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1.
Nanoscale ; 14(20): 7682-7691, 2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546135

RESUMO

From macroscopic heavy-duty permanent magnets to nanodevices, the precise control of the magnetic properties in rare-earth metals is crucial for many applications used in our daily life. Therefore, a detailed understanding and manipulation of the 4f-metals' magnetic properties are key to further boosting the functionalization and efficiency of future applications. We present a proof-of-concept approach consisting of a dysprosium-iridium surface alloy in which graphene adsorption allows us to tailor its magnetic properties. By adsorbing graphene onto a long-range ordered two-dimensional dysprosium-iridium surface alloy, the magnetic 4f-metal atoms are selectively lifted from the surface alloy. This selective skyhook effect introduces a giant magnetic anisotropy in dysprosium atoms as a result of manipulating its geometrical structure within the surface alloy. Introducing and proving this concept by our combined theoretical and experimental approach provides an easy and unambiguous understanding of its underlying mechanism. Our study sets the ground for an alternative path on how to modify the crystal field around 4f-atoms and therefore their magnetic anisotropies.

2.
ACS Nano ; 12(8): 7571-7582, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30004663

RESUMO

We investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of bottom-up synthesized aligned armchair graphene nanoribbons of N = 7 carbon atoms width periodically doped by substitutional boron atoms (B-7AGNRs). Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we find that the dopant-derived valence and conduction band states are notably hybridized with electronic states of Au substrate and spread in energy. The interaction with the substrate leaves the bands with pure carbon character rather unperturbed. This results in an identical effective mass of ≈0.2 m0 for the next-highest valence band compared with pristine 7AGNRs. We probe the phonons of B-7AGNRs by ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) Raman spectroscopy and reveal the existence of characteristic splitting and red shifts in Raman modes due to the presence of substitutional boron atoms. Comparing the Raman spectra for three visible lasers (red, green, and blue), we find that interaction with gold suppresses the Raman signal from B-7AGNRs and the energy of the green laser (2.33 eV) is closer to the resonant E22 transition. The hybridized electronic structure of the B-7AGNR-Au interface is expected to improve electrical characteristics of contacts between graphene nanoribbon and Au. The Raman fingerprint allows the easy identification of B-7AGNRs, which is particularly useful for device fabrication.

3.
ACS Nano ; 12(7): 6871-6880, 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920200

RESUMO

The moiré of a monolayer of hexagonal boron nitride on Ir(111) is found to be a template for Ir, C, and Au cluster superlattices. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, the cluster structure and epitaxial relation to the substrate, the cluster binding site, the role of defects, as well as the thermal stability of the cluster lattice are investigated. The Ir and C cluster superlattices display a high thermal stability, before they decay by intercalation and Smoluchowski ripening. Ab initio calculations explain the extraordinarily strong Ir cluster binding through selective sp3 rehybridization of boron nitride involving B-Ir cluster bonds and a strengthening of the nitrogen bonds to the Ir substrate in a specific, initially only chemisorbed valley area within the moiré.

4.
Adv Mater ; 29(43)2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024122

RESUMO

Atomically precise engineering of the position of molecular adsorbates on surfaces of 2D materials is key to their development in applications ranging from catalysis to single-molecule spintronics. Here, stable room-temperature templating of individual molecules with localized electronic states on the surface of a locally reactive 2D material, silicene grown on ZrB2 , is demonstrated. Using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory, it is shown that the binding of iron phthalocyanine (FePc) molecules is mediated via the strong chemisorption of the central Fe atom to the sp3 -like dangling bond of Si atoms in the linear silicene domain boundaries. Since the planar Pc ligand couples to the Fe atom mostly through the in-plane d orbitals, localized electronic states resembling those of the free molecule can be resolved. Furthermore, rotation of the molecule is restrained because of charge rearrangement induced by the bonding. These results highlight how nanoscale changes can induce reactivity in 2D materials, which can provide unique surface interactions for enabling novel forms of guided molecular assembly.

5.
ACS Nano ; 10(12): 11012-11026, 2016 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28024332

RESUMO

Using the X-ray standing wave method, scanning tunneling microscopy, low energy electron diffraction, and density functional theory, we precisely determine the lateral and vertical structure of hexagonal boron nitride on Ir(111). The moiré superstructure leads to a periodic arrangement of strongly chemisorbed valleys in an otherwise rather flat, weakly physisorbed plane. The best commensurate approximation of the moiré unit cell is (12 × 12) boron nitride cells resting on (11 × 11) substrate cells, which is at variance with several earlier studies. We uncover the existence of two fundamentally different mechanisms of layer formation for hexagonal boron nitride, namely, nucleation and growth as opposed to network formation without nucleation. The different pathways are linked to different distributions of rotational domains, and the latter enables selection of a single orientation only.

6.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12785, 2016 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27666413

RESUMO

Coupling between a magnetic impurity and an external bath can give rise to many-body quantum phenomena, including Kondo and Hund's impurity states in metals, and Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states in superconductors. While advances have been made in probing the magnetic properties of d-shell impurities on surfaces, the confinement of f orbitals makes them difficult to access directly. Here we show that a 4f driven Kondo resonance can be modulated spatially by asymmetric coupling between a metallic surface and a molecule containing a 4f-like moment. Strong hybridization of dysprosium double-decker phthalocyanine with Cu(001) induces Kondo screening of the central magnetic moment. Misalignment between the symmetry axes of the molecule and the surface induces asymmetry in the molecule's electronic structure, spatially mediating electronic access to the magnetic moment through the Kondo resonance. This work demonstrates the important role that molecular ligands have in mediating electronic and magnetic coupling and in accessing many-body quantum states.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 115(23): 236101, 2015 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26684126

RESUMO

We use scanning tunneling microscopy to visualize and thermal desorption spectroscopy to quantitatively measure that the binding of naphthalene molecules to graphene, a case of pure van der Waals interaction, strengthens with n and weakens with p doping of graphene. Density-functional theory calculations that include the van der Waals interaction in a seamless, ab initio way accurately reproduce the observed trend in binding energies. Based on a model calculation, we propose that the van der Waals interaction is modified by changing the spatial extent of graphene's π orbitals via doping.

8.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 9(12): 1018-23, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25326693

RESUMO

The design of nanoscale organic-metal hybrids with tunable magnetic properties as well as the realization of controlled magnetic coupling between them open gateways for novel molecular spintronic devices. Progress in this direction requires a combination of a clever choice of organic and thin-film materials, advanced magnetic characterization techniques with a spatial resolution down to the atomic length scale, and a thorough understanding of magnetic properties based on first-principles calculations. Here, we make use of carbon-based systems of various nanoscale size, such as single coronene molecules and islands of graphene, deposited on a skyrmion lattice of a single atomic layer of iron on an iridium substrate, in order to tune the magnetic characteristics (for example, magnetic moments, magnetic anisotropies and coercive field strengths) of the organic-metal hybrids. Moreover, we demonstrate long-range magnetic coupling between individual organic-metal hybrids via the chiral magnetic skyrmion lattice, thereby offering viable routes towards spin information transmission between magnetically stable states in nanoscale dimensions.

9.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 26(26): 263001, 2014 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24873931

RESUMO

In this review we summarize our experience gained from several recent ab initio studies aimed to investigate how the competition between short-ranged chemical and long-ranged dispersion interactions determines the bonding mechanism of a specific set of chemically functionalized π-conjugated organic molecules on non-magnetic and magnetic metal surfaces. A key point of this review is to provide a detailed analysis on the issue of how to tune the strength of the organic molecule-surface interaction, such that the nature of the molecular bonding exhibits the specific electronic features of the physisorption or chemisorption bonding mechanisms. In particular, we discuss in detail how the precise control of these bonding mechanisms can be used to design specific electronic and magnetic properties of hybrid organic-metallic interfaces. Furthermore, our first-principles simulations provide not only the basic insights needed to interpret surface-science experiments, but are also a key tool to design organic-substrate systems with tailored properties that can be integrated into future organic-based devices for molecular electronics and molecular spintronics applications.

10.
Nano Lett ; 13(11): 5013-9, 2013 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24131290

RESUMO

The ease by which graphene is affected through contact with other materials is one of its unique features and defines an integral part of its potential for applications. Here, it will be demonstrated that intercalation, the insertion of atomic layers in between the backside of graphene and the supporting substrate, is an efficient tool to change its interaction with the environment on the frontside. By partial intercalation of graphene on Ir(111) with Eu or Cs we induce strongly n-doped graphene patches through the contact with these intercalants. They coexist with nonintercalated, slightly p-doped graphene patches. We employ these backside doping patterns to directly visualize doping induced binding energy differences of ionic adsorbates to graphene through low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. Density functional theory confirms these binding energy differences and shows that they are related to the graphene doping level.

11.
Nat Commun ; 4: 2425, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24061595

RESUMO

Magnetic molecules are potential functional units for molecular and supramolecular spintronic devices. However, their magnetic and electronic properties depend critically on their interaction with metallic electrodes. Charge transfer and hybridization modify the electronic structure and thereby influence or even quench the molecular magnetic moment. Yet, detection and manipulation of the molecular spin state by means of charge transport, that is, spintronic functionality, mandates a certain level of hybridization of the magnetic orbitals with electrode states. Here we show how a judicious choice of the molecular spin centres determines these critical molecule-electrode contact characteristics. In contrast to late lanthanide analogues, the 4f-orbitals of single bis(phthalocyaninato)-neodymium(III) molecules adsorbed on Cu(100) can be directly accessed by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Hence, they contribute to charge transport, whereas their magnetic moment is sustained as evident from comparing spectroscopic data with ab initio calculations. Our results showcase how tailoring molecular orbitals can yield all-electrically controlled spintronic device concepts.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 49(53): 5993-5, 2013 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23719739

RESUMO

We demonstrate that cyclooctatetraene (COT) can be stabilised in different conformations when adsorbed on different noble-metal surfaces due to varying molecule-substrate interactions. While at first glance the behaviour seems to be in accordance with Hückel's rule, a theoretical analysis reveals no significant charge transfer. The driving mechanism for the conformational change is hybridisation at the organic-metal interface and does not necessitate any charge transfer.

13.
Adv Mater ; 25(14): 1967-72, 2013 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23382024

RESUMO

The zigzag edges of graphene on Ir(111) are studied by ab initio simulations and low-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy, providing information about their structural, electronic, and magnetic properties. No edge state is found to exist, which is explained in terms of the interplay between a strong geometrical relaxation at the edge and a hybridization of the d orbitals of Ir atoms with the graphene orbitals at the edge.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Ferro/química , Microscopia de Tunelamento , Nanoestruturas/química , Teoria Quântica
14.
Nature ; 493(7433): 509-13, 2013 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23344361

RESUMO

The use of molecular spin state as a quantum of information for storage, sensing and computing has generated considerable interest in the context of next-generation data storage and communication devices, opening avenues for developing multifunctional molecular spintronics. Such ideas have been researched extensively, using single-molecule magnets and molecules with a metal ion or nitrogen vacancy as localized spin-carrying centres for storage and for realizing logic operations. However, the electronic coupling between the spin centres of these molecules is rather weak, which makes construction of quantum memory registers a challenging task. In this regard, delocalized carbon-based radical species with unpaired spin, such as phenalenyl, have shown promise. These phenalenyl moieties, which can be regarded as graphene fragments, are formed by the fusion of three benzene rings and belong to the class of open-shell systems. The spin structure of these molecules responds to external stimuli (such as light, and electric and magnetic fields), which provides novel schemes for performing spin memory and logic operations. Here we construct a molecular device using such molecules as templates to engineer interfacial spin transfer resulting from hybridization and magnetic exchange interaction with the surface of a ferromagnet; the device shows an unexpected interfacial magnetoresistance of more than 20 per cent near room temperature. Moreover, we successfully demonstrate the formation of a nanoscale magnetic molecule with a well-defined magnetic hysteresis on ferromagnetic surfaces. Owing to strong magnetic coupling with the ferromagnet, such independent switching of an adsorbed magnetic molecule has been unsuccessful with single-molecule magnets. Our findings suggest the use of chemically amenable phenalenyl-based molecules as a viable and scalable platform for building molecular-scale quantum spin memory and processors for technological development.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 111(10): 106805, 2013 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25166694

RESUMO

We reveal for the first time through a theoretical first-principles study that the adsorption of a nonmagnetic π-conjugated organic molecule on a ferromagnetic surface locally increases the strength of the magnetic exchange interaction between the magnetic atoms binding directly to the molecule. This magnetic hardening effect leads to the creation of a local molecular mediated magnetic unit with a stable magnetization direction and an enhanced barrier for the magnetization switching as compared to the clean surface. Remarkably, such a hybrid organic-ferromagnetic system exhibits also a spin-filter functionality with sharp spin-split molecularlike electronic features at the molecular site.

16.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 24(42): 424214, 2012 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23032913

RESUMO

We have performed a systematic semi-empirical and ab initio van der Waals study to investigate the bonding mechanism of benzene (C(6)H(6)), triazine (C(3)N(3)H(3)) and borazine (B(3)N(3)H(6)) adsorbed on graphene and a single boron nitride (BN) sheet. The two semi-empirical approaches used to include the van der Waals (vdW) interactions in our density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the strength of the molecule-surface interaction corresponds to a strong physisorption with no net charge transfer between the molecules and the corresponding substrates. This observation is strengthened by the use of first-principles non-local correlation vdW-DF functionals which provide a sound physical basis to include vdW interactions in DFT calculations. In particular we have employed two flavors of vdW-DF functionals which enabled us to determine the role of the non-local correlation effects in the molecule-surface bonding mechanism which cannot be assessed by using only semi-empirical vdW methods. Our study also reveals that the strength of the molecule-surface interaction can be influenced by the electronegativity of the B, C and N atoms.


Assuntos
Benzeno/química , Compostos de Boro/química , Grafite/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Triazinas/química , Absorção , Benzeno/metabolismo , Compostos de Boro/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Grafite/metabolismo , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Teoria Quântica , Termodinâmica , Triazinas/metabolismo
17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 14(5): 1635-41, 2012 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22193370

RESUMO

The electron transport through molecules in molecular devices is typically influenced by the nature of the interfaces with the contacting electrodes and by the interactions between neighbouring molecules. It is a major goal of molecular electronics to adjust the electronic function of a molecular device by tailoring the intrinsic molecular properties and the interfacial and intermolecular interactions. Here, we report on the tunability of the electronic properties of coronene derivatives, namely dodecakis(arylthio)coronenes (DATCs), which are found to exhibit a three-dimensional aromatic system. Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), spectroscopy (STS) and simulations based on the density functional theory (DFT) are employed to characterize the structural and electronic properties of these molecules deposited on Au(111) surfaces. It is shown that modifications of the peripheral aryl-groups allow us to specifically affect the self-assembly and the charge transport characteristics of the molecules. Molecular assemblies like supramolecular wires with highly delocalized orbitals and single molecules with molecular "quantum dot" characteristics are obtained in this way.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(3): 036101, 2011 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21838377

RESUMO

The nonlocal van der Waals density functional approach is applied to calculate the binding of graphene to Ir(111). The precise agreement of the calculated mean height h = 3.41 Å of the C atoms with their mean height h = (3.38±0.04) Å as measured by the x-ray standing wave technique provides a benchmark for the applicability of the nonlocal functional. We find bonding of graphene to Ir(111) to be due to the van der Waals interaction with an antibonding average contribution from chemical interaction. Despite its globally repulsive character, in certain areas of the large graphene moiré unit cell charge accumulation between Ir substrate and graphene C atoms is observed, signaling a weak covalent bond formation.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(4): 047204, 2010 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20867880

RESUMO

We investigate the spin- and energy-dependent tunneling through a single organic molecule (CoPc) adsorbed on a ferromagnetic Fe thin film, spatially resolved by low-temperature spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. Interestingly, the metal ion as well as the organic ligand show a significant spin dependence of tunneling current flow. State-of-the-art ab initio calculations including also van der Waals interactions reveal a strong hybridization of molecular orbitals and substrate 3d states. The molecule is anionic due to a transfer of one electron, resulting in a nonmagnetic (S=0) state. Nevertheless, tunneling through the molecule exhibits a pronounced spin dependence due to spin-split molecule-surface hybrid states.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(6): 066601, 2010 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20867994

RESUMO

By means of ab initio calculations and spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy experiments the creation of a complex energy dependent magnetic structure with a tailored spin-polarized interface is demonstrated. We show this novel effect by adsorbing organic molecules containing π(p(z)) electrons onto a magnetic surface. The hybridization of the out-of-plane p(z) atomic-type orbitals with the d states of the metal leads to the inversion of the spin polarization at the organic site due to a p(z)-d Zener exchange-type mechanism. As a key result, we demonstrate the possibility to selectively and efficiently inject spin-up and spin-down electrons from a ferromagnetic-organic interface, an effect which can be exploited in future spintronic devices.

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