; P=0.0445). No significant associations were observed for NEFA subclass and any outcomes. Conclusions In CHS participants, 2 NEFAs, dihomo-γ-linolenic and elaidic acids, were positively associated with CHD mortality and nonfatal MI, respectively, suggesting potential susceptibility biomarkers for risks of CHD mortality and nonfatal MI.

2.
Heart ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and dysmetabolism are major risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF). Expansion of fat depots is associated with increased circulating total non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), elevated levels of which are associated with incident AF. We undertook comprehensive serum measurement of individual NEFA to identify specific associations with new-onset AF late in life. METHODS: The present study focused on participants with available serum and free of AF selected from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based longitudinal investigation of older US adults. Thirty-five individual NEFAs were measured by gas chromatography. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association of individual NEFAs with incident AF. RESULTS: The study sample included 1872 participants (age 77.7±4.4). During median follow-up of 11.3 years, 715 cases of incident AF occurred. After concurrent adjustment of all NEFAs and full adjustment for potential confounders, higher serum concentration of nervonic acid (24:1 n-9), a long-chain monounsaturated fatty acid, was associated with higher risk of AF (HR per SD: 1.18, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.29; p<0.001). Conversely, higher serum concentration of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (18:3 n-6), a polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acid, was associated with lower risk of AF (HR per SD: 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.94; p=0.004). None of the remaining NEFAs was significantly associated with AF. CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults, serum levels of non-esterified nervonic acid were positively associated, while serum levels of non-esterified GLA were inversely associated, with incident AF. If confirmed, these results could offer new strategies for AF prevention and early intervention in this segment of the population at highest risk.

3.
Metabolism ; 114: 154399, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationships of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a more potent androgen than testosterone (T), with bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Our objectives were to evaluate the relationships of T, DHT and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with BMD, fracture risk, and lean body mass (LBM). METHODS: We evaluated 1128 older men free of cardiovascular disease in a prospective cohort study using data from the Cardiovascular Health Study. T and DHT were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and SHBG by fluoroimmunoassay. Our outcomes included incident hip fracture (n = 106) over a median of 10.2 years and BMD and LBM by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (n = 439). RESULTS: In Cox regression models mutually adjusted for T, SHBG, and covariates, each standard deviation increment in DHT (0.23 ng/ml) was associated with a 26% lower risk of hip fracture (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.00, p = 0.049). Similarly, SHBG was associated with fracture in mutually adjusted models (aHR HR 1.26, 95% CI, 1.01-1.58, p = 0.045). In contrast, T (aHR, 1.16, 95% CI, 0.86-1.56, p = 0.324) was not significantly associated with fracture in mutually adjusted models. T, DHT and SHBG were not associated with BMD. T and DHT were both positively associated with LBM in individual models. CONCLUSIONS: In older men, DHT was inversely associated with hip fracture risk and SHBG was positively associated with hip fracture risk, while T was not. Future studies should elucidate the mechanisms by which DHT affects bone health.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Di-Hidrotestosterona/sangue , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Quadril/metabolismo , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(21): 21023-21036, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139582

RESUMO

Low muscle mass (sarcopenia) is a prevalent and major concern in the aging population as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that sarcopenia is an independent predictor of incident and progressive CKD and increased mortality in older men and women (≥65 years) from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Sarcopenia was defined by bioimpedance-estimated skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) as a continuous variable and categorically (normal, class I, and class II). Cox regression hazard ratios (HRs) estimated the risk of incident and prevalent CKD and mortality in individuals with and without CKD. Low SMI was associated with increased prevalence of CKD in men (p<0.001), but lower prevalence of CKD in women (p=0.03). Low muscle mass was not associated with incident CKD or rapid CKD progression (>3 ml/minute/1.73m2/year decline in eGFR) in men, but was associated with lower risk of incident CKD in women ([adjusted RR=0.69, 95% (0.51,0.94)]. Low muscle mass (class II) was independently associated with higher mortality only in men [(adjusted HR=1.26, 95% (1.05,1.50)]. Neither definition of sarcopenia was associated with mortality in men or women with CKD. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which sarcopenia contributes to higher mortality in aging men.

5.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): 466-469, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease among people living with HIV (PLWH). It is unclear whether eGFR equations incorporating cystatin C (CysC) measurements are more predictive of preclinical cardiovascular disease than those using only creatinine (Cr). OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine which of the 3 Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) eGFR equations is most associated with carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis of pooled data from 3 large cohorts compared the associations between the 3 CKD-EPI eGFR equations (Cr, CysC, and Cr-CysC) with CIMT and CAC score using multivariable regression analysis. eGFR and CIMT were analyzed as continuous variables. CAC scores were analyzed as a binary variable (detectable calcification versus nondetectable) and as a log10 Agatston score in those with detectable CAC. RESULTS: Thousand four hundred eighty-seven participants were included, and of these 910 (562 HIV+ and 348 HIV-) had CIMT measurements and 366 (296 HIV+ and 70 HIV-) had CAC measurements available. In HIV- participants, GFR estimated by any CKD-EPI equation did not significantly correlate with CIMT or CAC scores. When PLWH were analyzed separately including HIV-specific factors, only GFR estimated using Cr-Cys C correlated with CIMT [ß= -0.90, 95% CI: (-1.67 to -0.13) µm; P = 0.023]. Similarly, eGFR correlated with Agatston scores only when using cystatin C-based eGFR [ß= -8.63, 95% CI: (-16.49 to -0.77) HU; P = 0.034]. Associations between other eGFR formulas and CAC did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: In PLWH, preclinical atherosclerosis may be more closely correlated with eGFR using formulae that incorporate CysC measurements than Cr alone.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine associations between total serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and incident total and cause-specific hospitalizations in a community-living cohort of elders. METHODS: We included 4715 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study who had fasting total serum NEFA measured at the 1992/93 clinic visit and were followed for a median of 12 years. We identified all inpatient admissions requiring at least an overnight hospitalization and used primary diagnostic codes to categorize cause-specific hospitalizations. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to determine associations with time-to-first hospitalization and Poisson regression for the rate ratios (RR) of hospitalizations and days hospitalized. RESULTS: We identified 21339 hospitalizations during follow-up. In fully adjusted models, higher total NEFAs were significantly associated with higher risk of incident hospitalization (Hazard Ratio (HR) per SD [0.2 mEq/L]=1.07, 95%CI=1.03-1.10, P&0.001), number of hospitalizations (RR per SD=1.04, 95%CI=1.01-1.07, P=0.01), and total number of days hospitalized (RR per SD=1.06, 95%CI=1.01-1.10, P=0.01). Among hospitalization subtypes, higher NEFA was associated with higher likelihood of mental, neurologic, respiratory, and musculoskeletal causes of hospitalization. Among specific causes of hospitalization, higher NEFA was associated with diabetes, pneumonia, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: Higher fasting total serum NEFAs are associated with a broad array of causes of hospitalization among older adults. While some of these were expected, our results illustrate a possible utility of NEFAs as biomarkers for risk of hospitalization, and total days hospitalized, in older adults. Further research is needed to determine whether interventions based on NEFAs might be feasible.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease among people living with HIV (PLWH). It is unclear whether eGFR equations incorporating Cystatin C (CysC) measurements are more predictive of preclinical CVD than those using only creatinine (Cr). OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine which of the three Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) eGFR equations is most associated with carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis of pooled data from three large cohorts compared the associations between the three CKD-EPI eGFR equations (Cr, CysC, and Cr-CysC) with CIMT and CAC score using multivariable regression analysis. eGFR and CIMT were analyzed as continuous variables. CAC scores were analyzed as a binary variable (detectable calcification versus nondetectable) and as a log10 Agatston score in those with detectable CAC. RESULTS: 1487 participants were included, and of these 910 (562 HIV+, 348 HIV-) had CIMT measurements and 366 (296 HIV+, 70 HIV-) had CAC measurements available. In HIV- participants, GFR estimated by any CKD-EPI equation did not significantly correlate with CIMT or CAC scores. When PLWH were analyzed separately including HIV-specific factors, only GFR estimated using Cr-Cys C correlated with CIMT [ß= -0.90, 95% CI (-1.67,-0.13) µm; p=0.023]. Similarly, eGFR correlated with Agatston scores only when using cystatin C-based eGFR [ß= -8.63, 95% CI (-16.49,-0.77) HU; p=0.034]. Associations between other eGFR formulas and CAC did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: In PLWH, preclinical atherosclerosis may be more closely correlated with eGFR using formulae that incorporate CysC measurements than Cr alone.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a well-established quantifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the association of anger, hostility, anxiety, and depression with the development and progression of CAC. METHODS: We studied the association of these psychosocial traits with CAC among participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Anger was measured using the Spielberger Trait Anger questionnaire, hostility using a modified Cook-Medley Hostility questionnaire, anxiety using the Spielberger Trait Scale, and depression using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Among the subsample of participants with CAC = 0 at the beginning of the study period, Poisson regression models were used to determine the relative risk of developing CAC>0 over the study period. In the subsample that developed CAC>0, we used linear regression models to estimate the average increase in CAC associated with a unit increase in psychosocial trait. RESULTS: Median time of follow-up was 9.4 years (range 8.0-11.4 years). Cross-sectional analyses at baseline revealed no association of any of the psychosocial traits with the presence or magnitude of CAC (anger: RR 0.98, p < 0.01; hostility: RR 1.01, p = 0.25; anxiety: RR 0.99, p < 0.01; depression: RR 0.99, p < 0.01 [not statistically significant after adjustment for covariates]). No association was detected between the traits and development of CAC (anger: RR 0.99, p = 0.23; hostility: RR 1.01, p = 0.68, anxiety: RR 1.00, p = 0.49; depression: RR 1.00, p = 0.51). We also found no association between any of the traits and progression of CAC (anger: beta -3.21, p = 0.08; hostility: beta 2.28, p = 0.43; anxiety: 3.45, p = 0.02 [not statistically significant after adjustment for covariates]; depression: beta -1.46, p = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: We found no association between anger, hostility, anxiety, or depression and CAC, suggesting these personality traits are not independent risk factors for CVD.

9.
J Card Fail ; 26(5): 410-419, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD14 is a membrane glycoprotein primarily expressed by myeloid cells that plays a key role in inflammation. Soluble CD14 (sCD14) levels carry a poor prognosis in chronic heart failure (HF), but whether elevations in sCD14 precede HF is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sCD14 is associated with HF incidence and its subtypes independent of major inflammatory biomarkers among older adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study without preexisting HF and available baseline sCD14. We evaluated the associations of sCD14, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and white blood cell count (WBC) with incident HF and subtypes using Cox regression. Among 5217 participants, 1878 had incident HF over 13.6 years (609 classifiable as HF with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF] and 419 as HF with reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF]). After adjusting for clinical and laboratory covariates, sCD14 was significantly associated with incident HF (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.56 per doubling, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-1.89), an association that was numerically stronger than for hsCRP (HR per doubling: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06-1.15), IL-6 (HR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10-1.25), and WBC (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.09-1.42), and that remained significant after adjustment for the other markers of inflammation. This association for sCD14 was observed with HFpEF (HR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.07-2.10) but not HFrEF (HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.67-1.49). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma sCD14 was associated with incident HF independently and numerically more strongly than other major inflammatory markers. This association was only observed with HFpEF in the subset with classifiable HF subtypes. Pending replication, these findings have potentially important therapeutic implications.

10.
Angiology ; 71(6): 544-551, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202143

RESUMO

Higher levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) have been associated with the presence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), but prospective associations are unknown. We examined the association of circulating HGF levels with incident PAD. Between 2000 and 2002, HGF was measured in 6742 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants without PAD. Incident clinical PAD, adjudicated on the basis of a positive history for the presence of disease-related symptoms or treatment, was ascertained through 2015. Incident low ankle-brachial index (ABI), defined as an ABI < 0.9 and a decline of ≥ 0.15, was assessed among 5736 individuals who had an ABI > 0.9 at baseline and ≥1 follow-up ABI measurement 3 to 10 years later. There were 116 clinical PAD and 197 low ABI events that occurred over a median follow-up of 14 and 9 years, respectively. After adjustment for demographic and clinical variables, a standard deviation increment of HGF (303 ng/L) was associated with an increased risk of clinical PAD (hazard ratio: 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.39) but not a low ABI (rate ratio: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.85-1.25). In conclusion, higher HGF levels were modestly associated with an increased risk of developing clinical PAD.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/etnologia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Regulação para Cima
11.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(12): 2426-2433, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Albuminuria is highly prevalent among older adults, especially those with diabetes. It is associated with several chronic diseases, but its overall impact on the health of older adults, as measured by hospitalization, has not been quantified. METHOD: We followed up 3,110 adults, mean age 78 years, for a median 9.75 years, of whom 654 (21%) had albuminuria (≥30 mg albumin/gram creatinine) at baseline. Poisson regression models, adjusted for cardiovascular, renal, and demographic factors, were used to evaluate the association of albuminuria with all-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations, as defined by ICD, version 9, categories. RESULTS: The rates of hospitalization per 100 patient-years were 65.85 for participants with albuminuria and 37.55 for participants without albuminuria. After adjustment for covariates, participants with albuminuria were more likely to be hospitalized for any cause than participants without albuminuria (incident rate ratio, 1.39 [95% confidence intervals, 1.27. 1.53]) and to experience more days in hospital (incident rate ratio 1.56 [1.37, 1.76]). The association of albuminuria with hospitalization was similar among participants with and without diabetes (adjusted incident rate ratio for albuminuria versus no albuminuria: diabetes 1.37 [1.11, 1.70], no diabetes 1.40 [1.26, 1.55]; p interaction nonsignificant). Albuminuria was significantly associated with hospitalization for circulatory, endocrine, genitourinary, respiratory, and injury categories. CONCLUSIONS: Albuminuria in older adults is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for a broad range of illnesses. Albuminuria in the presence or absence of diabetes appears to mark a generalized vulnerability to diseases of aging among older adults.

12.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 25(7): 522-526, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846120

RESUMO

Uromodulin is released into serum (sUMOD) and urine (uUMOD) exclusively by renal tubular cells. Both sUMOD and uUMOD are correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and associated with mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no study to our knowledge has measured both sUMOD and uUMOD in the same population, thus the relationship of sUMOD with uUMOD with one another, and their respective correlates have not been evaluated simultaneously. We evaluated the correlations of sUMOD, uUMOD with eGFR in a random sub-cohort (n = 933) of the Cardiovascular Health Study and their associations with demographic and laboratory parameters and CVD risk factors using multi-variable linear regression analysis. The mean age of the cohort was 78 years, 40% were male and 15% were Black. The mean sUMOD level was 127 ng/mL, uUMOD was 30 500 ng/mL and eGFR was 63 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Correlation between sUMOD and uUMOD, adjusted for eGFR was moderate (r = 0.27 [95% confidence interval = 0.21-0.33]). The correlation of eGFR with sUMOD (r = 0.44 [0.39-0.49]) was stronger than with uUMOD (r = 0.21 [0.15-0.27]). In multi-variable analysis adjusting sUMOD for uUMOD and vice versa, sUMOD was independently associated with eGFR (ß = 1.3 [1.1-1.6]), log2 C-reactive protein (ß = -4.2 [-6.8 to -1.6]) and male sex (ß = -13.6 [-22.7 to -4.5]). In contrast, male sex was associated with higher uUMOD (ß = 3700 [400-7000]), while diabetes (ß = -6400 [-10 600 to -2100]) and hypertension (-4300 [-7500 to -1100]) were associated with lower uUMOD levels. We conclude that sUMOD is more strongly associated with eGFR compared with uUMOD. Correlates of sUMOD and uUMOD differ substantially, suggesting that apical and basolateral secretion may be differentially regulated.

13.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(10): 1152-1159, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740939

RESUMO

AIMS: The detection of cardiac valvular calcification on routine imaging may provide an opportunity to identify individuals at increased risk for peripheral artery disease (PAD). We investigated the associations of aortic valvular calcification (AVC) and mitral annular calcification (MAC) with risk of developing clinical PAD or a low ankle-brachial index (ABI). METHODS AND RESULTS: AVC and MAC were measured on cardiac computed tomography in 6778 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants without baseline PAD between 2000 and 2002. Clinical PAD was ascertained through 2015. Incident low ABI, defined as ABI <0.9 and decline of ≥0.15, was assessed among 5762 individuals who had an ABI >0.9 at baseline and at least one follow-up ABI measurement 3-10 years later. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards and Poisson regression modelling were used to determine the association of valvular calcification with clinical PAD and low ABI, respectively. There were 117 clinical PAD and 198 low ABI events that occurred over a median follow-up of 14 years and 9.2 years, respectively. The presence of MAC was associated with an increased risk of clinical PAD [hazard ratio 1.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-3.05] but not a low ABI (rate ratio 1.28; 95% CI 0.75-2.19). No significant associations were noted for the presence of AVC and risk of either clinical PAD. CONCLUSION: MAC is associated with an increased risk of developing clinical PAD. Future studies are needed to corroborate our findings and better understand whether MAC holds any predictive value as a risk marker for PAD.

14.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(8): 1399-1405, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uromodulin (UMOD) is released by renal tubular cells into the serum (sUMOD) and urine. Lower urine UMOD has been linked to mortality and cardiovascular disease but much less is known about sUMOD. We evaluated the association of sUMOD with these outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: We measured sUMOD in a random subcohort of 933 participants enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study. The associations of sUMOD with all-cause mortality, incident heart failure (HF) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD; myocardial infarction, stroke and mortality due to coronary disease or stroke) were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression, adjusting for study participants' demographics, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria and CVD risk factors. Generalized additive models with splines were used to address the functional form of sUMOD with outcomes. Due to nonlinear associations of sUMOD with all outcomes, 2.5% of the values on either end of the sUMOD distribution were excluded from the analyses, limiting the range of sUMOD to 34.3-267.1 ng/mL. RESULTS: The mean age was 78 ± 5 years, 40% were male, sUMOD level was 127 ± 64 ng/mL, eGFR was 63 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 42% had CKD defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Patients in the lower sUMOD quartiles had lower eGFR and higher albuminuria (P < 0.01, respectively). During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, 805 patients died, 283 developed HF and 274 developed CVD. In multivariable analysis, higher sUMOD was significantly associated with a lower hazard for mortality {hazard ratio [HR] 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.99] per 1 standard deviation (SD) higher sUMOD}, CVD [HR 0.80 (95% CI 0.67-0.96)] and the composite endpoint [HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.78-0.99)]; the association with HF was not statistically significant [HR 0.84 (95% CI 0.70-1.01)]. CONCLUSION: Higher sUMOD is independently associated with a lower risk for mortality and CVD in older adults.

15.
Clin Kidney J ; 12(6): 788-794, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807292

RESUMO

Introduction: Mildly reduced renal function and elevated urine protein levels are each prospectively associated with hip fracture risk in older adults. Here we determine whether these markers are associated with reduced appendicular muscle performance. Methods: We prospectively examined the associations of urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with longitudinal changes in grip strength and gait speed >2 years in 2317 older community-dwelling men and women (median age 77 years). The median ACR was 9.8 [interquartile range (IQR) 5.40-21.50] mg/g creatinine and the median eGFR was 71.6 (IQR 59.1-83.56) mL/min/1.73 m2. Models were adjusted for demographic factors, clinical history and biochemical measures in four candidate pathways: diabetes, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Results: In demographic- and covariate-adjusted models, a 2-fold higher baseline urine ACR was associated with longitudinal changes of -0.17 kg [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.29 to -0.06) in grip strength and -1.10 cm/s (95% CI -1.67 to -0.53) gait speed per year. Corresponding estimates for a 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 lower baseline eGFR were -0.13 kg (95% CI -0.23 to -0.04) and -0.89 cm/s (95% CI -1.37 to -0.40), respectively. The associations of a 2-fold higher baseline ACR and a 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 lower baseline eGFR using cystatin C with grip strength and gait speed were equivalent to ∼1.2-1.9 additional years of age. Adjustment for covariates in candidate pathways did not attenuate these estimates. Conclusions: In older adults, higher ACR and lower eGFR are potential risk factors for a decline of physical performance >2 years.

16.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 105(2): 161-172, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115639

RESUMO

In 5187 persons from the Cardiovascular Health Study, there was no significant association of dietary intakes of aromatic amino acids (AAA) with areal BMD of the hip or body composition. However, those who had the lowest dietary intakes of AAA were at increased risk for incident hip fractures. Prior studies of the association of protein intake with osteoporosis are conflicting and have not directly examined the relationship of aromatic amino acids (AAA) with fractures, areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and body composition. We sought to determine the relationship of dietary intakes of AAA with osteoporosis parameters in elderly men and women. 5187 men and women aged ≥ 65 years from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) with dietary intakes of AAA (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine) estimated by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were included. We examined the relationship between a one-time estimate of daily dietary AAA intake with risk of incident hip fractures over a median of 13.2 years of fracture follow-up. A subset (n = 1336) who had dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) performed were included in a cross-sectional analysis of the association of dietary AAA intake with aBMD of the total hip and measurements of body composition. In multivariable models adjusted for demographic and clinical variables, medication use, and diet, higher dietary AAA intake was not significantly associated with incident hip fractures. All hazard ratios (HR) were less than one (tryptophan, HR 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.89; phenylalanine, HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.55; tyrosine, HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.32), but confidence intervals were wide and included no difference. However, in post hoc analyses, the lowest quartile of intake for each AAA was associated with an increased risk for hip fracture compared to higher quartiles (p ≤ 0.047 for all). Dietary AAA intakes were not significantly associated with total hip aBMD or any measurements of body composition. Overall, there was no significant association of dietary AAA intake with hip fractures, aBMD of the hip, or body composition. However, there may be a subset of elderly individuals with low dietary intakes of AAA who are at increased for hip fractures.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Aromáticos/administração & dosagem , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Densidade Óssea , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Osteoporose/complicações , Fenilalanina/administração & dosagem , Risco , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Tirosina/administração & dosagem
17.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 74(4): 501-509, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128770

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Uromodulin is released by tubular epithelial cells into the serum and lower levels are associated with more severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Low serum uromodulin (sUMOD) levels are associated with mortality and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the association of sUMOD levels with long-term kidney outcomes in older adults, a population with a high prevalence of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. STUDY DESIGN: Case-cohort study and case-control study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Random subcohort (n=933) and additional cases of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and kidney function decline (≥30% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) during follow-up of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). PREDICTOR: sUMOD level. OUTCOMES: ESKD (n=14) from the random subcohort and all additional ESKD cases from outside the random subcohort (n=39) during follow-up (10 years, case-cohort study); kidney function decline of≥30% eGFR at 9 years of follow-up in individuals with repeated eGFR assessments from the random subcohort (n=56) and additional cases (n=123). 224 participants from the random subcohort served as controls (case-control study). ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Modified multivariable Cox regression for ESKD and multivariable logistic regression for kidney function decline. Both analyses adjusted for demographics, eGFR, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio, and other kidney disease progression risk factors. RESULTS: Mean age of the random subcohort was 78 years, 40% were men, 15% were black. Mean sUMOD level was 127±64ng/mL and eGFR was 63±19mL/min/1.73m2. In multivariable analysis, each 1-SD higher sUMOD level was associated with 63% lower risk for ESKD (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.14-0.95). In demographic-adjusted analyses of kidney function decline, each 1-SD higher sUMOD level was associated with 25% lower odds of kidney function decline (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.95); after multivariable adjustment, the association was attenuated and no longer significant (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.68-1.14). LIMITATIONS: Possibility of survival bias in the kidney function decline analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher sUMOD levels may identify elderly persons at reduced risk for ESKD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Rim/fisiologia , Uromodulina/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
19.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(4): 643-652, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659655

RESUMO

Interest in niacin has increased in the setting of reports suggesting that niacin plays a role in diseases of aging. No study to date has examined the association of dietary niacin intake with multiple skeletal health parameters including bone mineral density (BMD), hip fractures, and body composition, and none have included both African American and white men and women. Participants included 5187 men and women ≥65 years from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Mean daily dietary niacin intake was 32.6 mg, with quartiles 1 through 4 defined as 3.6 to 21.8 mg/day, 21.9 to 30.2 mg/day, 30.3 to 40.9 mg/day, and 41.0 to 102.4 mg/day, respectively. Risk of incident hip fracture per 10 mg increment of daily dietary niacin intake was estimated using proportional hazards models. During a median follow-up of 13 years, 725 participants had an incident hip fracture. In models adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics and diet, dietary niacin intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of hip fractures (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.24) with spline models suggesting a U-shaped association. In post hoc analyses, both the lowest (HR 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.66) and highest (HR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.95) quartiles of niacin intake were associated with an increased risk of incident hip fracture versus quartiles 2 and 3. There was a trend for a significant inverse association of dietary niacin intake with hip BMD (p = 0.06), but no significant association with total body BMD or any body composition measures. In this cohort of elderly, community-dwelling African American and white men and women, both high and low dietary niacin intakes were associated with a significantly increased risk of subsequent hip fracture, suggesting a possible U-shaped association. By comparison, dietary niacin may have an inverse linear association with hip BMD. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fraturas do Quadril , Modelos Biológicos , Niacina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Niacina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Bone ; 120: 321-326, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448304

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osteoblasts and their precursors support hematopoiesis in the bone marrow. We hypothesized that declines in Hgb levels are associated with bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: The Cardiovascular Health Study is a prospective longitudinal study that enrolled 5888 community-dwelling adults aged >65 years and measured hemoglobin twice, in 1989-90 and 1992-93, as well as BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 1994-95. In a subset of 1513 men and women with a Hgb in 1992-93 and BMD, we used linear regression to estimate associations of Hgb (per standard deviation (SD)) with total hip (TH), lumbar spine (LS) and total body (TB) BMD, and used Poisson regression to estimate associations of anemia (in 1992-93; Hgb <13 g/dL in men; <12 g/dL in women) with "low BMD" defined as T-score less than -1 at the TH. In 1277 participants with Hgb measured on average 2.9 years apart and BMD, we used linear regression to estimate the associations of annualized change in Hgb with TH, LS and TB BMD. All models included age, sex, study-site, race, smoking, alcohol use, weight, height, steroid use, physical activity score, self-reported health, previous cardiovascular disease and prior anti-fracture medication use. RESULTS: No significant association was observed between Hgb, measured a mean 2.2 years prior to BMD, and BMD at the TH and LS in men (TH beta = -0.60 [x 10-2 g/cm2per 1.1 g/dL Hgb], 95% CI: -1.88 to 0.68; LS beta = -1.69, 95% CI: -3.83 to 0.45) or women (TH beta = -0.49 [x 10-2 g/cm2per 1.3 g/dL Hgb], 95% CI: -1.57 to 0.59; LS beta = -0.40, 95% CI: -2.57 to 1.76). Anemia was not observed to be significantly associated with low BMD in men (RR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.72-1.40) nor women (RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.82-1.17). The mean change in Hgb was a loss of 0.06 g/dL/year (SD = 0.32). Change in Hgb was not observed to be significantly associated with BMD in men (TH beta = -0.55[x 10-2 g/cm2per 1 g/dL annualized Hgb change], 95% CI: -4.28 to 3.19; LS beta = 0.63, 95% CI: -5.38 to 6.65) or women (TH beta = 0.92, 95% CI: -1.96 to 3.79; LS beta = -1.77, 95% CI: -7.52 to 3.98). No significant association was observed between anemia and low bone density by T-score in men and women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support neither the hypothesis that low Hgb prior to bone density or decreases in Hgb are associated with bone density in older community-dwelling adults nor the use of Hgb level as a case-finding tool to prompt BMD measurement.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino
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