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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339199

RESUMO

Multiple cis-acting elements are present in promoter sequences that play critical regulatory roles in gene transcription and expression. In this study, we isolated the cotton FDH (Fiddlehead) gene promoter (pGhFDH) using a real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression analysis and performed a cis-acting elements prediction analysis. The plant expression vector pGhFDH::GUS was constructed using the Gateway approach and was used for the genetic transformation of Arabidopsis and upland cotton plants to obtain transgenic lines. Histochemical staining and a ß-glucuronidase (GUS) activity assay showed that the GUS protein was detected in the roots, stems, leaves, inflorescences, and pods of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines. Notably, high GUS activity was observed in different tissues. In the transgenic lines, high GUS activity was detected in different tissues such as leaves, stalks, buds, petals, androecium, endosperm, and fibers, where the pGhFDH-driven GUS expression levels were 3-10-fold higher compared to those under the CaMV 35S promoter at 10-30 days post-anthesis (DPA) during fiber development. The results indicate that pGhFDH can be used as an endogenous constitutive promoter to drive the expression of target genes in various cotton tissues to facilitate functional genomic studies and accelerate cotton molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Gossypium , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Glucuronidase/genética , Glucuronidase/metabolismo
2.
Sci China Life Sci ; 66(3): 595-601, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190647

RESUMO

Hybrid seed production technology (SPT) using genic recessive male sterility is of great importance in maize breeding. Here, we report a novel SPT based on a maize unilateral cross-incompatibility gene ZmGa1F with an extremely low transgene transmission rate (TTR). Proper pollen-specific ZmGa1F expression severely inhibits pollen tube growth leading to no fertilization. The maintainer line harbors a transgene cassette in an ipe1 male sterile background containing IPE1 to restore ipe1 male fertility, ZmGa1F to prevent transgenic pollen escape, the red fluorescence protein encoding gene DsRed2 for the separation of male sterile and fertile seeds, and the herbicide-resistant gene Bar for transgenic plant selection. When the maintainer line is selfed, gametes of ipe1/transgene and ipe1/- genotypes are produced, and pollen of the ipe1/transgene genotype is not able to fertilize female gametes due to pollen tube growth inhibition by ZmGa1F. Subsequently, seeds of ipe1/ipe1 and ipe1/transgene genotypes are produced at a 1:1 ratio and could be separated easily by fluorescence-based seed sorting. Not a single seed emitting fluorescence is detected in more than 200,000 seeds examined demonstrating that the pollen-tube-inhibition (PTI)-based TTR is lower than what has been reported for similar technologies to date. This PTI-based SPT shows promising potential for future maize hybrid seed production.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Zea mays , Zea mays/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Transgenes , Sementes/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1993, 2022 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422051

RESUMO

Maize unilateral cross-incompatibility (UCI) that causes non-Mendelian segregation ratios has been documented for more than a century. Ga1, Ga2, and Tcb1 are three major UCI systems, described but not fully understood. Here, we report comprehensive genetic studies on the Ga2 locus and map-based cloning of the tightly linked male determinant ZmGa2P and female determinant ZmGa2F that govern pollen-silk compatibility among different maize genotypes. Both determinants encode putative pectin methylesterases (PME). A significantly higher degree of methyl esterification is detected in the apical region of pollen tubes growing in incompatible silks. No direct interaction between ZmGa2P and ZmGa2F is detected in the yeast two-hybrid system implying a distinct mechanism from that of self-incompatibility (SI). We also demonstrate the feasibility of Ga2 as a reproductive barrier in commercial breeding programs and stacking Ga2 with Ga1 could strengthen the UCI market potentials.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Zea mays , Genes de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Tubo Polínico/genética , Zea mays/genética
4.
Plant Cell ; 34(6): 2222-2241, 2022 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294020

RESUMO

Ear length (EL) is a key trait that contributes greatly to grain yield in maize (Zea mays). While numerous quantitative trait loci for EL have been identified, few causal genes have been studied in detail. Here we report the characterization of ear apical degeneration1 (ead1) exhibiting strikingly shorter ears and the map-based cloning of the casual gene EAD1. EAD1 is preferentially expressed in the xylem of immature ears and encodes an aluminum-activated malate transporter localizing to the plasma membrane. We show that EAD1 is a malate efflux transporter and loss of EAD1 leads to lower malate contents in the apical part of developing inflorescences. Exogenous injections of malate rescued the shortened ears of ead1. These results demonstrate that EAD1 plays essential roles in regulating maize ear development by delivering malate through xylem vessels to the apical part of the immature ear. Overexpression of EAD1 led to greater EL and kernel number per row and the EAD1 genotype showed a positive association with EL in two different genetic segregating populations. Our work elucidates the critical role of EAD1 in malate-mediated female inflorescence development and provides a promising genetic resource for enhancing maize grain yield.


Assuntos
Inflorescência , Zea mays , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Grão Comestível/genética , Inflorescência/genética , Malatos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561427

RESUMO

Flowering transition is a crucial development process in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and the flowering time is closely correlated with the timing of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression. However, the mechanism underlying the coordination of various cis-regulatory elements in the FT promoter of cotton has not been determined. In this study, a 5.9-kb promoter of FT was identified from cotton. A bioinformatics analysis showed that multiple insertion-deletion sites existed in the 5.9-kb promoter. Different expression levels of a reporter gene, and the induction by sequential deletions in GhFT promoter, demonstrated that 1.8-kb of the GhFT promoter was stronger than 4.2-, 4.8-, and 5.9-kb promoter fragments. The binding sites of the CONSTANS (CO) and NUCLEAR FACTOR Y transcription factors were located within the 1.0-kb sequence upstream of the FT transcription start site. A large number of repeat segments were identified in proximal promoter regions (-1.1 to -1.4 kb). A complementation analysis of deletion constructs between 1.0 and 1.8 kb of G. hirsutum, Gossypium arboretum, and Gossypium raimondii FT promoters revealed that the 1.0-kb fragment significantly rescued the late-flowering phenotype of the Arabidopsis FT loss-of-function mutant ft-10, whereas the 1.8-kb promoter only slightly rescued the late-flowering phenotype. Furthermore, the conserved CORE motif in the cotton FT promoter is an atypical TGTG(N2-3)ATG, but the number of arbitrary bases between TGTG and ATG is uncertain. Thus, the proximal FT promoter region might play an important role affecting the activity levels of FT promoters in cotton flowering.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Gossypium/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Bases , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Transcriptoma
6.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3678, 2018 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202064

RESUMO

Unilateral cross-incompatibility (UCI) is a unidirectional inter/intra-population reproductive barrier when both parents are self-compatible. Maize Gametophyte factor1 (Ga1) is an intraspecific UCI system and has been utilized in breeding. However, the mechanism underlying maize UCI specificity has remained mysterious for decades. Here, we report the cloning of ZmGa1P, a pollen-expressed PECTIN METHYLESTERASE (PME) gene at the Ga1 locus that can confer the male function in the maize UCI system. Homozygous transgenic plants expressing ZmGa1P in a ga1 background can fertilize Ga1-S plants and can be fertilized by pollen of ga1 plants. ZmGa1P protein is predominantly localized to the apex of growing pollen tubes and may interact with another pollen-specific PME protein, ZmPME10-1, to maintain the state of pectin methylesterification required for pollen tube growth in Ga1-S silks. Our study discloses a PME-mediated UCI mechanism and provides a tool to manipulate hybrid breeding.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tubo Polínico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polinização , Zea mays/genética , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos , Clonagem Molecular , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Teste de Complementação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0179038, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28591177

RESUMO

The CONSTANS/FLOWERING LOCUS T (CO/FT) regulon plays a central role in the control of flowering time in photoperiod-sensitive plants. Flowering time in wild cotton (Gossypium spp.) has strict photoperiod sensitivity, but domesticated cotton is day-neutral. Information on the molecular characterization of the CO and CO-like (COL) genes in cotton is very limited. In this study, we identified 42 COL homologs (GhCOLs) in the G. hirsutum genome, and many of them were previously unreported. We studied their chromosome distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and structures of genes and proteins. Our results showed that GhCOLs were classified into three groups, and 14 COLs in group I showed conserved structure when compared with other plants. Two homoeologous pairs, GhCOL1-A and GhCOL1-D in Group I, showed the highest sequence similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana CO and rice CO homologous gene Heading date1 (Hd1). Tissue-specific expression showed that 42 GhCOL genes may function as tissue-specific regulators in different cells or organs. We cloned and sequenced the 14 GhCOL genes in Group I related to flowering induction to study their diurnal expression pattern, and found that their expression showed distinct circadian regulation. Most of them peaked at dawn and decreased rapidly to their minima at dusk, then started to accumulate until following dawn under long- or short-day conditions. Transgenic study in the Arabidopsis co-2 mutant demonstrated that GhCOL1-A and GhCOL1-D fully rescued the late-flowering phenotype, whereas GhCOL3-A, GhCOL3-D, GhCOL7-A, and GhCOL7-D partially rescued the late-flowering phenotype, and the other five homoeologous pairs in Group I did not promote flowering. These results indicate that GhCOL1-A and GhCOL1-D were potential flowering inducers, and are candidate genes for research in flowering regulation in cotton.


Assuntos
Gossypium/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Filogenia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética
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