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Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 62(32): e202218850, 2023 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36637348


Hydrogen (H2 ) produced from renewables will have a growing impact on the global energy dynamics towards sustainable and carbon-neutral standards. The share of green H2 is still too low to meet the net-zero target, while the demand for high-quality hydrogen continues to rise. These factors amplify the need for economically viable H2 generation technologies. The present article aims at evaluating the existing technologies for high-quality H2 production based on solar energy. Technologies such as water electrolysis, photoelectrochemical and solar thermochemical water splitting, liquid metal reactors and plasma conversion utilize solar power directly or indirectly (as carbon-neutral electrons) and are reviewed from the perspective of their current development level, technical limitations and future potential.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(34): 19282-94, 2015 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26281016


In this study, various silicon dielectric films, namely, a-SiOx:H, a-SiNx:H, and a-SiOxNy:H, grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were evaluated for use as interlayers (ILs) between crystalline silicon and glass. Chemical bonding analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that high values of oxidant gases (CO2 and/or N2), added to SiH4 during PECVD, reduced the Si-H and N-H bond density in the silicon dielectrics. Various three layer stacks combining the silicon dielectric materials were designed to minimize optical losses between silicon and glass in rear side contacted heterojunction pn test cells. The PECVD grown silicon dielectrics retained their functionality despite being subjected to harsh subsequent processing such as crystallization of the silicon at 1414 °C or above. High values of short circuit current density (Jsc; without additional hydrogen passivation) required a high density of Si-H bonds and for the nitrogen containing films, additionally, a high N-H bond density. Concurrently high values of both Jsc and open circuit voltage Voc were only observed when [Si-H] was equal to or exceeded [N-H]. Generally, Voc correlated with a high density of [Si-H] bonds in the silicon dielectric; otherwise, additional hydrogen passivation using an active plasma process was required. The highest Voc ∼ 560 mV, for a silicon acceptor concentration of about 10(16) cm(-3), was observed for stacks where an a-SiOxNy:H film was adjacent to the silicon. Regardless of the cell absorber thickness, field effect passivation of the buried silicon surface by the silicon dielectric was mandatory for efficient collection of carriers generated from short wavelength light (in the vicinity of the glass-Si interface). However, additional hydrogen passivation was obligatory for an increased diffusion length of the photogenerated carriers and thus Jsc in solar cells with thicker absorbers.

Appl Opt ; 54(14): 4366-73, 2015 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25967490


Light scattering superstrates are important for thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. In this work, aluminum-induced texture (AIT) glass, covered with nonetched Al-doped ZnO (AZO), is investigated as an alternative to the commonly used planar glass with texture-etched AZO superstrate. Four different AIT glasses with different surface roughnesses and different lateral feature sizes are investigated for their effects on light trapping in a-Si:H solar cells. For comparison, two reference superstrates are investigated as well: planar glass covered with nonetched AZO and planar glass covered with texture-etched AZO. Single-junction a-Si:H solar cells are deposited onto each superstrate, and the scattering properties (haze and angular resolved scattering) as well as the solar cell characteristics (current-voltage and external quantum efficiency) are measured and compared. The results indicate that AIT glass superstrates with nonetched AZO provide similar, or even superior, light trapping than the standard reference superstrate, which is demonstrated by a higher short-circuit current Jsc and a higher external quantum efficiency. Using the trapped light fraction δ, a quantity based on the integrated light scattering at the AZO/a-Si:H interface, we show that Jsc linearly increases with δ in the scattering regime of the samples, regardless of the type of superstrate used.