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1.
Planta ; 255(2): 34, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006338

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The SNF5-type protein BUSHY plays a role in the regulation of seed germination via the gibberellin pathway dependent on HUB1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. SWITCH/SUCROSE NONFERMENTING (SWI/SNF) complexes play diverse roles in plant development. Some components have roles in embryo development and seed maturation, however, whether the SNF5-type protein BUSHY (BSH), one of the components, plays a role in Arabidopsis seed related traits is presently unclear. In our study, we show that a loss-of-function mutation in BSH causes increased seed germination in Arabidopsis. BSH transcription was induced by the gibberellin (GA) inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) in the seed, and BSH regulates the expression of GA pathway genes, such as Gibberellin 3-Oxidase 1 (GA3OX1), Gibberellic Acid-Stimulated Arabidopsis 4 (GASA4), and GASA6 during seed germination. A genetic analysis showed that seed germination was distinctly improved in the bshga3ox1ga3ox2 triple mutant, indicating that BSH acts partially downstream of GA3OX1 and GA3OX2. Moreover, the regulation of seed germination by BSH in response to PAC is dependent on HUB1. These results provide new insights and clues to understand the mechanisms of phytohormones in the regulation of seed germination.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação , Giberelinas , Sementes/metabolismo
2.
Curr Med Sci ; 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874485

RESUMO

With the acceleration of population aging, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is progressively increasing due to the age-relatedness of these two diseases. The association between T2DM and AD-like dementia is receiving much attention, and T2DM is reported to be a significant risk factor for AD. The aims of this review were to reveal the brain changes caused by T2DM as well as to explore the roles of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in the development of AD.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(22): 5867-5876, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951177

RESUMO

Network pharmacology and the mouse model of viral pneumonia caused by influenza virus FM_1 were employed to explore the main active components and the mechanism of Pulsatilla chinensis against the inflammatory injury of influenza virus-induced pneumonia. The components and targets of P. chinensis were searched from TCMSP, and the targets associated with influenza virus-induced pneumonia were searched from GeneCards. The common targets between P. chinensis and influenza virus-induced pneumonia were identified with Venn diagram established in Venny 2.1. The herb-component-disease-target(H-C-D-T) network was constructed by Cytoscape 3.7.2. The above data were imported into STRING for PPI network analysis. Gene Ontology(GO) enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment were performed with DAVID. BALB/cAnN mice were infected with the influenza virus FM_1 by nasal drip to gene-rate the mouse model of pneumonia. Immunohistochemistry was adopted to the expression profiling of inflammatory cytokines in the lung tissues of mice in the blank group, model group, and P. chinensis group 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after infection. The pathological changes of lung and trachea of mice in blank group, model group, and P. chinensis group were observed with light microscope and scanning electron microscope at all the time points. The network pharmacological analysis indicated that 9 compounds of P. chinensis were screened out, with a total of 57 targets, 22 of which were overlapped with those of influenza virus-induced pneumonia. A total of 112 GO terms(P<0.05) were enriched, including 81 terms of biological processes, 11 terms of cell components, and 20 terms of molecular functions. A total of 53 KEGG signaling pathways(P<0.05) were enriched, including TNF signaling pathway, influenza A signaling pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and other signaling pathways related to influenza/inflammation. In the P. chinensis group, the expression of TNF-α and IL-1 in the lung tissue was down-regulated on the 3 rd day after infection, and that of IL-6 in the lung tissue was down-regulated on the 5 th day after infection. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that P. chinensis significantly alleviated the pathological damage of lung and trachea compared with the model group. This study reflects the multi-components, multi-targets, and multi-pathways of P. chinensis against influenza virus-induced pneumonia. P. chinensis may reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators and block the pro-inflammatory signaling pathways to alleviate viral pneumonia, which provides reference for future research.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Orthomyxoviridae , Pneumonia , Pulsatilla , Animais , Camundongos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/genética
4.
JCI Insight ; 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914639

RESUMO

Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated group Ⅰ adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms AC1 and AC8 have been involved in nociceptive processing and morphine responses. However, whether AC3, another member of group I ACs, is involved in nociceptive transmission and regulates opioid receptor signaling remain elusive. Here we report that conditional knockout of AC3 (AC3CKO) in L3 and L4 DRGs robustly facilitates the mouse nociceptive responses, decreases voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel currents and increases neuronal excitability. Also, AC3CKO eliminates the analgesic effect of κ opioid receptor (KOR) agonist and its inhibition on Kv channel by classical Gαi/o signaling or nonclassical direct interaction of KOR and AC3 proteins. Interestingly, significantly upregulated AC1 level and cAMP concentration are detected in AC3 deficient DRGs. Inhibition of AC1 completely reversed cAMP upregulation, neuronal excitability enhancement and nociceptive behavioral hypersensitivity in AC3CKO mice. Our findings suggest a crucial role of peripheral AC3 in nociceptive modulation and KOR opioid analgesia.

5.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 451, 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is a major contributor to global kidney diseases. Targeting hypoxia is a promising therapeutic option against both acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease; however, an effective strategy that can achieve simultaneous targeted kidney hypoxia imaging and therapy has yet to be established. Herein, we fabricated a unique nano-sized hypoxia-sensitive coassembly (Pc/C5A@EVs) via molecular recognition and self-assembly, which is composed of the macrocyclic amphiphile C5A, the commercial dye sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (Pc) and mesenchymal stem cell-excreted extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs). RESULTS: In murine models of unilateral or bilateral ischemia/reperfusion injury, MSC-EVs protected the Pc/C5A complex from immune metabolism, prolonged the circulation time of the complex, and specifically led Pc/C5A to hypoxic kidneys via surface integrin receptor α4ß1 and αLß2, where Pc/C5A released the near-infrared fluorescence of Pc and achieved enhanced hypoxia-sensitive imaging. Meanwhile, the coassembly significantly recovered kidney function by attenuating cell apoptosis, inhibiting the progression of renal fibrosis and reducing tubulointerstitial inflammation. Mechanistically, the Pc/C5A coassembly induced M1-to-M2 macrophage transition by inhibiting the HIF-1α expression in hypoxic renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) and downstream NF-κB signaling pathway to exert their regenerative effects. CONCLUSION: This synergetic nanoscale coassembly with great translational potential provides a novel strategy for precise kidney hypoxia diagnosis and efficient kidney injury treatment. Furthermore, our strategy of coassembling exogenous macrocyclic receptors with endogenous cell-derived membranous structures may offer a functional platform to address multiple clinical needs.

6.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944412

RESUMO

Survival from pancreatic cancer remains extremely poor, in part because this malignancy is not diagnosed in the early stages, and precancerous pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions are not seen on routine radiographic imaging. Since the cholecystokinin-B receptor (CCK-BR) becomes over-expressed in PanIN lesions, it may serve as a target for early detection. We developed a biodegradable fluorescent polyplex nanoparticle (NP) that selectively targets the CCK-BR. The NP was complexed to a fluorescent oligonucleotide with Alexa Fluor 647 for far-red imaging and to an oligonucleotide conjugated to Alexa Fluor 488 for localization by immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence was detected over the pancreas of five- to ten-month-old LSL-KrasG12D/+; P48-Cre (KC) mice only after the injection of the receptor target-specific NP and not after injection of untargeted NP. Ex vivo tissue imaging and selective immunohistochemistry confirmed particle localization only to PanIN lesions in the pancreas and not in other organs, supporting the tissue specificity. A human pancreas tissue microarray demonstrated immunoreactivity for the CCK-BR only in the PanIN lesions and not in normal pancreas tissue. The long-term goal would be to develop this imaging tool for screening human subjects at high risk for pancreatic cancer to enable early cancer detection.


Assuntos
Fluoresceínas/administração & dosagem , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Receptor de Colecistocinina B/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Nanopartículas , Especificidade de Órgãos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
7.
Front Oncol ; 11: 788875, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34926305

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recently, clinical studies have demonstrated that many of those with advanced gastric cancer are responsive to immune checkpoint antibody therapy, although the median survival even with these new agents is less than 12 months for advanced disease. The gastrointestinal peptide gastrin has been shown to stimulate growth of gastric cancer in a paracrine and autocrine fashion through the cholecystokinin-B receptor (CCK-BR), a receptor that is expressed in at least 56.6% of human gastric cancers. In the current investigation, we studied the role of the gastrin-CCK-BR pathway in vitro and in vivo as well as the expression of the CCK-BR in a human gastric cancer tissue array. CCK-BR and PD-L1 receptor expression and gastrin peptide was found in two murine gastric cancer cells (NCC-S1 and YTN-16) by qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Treatment of NCC-S1 cells with gastrin resulted in increased growth. In vivo, the effects of a cancer vaccine that targets gastrin peptide (polyclonal antibody stimulator-PAS) alone or in combination with a Programed Death-1 antibody (PD-1 Ab) was evaluated in immune competent mice (N = 40) bearing YTN-16 gastric tumors. Mice were treated with PBS, PD-1 Ab (50 µg), PAS (250 µg), or the combination of PD-1 Ab with PAS. Tumor growth was significantly slower than controls in PAS-treated mice, and tumor growth was decreased even more in combination-treated mice. There were no metastases in any of the mice treated with PAS either alone or in combination with PD-1 Ab. Tumor proliferation by the Ki67 staining was significantly decreased in mice treated with PAS monotherapy or the combination therapy. PAS monotherapy or combined with PD-1 Ab increased tumor CD8+ T-lymphocytes and decreased the number of immunosuppressive M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages. CCK-BR expression was identified in samples from a human tissue array by immunohistochemistry confirming the clinical relevance of this study. These results confirm the significance of the gastrin-CCK-BR signaling pathway in gastric cancer and suggest that the addition of a gastrin vaccine, PAS, to therapy with an immune checkpoint antibody may decrease growth and metastases of gastric cancer by altering the tumor microenvironment.

8.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the relationship between a dietary pattern associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and trajectories of blood pressure in Chinese adults. METHODS: This prospective cohort study consisted of 7020 adults using three waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2009, 2011 and 2015). Group-based trajectory modelling was used to identify trajectories of blood pressure. The dietary pattern associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured using the reduced rank regression method. Logistic regression models were fit to explore the associations of the scores on inflammation-related dietary patterns and trajectories of blood pressure. RESULTS: We identified a dietary pattern associated with CRP at baseline, which was high in red meat, snacks and nuts, but low in grains, poultry and fish. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) pertaining to the highest dietary pattern score group for the high-normal systolic blood pressure (SBP) group and the high SBP group were 1.316 (1.155-1.498) and 1.295 (1.030-1.627), respectively. However, no significant association was observed between dietary patterns and trajectories of diastolic blood pressure (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary pattern associated with CRP resulted in higher risk of high-normal and high levels of SBP.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 745854, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721415

RESUMO

Alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is critical for the pathogenesis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 meningitis, a severe central nervous system infection of the neonates. However, little is known about how E. coli K1 manipulates α7 nAChR signaling. Here, through employing immortalized cell lines, animal models, and human transcriptional analysis, we showed that E. coli K1 infection triggers releasing of secreted Ly6/Plaur domain containing 1 (SLURP1), an endogenous α7 nAChR ligand. Exogenous supplement of SLURP1, combined with SLURP1 knockdown or overexpression cell lines, showed that SLURP1 is required for E. coli K1 invasion and neutrophils migrating across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Furthermore, we found that SLURP1 is required for E. coli K1-induced α7 nAChR activation. Finally, the promoting effects of SLURP1 on the pathogenesis of E. coli K1 meningitis was significantly abolished in the α7 nAChR knockout mice. These results reveal that E. coli K1 exploits SLURP1 to activate α7 nAChR and facilitate its pathogenesis, and blocking SLURP1-α7 nAChR interaction might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for E. coli K1 meningitis.

10.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-19, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802351

RESUMO

In recent years, the concept of metaorganism expands our insight into how diet-microbe-host interactions contribute to human health and diseases. We realized that many biological metabolic processes in the host can be summarized into metaorganismal relay pathways, in which metabolites such as trimethylamine-N­oxide, short-chain fatty acids and bile acids act as double-edged swords (beneficial or harmful effects) in the initiation and progression of diseases. Pleiotropic effects of metabolites are derived from several influencing factors including dose level, targeted organ of effect, action duration and species of these metabolites. Based on the pleiotropic effects of metabolites, personalized therapeutic approaches including microecological agents, enzymatic regulators and changes in dietary habits to govern related metabolite production may provide a new insight in promoting human health. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of metaorganismal relay pathways and elaborate on the pleiotropic effects of metabolites in these pathways, with special emphasis on related therapeutic nutritional interventions.

11.
Vet Microbiol ; 264: 109294, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847454

RESUMO

Avian reovirus (ARV) is an important pathogen causing multiple types of clinical diseases in chickens, including viral arthritis, chronic respiratory diseases, retarded growth, and malabsorption syndrome, leading to considerable economic losses to the poultry industry across the globe. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post transcriptionally by silencing or degrading their targets, thus playing important roles in the host response to pathogenic infection. However, the role of miRNAs in host response to ARV infection is still not clear. Here, we show that infection of DF-1 cells (a chicken fibroblast cell line) with ARV markedly altered the expressions of 583 chicken miRNAs(gga-miR), and that transfection of DF-1 cells with gga-miR-29a-3p, an upregulated miRNA in ARV-infected cells, significantly suppressed ARV-induced apoptosis via directly targeting Caspase-3, retarding ARV growth in cells. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous gga-miR-29a-3p in DF-1 cells by specific miRNA inhibitor enhanced ARV-induced apoptosis and increased the content and activity of caspase-3, facilitating viral growth in cells. Consistently, inhibition of Caspase-3 activity by inhibitors decreased viral titers in cell cultures. Thus, gga-miR-29a-3p plays an important antiviral role in host response to ARV infection by suppression of apoptosis via targeting Caspase-3. This information will further our understandings of how host cells combat against ARV infection by self-encoded small RNA and increase our knowledge of the role of microRNAs in host response to pathogenic infection.

12.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755259

RESUMO

The attentional blink (AB) refers to the impaired identification of the second target (T2) when presented within approximately 500ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated when two targets can be integrated into a single compound word, it remains unclear whether the lexico-semantic organization of translation equivalents modulates the magnitude of the AB. In the present study, we examined consecutive targets' processing in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese-English translation equivalents and non-translation equivalents. The results demonstrated that an overall presence of the AB effect was observed when T1 and T2 were non-translation equivalents. However, the AB effect disappeared completely when the two target words were translation equivalents. Taken together, these findings suggest that Chinese-English bilinguals are translating intentionally between Mandarin and English, which facilitates lexical access to word meaning from the two languages at the initial stages of visual word processing. Furthermore, such lexico-semantic activation of translation equivalents attributes to the elimination of the AB.

13.
Int J Low Extrem Wounds ; : 15347346211052811, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775872

RESUMO

To explore the effect of leukocyte-platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) on promoting wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers. A total of 42 patients with diabetic foot ulcers at our hospital from January 2017 to July 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. A control group and a PRF group were established. The two groups of patients underwent debridement. In the platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) group, autologous L-PRF was used to cover ulcer wounds. One time each week, Vaseline gauze was used to cover the ulcer wounds. In contrast, the control group was treated with the external application of mupirocin ointment and recombinant human epidermal growth factor gel (yeast). Two times each week, the sterile Vaseline gauze was covered with a bandage. Both groups were treated for 5 weeks. The wound recovery of the two groups was observed. During the early stage of treatment (first and second weeks) for diabetic foot ulcers, the wound healing rate was significantly better with L-PRF treatment than traditional treatment. For later-stage treatment (third to fifth weeks), the overall cure rate was higher with L-PRF than the traditional treatment method. L-PRF can effectively promote wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers.

14.
Appl Opt ; 60(30): 9530-9534, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807096

RESUMO

In this paper, we demonstrate an intensity-tunable THz bandpass filter by introducing liquid crystal (LC) integrated with asymmetric frequency selective surface (FSS) and subwavelength metal gratings. Here, the tunable THz filter is derived from the inner polarization state conversion in composited devices, and the incident linear polarization can be converted into 90° orthogonal components. By controlling the LC orientation under the applied electric field with the metamaterial electrodes, the polarization conversion process can be actively modulated; thus, the polarization-dependent and tunable THz bandpass filter is achieved. Based on the multilayer design and the inner Fabry-Perot-like resonance mechanism, the LC-integrated metamaterials filter presents better filtering performance than the single FSS filter, and the Q-value is improved from 7.7 to 13.8 at the working frequency. Our simulated work paves the way for the design of new and efficient THz filters.

15.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 44(6): 1425-1437, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previously, Interferon-induced Protein with Tetratricopeptide Repeats 1 (IFIT1) has been shown to promote cancer development. Here, we aimed to explore the role of IFIT1 in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer, including the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We explored IFIT1 expression in pancreatic cancer samples using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), colony formation, scratch wound-healing and Transwell assays were performed to assess the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of pancreatic cancer cells. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Western blotting were performed to assess the regulatory effect of IFIT1 on the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. RESULTS: We found that upregulation of IFIT1 expression is common in pancreatic cancer and is negatively associated with overall patient survival. Knockdown of IFIT1 expression led to decreased proliferation, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. We also found that IFIT1 could regulate Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, and that a Wnt/ß-catenin agonist could reverse this effect. In addition, we found that IFIT1 can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of pancreatic cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that IFIT1 increases pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion by activating the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. In addition, we found that EMT could be regulated by IFIT1. IFIT1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.

16.
Biomed Eng Online ; 20(1): 111, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore whether moderate-intensity exercise can alleviate motion-induced post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) and the expression change of lncRNA H19 during this progression. METHODS: Twenty-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: model control group (MC group, n = 6), treadmill model group (M group, n = 6), rehabilitation control group (RC group, n = 6), treadmill model + rehabilitation training group (M + R group, n = 6) and treadmill model + convalescent group (M + C group, n = 6). Paraffin sections were used to observe the pathological changes in the mouse knee joint in each group. A micro-CT was used to scan the knee joint to obtain the morphological indexes of the tibial plateau bone. Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA levels of inflammatory factors, synthetic and catabolic factors in cartilage. RESULTS: After high-intensity exercise for 4 weeks, the inflammation and catabolism of the mouse knee cartilage were enhanced, and the anabolism was weakened. Further study showed that these results were partially reversed after 4-week moderate-intensity training. The results of hematoxylin-eosin staining confirmed this finding. Meanwhile, high-intensity exercise reduced the expression of lncRNA H19 in cartilage, while the expression of lncRNA H19 increased after 4 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise. CONCLUSION: High-intensity treadmill running can cause injury to the knee cartilage in C57BL/6 mice which leads to PTOA and a decrease of lncRNA H19 expression in cartilage. Moderate-intensity exercise can relieve PTOA and partially reverse lncRNA H19 expression.

17.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(12): 3327-3328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746403

RESUMO

Ormosia purpureiflora is endemic to China. It is named after its purple flowers. It is a small tree only up to 3 m. It has leathery leaves, racemose inflorescences. The seeds are elliptic and red in coat. It is only confined to Luofushan Provincial Nature Reserve in Huizhou of Guangdong Province. Herein, we first reported on its complete chloroplast genome sequence as genomic resource for conservation purposes. The chloroplast genome of O. purpureiflora was 173,364 bp in length, with a large single-copy region of 73,465 bp, a small single-copy region of 18,751 bp, and a pair of inverted repeat regions that were 40,574 bp each. A total of 90 protein-coding genes, 38 transfer RNA genes, and eight ribosomal RNA genes were predicted, while 106 simple sequence repeats were recorded throughout the genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that O. purpureiflora was sister to O. emarginata.

18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(10): 3618-3626, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676723

RESUMO

The study of regional historical climate change is limited by the availability of observational data, which is not conducive to understanding long-term climate change. In this study, we used the tree-ring cores of Pinus tabuliformis to establish a tree ring width chronology (RES) from the southeast Shanxi Province, and analyzed the relationship between precipitation and tree-ring width chronology. The results showed that the residual chronology had a good correlation (r=0.636, n=59, P<0.01) with January-June precipitation. A linear regression was used to reconstruct the January-June precipitation for the southeastern Shanxi Province, which accounts for 40.4% of the instrumental precipitation variation during 1724-2019. Dry conditions occurred during 1742-1771, 1830-1848, 1872-1894, 1917-1945, 1961-1981, and 1990-2019, while the periods of 1727-1741, 1772-1829, 1849-1871, 1895-1916 were relatively wet. There were 10 extremely dry years and six extremely wet years during the period from 1724 to 2019. The longest dry periods were 1742-1771 and 1990-2019, while the longest wet period was 1772-1829. Results of spatial climate correlation analyses with gridded land surface data showed that the precipitation reconstruction contained a strong regional precipitation signal for southeast Shanxi Province. Power spectrum analysis of the precipitation reconstruction showed remarkable 2.3, 3.2-3.3, 3.7-3.8, 6.3-6.7, 8.3-8.7 years cycles for the past 296 years, the 2.3 year cycle corresponds to the 'quasi-two-year pulsation', and the 3.2-3.3, 3.7-3.8 and 6.3-6.7 year cycles might have a certain relationship with ENSO. Results of the spatial correlation analysis showed that the reconstructed precipitation series could better represent precipitation changes in the study area.


Assuntos
Pinus , Árvores , Mudança Climática , Estações do Ano
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638432

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is resistant to chemotherapy in part due to the dense desmoplastic fibrosis surrounding the tumor, the immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME), and the early rate of metastases. In this study, we examined the effects of a CCK receptor antagonist, proglumide, alone and in combination with gemcitabine in murine models of pancreatic cancer. Tumor growth rate, metastases, and survival were assessed in mice bearing syngeneic murine or human pancreatic tumors treated with PBS (control), gemcitabine, proglumide, or the combination of gemcitabine and proglumide. Excised tumors were evaluated histologically for fibrosis, immune cells, molecular markers, and uptake of chemotherapy by mass spectroscopy. Peripheral blood was analyzed with a microRNAs biomarker panel associated with fibrosis and oncogenesis. Differentially expressed genes between tumors of mice treated with gemcitabine monotherapy and combination therapy were compared by RNAseq. When given in combination the two compounds exhibited inhibitory effects by decreasing tumor growth rate by 70%, metastases, and prolonging survival. Proglumide monotherapy altered the TME by decreasing fibrosis, increasing intratumoral CD8+ T-cells, and decreasing arginase-positive cells, thus rendering the tumor sensitive to chemotherapy. Proglumide altered the expression of genes involved in fibrosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and invasion. CCK-receptor antagonism with proglumide renders pancreatic cancer susceptible to chemotherapy.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639106

RESUMO

Animal models of human neurodegenerative disease have been investigated for several decades. In recent years, zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) have become popular in pathogenic and therapeutic studies about human neurodegenerative diseases due to their small size, the optical clarity of embryos, their fast development, and their suitability to large-scale therapeutic screening. Following the emergence of a new generation of molecular biological technologies such as reverse and forward genetics, morpholino, transgenesis, and gene knockout, many human neurodegenerative disease models, such as Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Alzheimer's, were constructed in zebrafish and medaka. These studies proved that zebrafish and medaka genes are functionally conserved in relation to their human homologues, so they exhibit similar neurodegenerative phenotypes to human beings. Therefore, fish are a suitable model for the investigation of pathologic mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases and for the large-scale screening of drugs for potential therapy. In this review, we summarize the studies in modelling human neurodegenerative diseases in zebrafish and medaka in recent years.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Oryzias/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
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