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1.
Food Res Int ; 179: 114006, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342533

RESUMO

To distinguish Chinese milks from different regions, 13 milk samples were gathered from 13 regions of China in this study: Inner Mongolia (IM), Xinjiang (XJ), Hebei (HB), Shanghai (SH), Beijing (BJ), Sichuan (SC), Ningxia (NX), Henan (HN), Tianjin (TJ), Qinghai (QH), Yunnan (YN), Guangxi (GX), and Tibet (XZ). Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) combined with the electronic nose (E-nose) technology, was used to detect and analyze the volatile compounds in these milk samples. The qualitative and quantitative results identified 29 volatile chemicals, and we established a database of flavor profiles for the main milk-producing regions in China. E-nose analysis revealed variations in the odor of milk across different areas. Furthermore, results from partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and odor activity values (OAVs) suggested that seven volatile compounds: decane, 2-heptanone, 2-undecanone, 2-nonanone, 1-hexadecanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and (E)-2-nonenal, could be considered as key flavor compounds in Chinese milk products.


Assuntos
Leite , Odorantes , Animais , Leite/química , China , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Análise Discriminante
2.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 97: 118-127, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474925

RESUMO

Milk lipids, important for infant growth and development, are produced and secreted by mammary gland under the regulation of steroid hormones, growth factors, and microRNAs (miRNAs). miR-221 has been identified in milk and adipocytes and it plays important roles in regulating normal mammary epithelial hierarchy and breast cancer stem cells; however, its roles in lipid metabolism in mammary epithelial cells (MECs), the cells of lipid synthesis and secretion, are as yet unknown. Through overexpression or inhibition of miR-221 expression, we found that it regulated lipid metabolism in MECs and was expressed differentially at various stages during murine mammary gland development. Inhibition of miR-221 expression increased lipid content in MECs through elevation of the lipid synthesis enzyme FASN, while overexpression of miR-221 reduced MEC lipid content. Moreover, the steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone decreased miR-221 expression with a subsequent increase in lipid formation in MECs. The expression of miR-221 was lower during lactation, which suggests that it may be involved in milk production. Therefore, miR-221 might be a useful target for influencing milk lipid production.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estradiol/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/citologia , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Progesterona/farmacologia
3.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 314(1): C43-C52, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28835435

RESUMO

Mammary epithelial cells are regulated by steroid hormones, growth factors, and even microRNAs. miR-15b has been found to regulate lipid metabolism in adipocytes; however, its effects on lipid metabolism in mammary epithelial cells, the cells of lipid synthesis and secretion, are as yet unknown. The main purpose of this investigation was to explore the effect of miR-15b on lipid metabolism in mammary epithelial cells, along with the underlying mechanisms. miR-15b was overexpressed or inhibited by miRNA mimics or inhibitors; subsequently, lipid formation in mammary epithelial cells, and proteins related to lipid metabolism, were investigated. Through overexpression or inhibition of miR-15b expression, the current investigation found that miR-15b downregulates lipid metabolism in mammary epithelial cells and is expressed differentially at various stages of mouse and goat mammary gland development. Inhibition of miR-15b expression increased lipid content in mammary epithelial cells through elevation of the lipid synthesis enzyme fatty acid synthetase (FASN), and overexpression of miR-15b reduced lipid content in mammary epithelial cells with decreasing levels of FASN. Moreover, the steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone decreased miR-15b expression with a subsequent increase in lipid formation in mammary epithelial cells. The expression of miR-15b was lower during lactation and negatively correlated with lipid synthesis proteins, which suggests that it may be involved in lipid synthesis and milk production. miR-15b might be a useful target for altering lipid production and milk yield.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Lactação , Lipogênese , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Cabras , Humanos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Progesterona/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima
4.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 454: 77-86, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28599789

RESUMO

Lipids are a major component of milk and are important for infant growth and development. MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) has previously been observed in mammary glands and adipocytes and is known to be involved in lipid metabolism during the process of atherosclerosis. However, it remains unknown whether miR-126 also participates in lipid metabolism in mammary luminal epithelial cells (MECs). In the current investigation, miR-126-3p inhibition stimulated lipid synthesis in MECs in part through increasing levels of the lipid synthesis enzymes FASN, ACSL1, and Insig1. Overexpression of miR-126-3p decreased lipid content in MECs with a reduction in FASN and Insig1. Furthermore, the expression of miR-126-3p was diminished by the steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone with a subsequent elevation of lipid formation in MECs. We also noted that miR-126-3p was expressed differentially at various stages of murine mammary gland development, exhibiting a negative correlation with FASN. Together these findings suggest that miR-126-3 might be involved in lipid metabolism in mammary gland.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Estradiol/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/genética , Progesterona/metabolismo
5.
ISME J ; 9(9): 1979-90, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25647347

RESUMO

Structural profiling of healthy human gut microbiota across heterogeneous populations is necessary for benchmarking and characterizing the potential ecosystem services provided by particular gut symbionts for maintaining the health of their hosts. Here we performed a large structural survey of fecal microbiota in 314 healthy young adults, covering 20 rural and urban cohorts from 7 ethnic groups living in 9 provinces throughout China. Canonical analysis of unweighted UniFrac principal coordinates clustered the subjects mainly by their ethnicities/geography and less so by lifestyles. Nine predominant genera, all of which are known to contain short-chain fatty acid producers, co-occurred in all individuals and collectively represented nearly half of the total sequences. Interestingly, species-level compositional profiles within these nine genera still discriminated the subjects according to their ethnicities/geography and lifestyles. Therefore, a phylogenetically diverse core of gut microbiota at the genus level may be commonly shared by distinctive healthy populations as functionally indispensable ecosystem service providers for the hosts.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Estilo de Vida , Microbiota/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Coortes , Ecossistema , Etnicidade , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Fezes , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
6.
Yi Chuan ; 27(1): 65-9, 2005 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15730962

RESUMO

Sixty pigs, including pure Laiwu Black (LL), pure Large Yorkshire (YY), 1/2 Laiwu (Ymale x Lfemale), 3/4 Laiwu (Lmale x YLfemale) and 1/4 Laiwu (Ymale x YLfemale), were housed in groups with the same diet until 90 kg for slaughter. The objectives were to investigate the effects of graded proportions of Laiwu Black genes on carcass and meat quality performance. Results indicated that different consanguinity had significant effect on carcass weight, carcass length (CL), ham percentage (HP) and backfat thickness (BT) (P<0.05), and had highly significant effect on eye muscle area (EMA) and lean percentage (LP) (P<0.01). Furthermore, CL, HP, EMA and LP tended to increased gradually, but BT tended to decreased gradually as Laiwu Black genes decreased. For meat quality properties, different consanguinity had significant effect on meat color, marbling score, dry matter and crude protein content of muscles (P<0.05), and had highly significant effect on water loss, drip loss and intramuscular fat content of muscles (P<0.01). Compared with the muscle of Large Yorkshire, that of Laiwu Black and its crossbred pigs were bright red in meat color, high in water holding capacity and abundant in intramuscular fat. Results implied that to give attention to both quantity and quality, Laiwu Black surely has usable precious value in superior pig production. Commercial crossbred pigs should have about 1/4 of Laiwu Black genes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Carne/normas , Suínos/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cruzamento , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Suínos/anatomia & histologia , Suínos/classificação , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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