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1.
Radiol Med ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantification of left atrial late gadolinium enhancement is a powerful clinical and research tool. Fibrosis burden has been shown to predict the success of pulmonary vein isolation, post-ablation reoccurrence, and major adverse cardiovascular events such as stroke. OVERVIEW: The standardized cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging protocols 2020 update describes the key components of the examination. This review is a more in-depth guide, geared toward building left atrial late gadolinium enhancement imaging from the ground up. The standard protocol consists of the following: localization, pulmonary vein magnetic resonance angiography, cardiac cines, left ventricular, and atrial late gadolinium enhancement. We also review typical segmentation and post-processing techniques, as well as discuss pitfalls, limitations, and potential future innovations in this area. CONCLUSIONS: With sufficient experience and optimized protocols, left atrial late gadolinium enhancement imaging is a strong addition to the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging repertoire.

2.
Comput Biol Med ; 134: 104505, 2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102404

RESUMO

Embedded feature selection algorithms, such as support vector machine based recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE), have proven to be effective for many real applications. However, due to the model selection problem, SVM-RFE naturally suffers from a heavy computational burden as well as high computational complexity. To solve these issues, this paper proposes using an optimized extreme learning machine (OELM) model instead of SVM. This model, referred to as OELM-RFE provides an efficient active set solver for training the OELM algorithm. We also present an effective alpha seeding algorithm to efficiently solve successive quadratic programming (QP) problems inherent in OELM. One of the salient characteristics of OELM-RFE is that it has only one tuning parameter: the penalty constant C. Experimental results from work on benchmark datasets show that OELM-RFE tends to have higher prediction accuracy than SVM-RFE, and requires fewer model selection efforts. In addition, the alpha seeding method works better on more datasets.

3.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12016611, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058854

RESUMO

Previous studies revealed that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure adversely affected blood pressure (BP), but factors that might attenuate this association were still unclear. Using a multicenter panel study among 277 hypertensive participants with intermediate-to-high risk of cardiovascular disease from 4 cities in China, we aimed to explore whether BP control status and antihypertensive medications were potential modifying factors. Each participant carried personal-portable monitors to record individual real-time PM2.5 levels and 24-hour ambulatory BP up to 3× within 1 year. Generalized linear mixed model with individual-specific random intercept was used to assess effect sizes. We identified adverse impacts of short-term PM2.5 exposure on BP. However, these impacts were attenuated among patients with controlled BP. For example, per interquartile range (43.78 µg/m3) increment in the prior 10-hour moving average of PM2.5, systolic BP increased -0.20 (95% CI, -0.57 to 0.18) mm Hg and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.36-1.35) mm Hg among those with controlled and uncontrolled BP, respectively (Pinteraction, 0.0009). Furthermore, among those with uncontrolled BP, treatment with angiotensin receptor blocker would potentially lower BP in responses to PM2.5, with systolic BP associated with per interquartile range increment in 10-hour moving average PM2.5 of 0.32 (95% CI, -0.37 to 1.00) mm Hg and 1.53 (95% CI, 0.74-2.33) mm Hg among those taking angiotensin receptor blocker or not, respectively (Pinteraction, 0.0229). In conclusion, although PM2.5 exposure would increase BP, keeping well-controlled BP status and using angiotensin receptor blockers might attenuate these adverse impacts, which might provide supporting evidence for guiding hypertensive patients who live in areas with high level of PM2.5.

4.
Endocr Connect ; 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antithrombin 3 (AT3) is a physiological inhibitor of thrombin, and serum AT3 activity was found to be decreased at the status of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was presented with an increased risk of thrombotic complications at the background of impaired insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between insulin sensitivity indices and serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in patients with T2D who consented to participate in the study at the Endocrinology Department of Affiliated 2 Hospital of Nantong University from January 2015 to June 2018. All patients received serum AT3 activity test and 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Basal and systemic insulin sensitivity were assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda index (ISIMatsuda), respectively, from the OGTT. And other relevant clinical data were also collected. RESULTS: Total 1612 patients with T2D were enrolled in the study, with a mean age of 58.67±13.09 years and a median diabetes duration of 6 years (interquartile range, 1-10 years). Across ascending quartiles of serum AT3, HOMA-IR progressively decreased, while ISIMatsuda progressively increased (all p for trend <0.001). Moreover, serum AT3 was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (r= -0.189, p<0.001) and positively correlated with ISIMatsuda (r=0.221, p<0.001). After adjusting for other metabolic risk factors, hemostatic parameters and glucose-lowering therapies by multivariate liner regression analysis, HOMA-IR (ß= -0.185, t= -5.960, p<0.001) and ISIMatsuda (ß= 0.197, t=6.632, p<0.001) remained independently associated with the serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced basal and systemic insulin sensitivity are associated with decreased serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D.

5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112397, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decline in pulmonary function contributes to increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Although adverse effects of short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on pulmonary function have been recognized in healthy people or patients with respiratory disease, these results were not well illustrated among people with elevated CVD risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel study was conducted in three Chinese cities with three repeated visits among populations at intermediate to high-risk of CVD, defined as treated hypertension patients or those with blood pressure ≥ 130/80 mmHg, who met any of the three conditions including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. Individualized PM2.5 exposure and pulmonary function were measured during each seasonal visit. Linear mixed-effect models were applied to analyze the associations of PM2.5 concentrations with pulmonary function indicators, including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMF), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). RESULTS: Short-term PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with decreased pulmonary function and an increment of 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 concentrations during lag 12-24 hour was associated with declines of 41.7 ml/s (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.7-75.7), 0.35% (95% CI: 0.01, 0.69), and 20.9 ml/s (95% CI: 0.5-41.3) for PEF, FEV1/FVC, and MMF, respectively. Results from stratified and sensitivity analyses were generally similar with the overall findings, while the adverse effects of PM2.5 on pulmonary functions were more pronounced in those who were physically inactive. CONCLUSIONS: This study first identified short-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with impaired pulmonary function and physical activity might attenuate the adverse effects of PM2.5 among populations at intermediate to high-risk of CVD. These findings provide new robust evidence on health effects of air pollution and call for effective prevention measures among people at CVD risk.

6.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983842

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to participate in intestinal mucosal defense and repair. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms of H2S in ulcerative colitis (UC) remain unclear. We explored the effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. The pathologic features were determined by analyzing the hematoxylin and eosin-stained samples. Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were determined using ELISA. The presence of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and light chain 3B (LC3B) were determined using immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence (IF) approaches, respectively. Next, we investigated the effects of NaHS in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human colonic smooth muscle cells (H2940). The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using IF. NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) and CSE were detected using western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Autophagy was determined using western blot, IF, and electron microscopy. NaHS treatment considerably diminished colitis-induced histological injury and proinflammatory cytokine expressions. MPO, CSE, and H2S were downregulated, whereas LC3B was upregulated after NaHS administration in colitic rats. NaHS remarkably attenuated the levels of ROS, CSE, and NLRP3 in LPS-stimulated cells and enhanced autophagy, as was revealed by increased LC3-II-to-LC3-I ratio, elevated LC3, and decreased p62. Importantly, NaHS promoted autophagosome formation in LPS-treated cells. Exogenous H2S ameliorates intestinal injury by downregulating inflammation and activation of autophagy, suggesting the potential of NaHS as a therapeutic agent for UC.

7.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 149, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate whether the administration of hydrogen/oxygen mixture was superior to oxygen in improving symptoms in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). METHODS: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial in 10 centres enrolled patient with AECOPD and a Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale (BCSS) score of at least 6 points. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive either hydrogen/oxygen mixture or oxygen therapy. Primary endpoint was the change from baseline in BCSS score at day 7. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded to evaluate safety. RESULTS: Change of BCSS score in Hydrogen/oxygen group was larger than that in Oxygen group (- 5.3 vs. - 2.4 point; difference: - 2.75 [95% CI - 3.27 to - 2.22], meeting criteria for superiority). Similar results were observed in other time points from day 2 through day 6. There was a significant reduction of Cough Assessment Test score in Hydrogen/oxygen group compared to control (- 11.00 vs. - 6.00, p < 0.001). Changes in pulmonary function, arterial blood gas and noninvasive oxygen saturation did not differ significantly between groups as well as other endpoints. AEs were reported in 34 (63.0%) patients in Hydrogen/oxygen group and 42 (77.8%) in Oxygen group. No death and equipment defects were reported during study period. CONCLUSIONS: The trial demonstrated that hydrogen/oxygen therapy is superior to oxygen therapy in patient with AECOPD with acceptable safety and tolerability profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Name of the registry: U.S National Library of Medicine Clinical Trials; Trial registration number: NCT04000451; Date of registration: June 27, 2019-Retrospectively registered; URL of trial registry record: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT04000451?term=04000451&draw=2&rank=1 .

8.
Neurology ; 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct a polygenic risk score (PRS) for stroke and evaluate its utility in risk stratification and primary prevention for stroke. METHODS: Using meta-analytic approach and large genome-wide association results for stroke and stroke-related traits in East Asians, we generated a combined PRS (metaPRS) by incorporating 534 genetic variants in a training set of 2,872 patients with stroke and 2,494 controls. We then validated its association with incident stroke using Cox regression models in large Chinese population-based prospective cohorts comprising 41,006 individuals. RESULTS: During a total of 367,750 person-years (mean follow-up 9.0 years), 1,227 participants developed stroke before age of 80 years. Individuals with high polygenic risk had an about 2-fold higher risk of incident stroke compared with those with low polygenic risk (HR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.66-2.38), with the lifetime risk of stroke being 25.2% (95% CI: 22.5%-27.7%) and 13.6% (95% CI: 11.6%-15.5%), respectively. Individuals with both high polygenic risk and family history displayed the lifetime risk as high as 41.1% (95% CI: 31.4%-49.5%). Moreover, individuals with high polygenic risk achieved greater benefits in terms of absolute risk reductions from adherence to ideal fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol than those with low polygenic risk. Maintaining favorable cardiovascular health (CVH) profile could substantially mitigate the increased risk conferred by high polygenic risk to the level of the low polygenic risk (from 34.6 % to 13.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Our metaPRS has great potential for risk stratification of stroke and identification of individuals who may benefit more from maintaining ideal CVH. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that a meta-polygenic risk score is predictive of stroke risk.

9.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E45, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988499

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies investigating the effect of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on stroke and stroke subtypes have reached inconsistent conclusions. The purpose of our study was to clarify the dose-response association between HDL-C level and risk of total stroke and stroke subtypes by a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases through July 30, 2020, for prospective cohort studies that reported the HDL-C-stroke association and extracted the estimate that was adjusted for the greatest number of confounding factors. Restricted cubic splines were used to evaluate the linear and nonlinear dose-response associations. RESULTS: We included 29 articles, which reported on 62 prospective cohort studies including 900,501 study participants and 25,678 with stroke. The summary relative risk per 1-mmol/L increase in HDL-C level for total stroke was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.76-0.89; I2 = 42.9%; n = 18); ischemic stroke (IS), 0.75 (95% CI, 0.69-0.82; I2 = 50.1%; n = 22); intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), 1.21 (95% CI, 1.04-1.42; I2 = 33.4%; n = 10); and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96-1.00; I2 = 0%; n = 7). We found a linear inverse association between HDL-C level and risk of total stroke and SAH, a nonlinear inverse association for IS risk, but a linear positive association for ICH risk. The strength and the direction of the effect size estimate for total stroke, IS, ICH, and SAH remained stable for most subgroups. We found no publication bias with Begg's test and Egger's test for the association of HDL-C level with risk of total stroke, IS, and ICH. CONCLUSION: A high HDL-C level is associated with reduced risk of total stroke and IS and an increased risk of ICH.

10.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893978

RESUMO

Evidence about the response patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality was inconsistent. These associations were examined using a large-scale, population-based Chinese cohort comprising 100,728 participants. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess fruit and vegetable consumption. Outcomes were ascertained by interviewing individuals or their proxies and checking hospital records or death certificates. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). At the 736,668 person-years of follow-up, 3,677 CVD cases and 5,466 deaths were identified. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for CVD across increasing quartiles of total fruit and vegetable consumption were 1 (reference), 0.94 (95%CI=0.85-1.04), 0.89 (95%CI=0.80-0.98), and 0.85 (95% CI=0.11-0.95). Moreover, participants in the highest quartile displayed a 13% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR=0.81; 95% CI=0.80-0.95). A nonlinear dose-response relation was found for CVD, without additional benefits beyond a consumption of 600 g d-1, whereas the all-cause mortality risk decreased along with higher consumption, with a linear trend. These associations remained significant for fruit consumption but not for vegetable consumption. Our findings indicated that greater fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly associated with a lower risk of CVD and all cause mortality. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, especially fruit, in the general population would prevent CVD and premature mortality.

11.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 17534666211009410, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878961

RESUMO

AIMS: A novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in an ongoing global pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the outcomes of recovered patients have not been well defined. METHODS: This is a prospective observational follow-up study of survivors with COVID-19 from a designated tertiary center in Hefei, China. We examined chest computed tomography (CT) scanning, pulmonary function, 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and 36 item Short Form General Health Survey (SF-36). RESULTS: Among 81 enrolled patients, 62 (77%) patients and 61 (75%) patients, respectively, completed 1-month and 3-month follow-ups. Abnormal CT findings were still present in 73% of patients at 1 month and 54% at 3 months, whereas chest CT scan scores improved progressively at 1-month (5.0 ± 5.1) and 3-month follow up (3.0 ± 4.5) compared with that during hospitalization (11 ± 6.8). Mild restrictive pulmonary impairment was detected in 11% and 10% of patients at 1-month and 3-month follow up, respectively. The 6MWD was 523 ± 77 m in male patients and 484 ± 58 m in female patients, which was significantly lower than in healthy controls (606 ± 68 m, 568 ± 78 m, p < 0.001). SF-36 scores were significantly impaired in the domains of role physical (RP), role emotional (RE), and social functioning (SF) compared with the normal age-matched population. RP was improved at 3-month compared with 1-month follow up in the 41-64 years group (p < 0.01). Multivariable analysis showed that older age (over 40 years) and steroid administration during hospitalization were independently associated with worse chest CT scores at 3-month follow up. CONCLUSIONS: At 3 months, chest CT abnormalities were present in one half of COVID-19 survivors and worse chest CT scores were independently associated with older age and steroid administration during hospitalization. Residual pulmonary function impairments were modest, whereas exercise capacity and SF-36 scores were significantly lower than the general population. Support program and further follow-up evaluations may be needed.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia Torácica , Fatores de Tempo , Velocidade de Caminhada
12.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906161

RESUMO

An optical zoom imaging system that can vary the magnification factor without displacing the object and the image plane has been widely used. Nonetheless, conventional optical zoom imaging systems suffer slow response, complicated configuration, vulnerability to misalignment during zoom operation, and are incompatible for miniaturized applications. This review article focuses on state-of-the-art research on novel optical zoom imaging systems that use adaptive liquid lenses. From the aspect of the configuration, according to the amount of the adaptive liquid lenses, we broadly divide the current optical zoom imaging systems using adaptive liquid lenses into two configurations: multiple adaptive liquid lenses, and a single adaptive liquid lens. The principles and configurations of these optical zoom imaging systems are introduced and represented. Three different working principles of the adaptive liquid lens (liquid crystal, polymer elastic membrane, and electrowetting effect) adopted in the optical zoom imaging systems are reviewed. Some representative applications of optical zooming imaging systems using adaptive liquid lenses are introduced. The opportunities and challenges of the optical zoom imaging systems using adaptive liquid lenses are also discussed. This review aims to provide a snapshot of the current state of this research field for attracting more attention to put forward the development of the next-generation optical zoom imaging systems.

13.
Epigenomics ; 13(10): 793-808, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876670

RESUMO

Aim: To reveal transcriptome-wide N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylome of coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials & methods: The m6A levels of RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells measured by colorimetry were significantly decreased in CAD cases. Transcriptome-wide m6A methylome profiled by methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) identified differentially methylated m6A sites within both mRNAs and lncRNAs between CAD and control group. Results: Bioinformatic analysis indicated that differentially methylated genes were involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. MeRIP-quantitative real-time PCR assay confirmed the reliability of MeRIP-seq data. Finally, the rat carotid artery balloon injury model was performed to confirm the role of m6A demethylase FTO in neointima formation. Conclusion: Our study provided a resource of differentially methylated m6A profile for uncovering m6A biological functions in the pathogenesis of CAD.

14.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 289: 103667, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798789

RESUMO

Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is involved in mitigating various oxidative stress- and inflammation-induced diseases, including acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Isorhapontigenin (ISO), from the Chinese herb Gnetum cleistostachyum, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we explored the protective effects of ISO in ALI and its underlying molecular mechanisms. ISO significantly mitigated ALI by reducing the lung wet/dry weight ratio, protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and the levels of myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde. ISO also improved the superoxide dismutase and glutathione activity in vivo. Moreover, ISO effectively ameliorated the changes in IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations in BALF, prevented IκB degradation, and inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 subunit in lung tissues; furthermore, it enhanced the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and inhibited IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, and ROS production in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 cells. The protective effects of ISO in ALI were significantly reversed in ML385-treated RAW264.7 cells and the mouse model, indicating its role in Nrf2-activation. In conclusion, ISO effectively ameliorated lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, primarily through activation of Nrf2 signaling.

15.
J Sport Health Sci ; 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent results have been reported in developed countries for relationships between sedentary behavior and cancer incidence and mortality, and evidence from the Chinese population is scarce. This study aimed to investigate such relationships in large Chinese population-based prospective cohorts and to explore the joint effect and interaction of sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on these relationships. METHODS: We included 95,319 Chinese adults without cancer from 3 large cohorts and assessed their sedentary behavior and physical activity with a unified questionnaire. Cancer incidence and mortality were confirmed by interviewing participants or their proxies and checking hospital records and death certificates. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for cancer and mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: During 559,002 person-years of follow-up, 2388 cancer events, 1571 cancer deaths, and 4562 all-cause deaths were recorded. Sedentary behavior was associated with increased risk of developing cancer and deaths in a dose-response manner. The multivariable-adjusted HRs (95%CIs) were the following: HR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.01‒1.33; HR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.04‒1.48; and HR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.04‒1.28 for cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality, respectively, for those having ≥10 h/day of sedentary time compared to those having <6 h/day of sedentary time. Sedentary populations (≥10 h/day) developed cancer or died 4.09 and 2.79 years earlier, respectively, at the index age of 50 years. Failure to achieve the recommended level of MVPA may further aggravate the adverse associations, with the highest cancer and mortality risks being observed among participants with both ≥10 h/day of sedentary time and <150 min/week of MVPA. Limitations of this study include the fact that physical activity information was obtained via questionnaire instead of objective measurement and that there were insufficient incident cases for the analysis of associations between sedentary behavior and site-specific cancers. CONCLUSION: Sedentary behavior was associated with an increased risk of cancer and all-cause mortality among Chinese adults, especially for those with ≥10 h/day of sedentary time. It is necessary to reduce sedentary time, in addition to increasing MVPA levels, for the prevention of cancer and premature death.

17.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 203: 111733, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862572

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-photodynamic therapy (PDT)-based combination therapy is a currently frequently used means in cancer treatment that photosensitizer was able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) for improving chemotherapy, owing to the high oxidative stress of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Whereas, cancer cells were accustomed to oxidative stress by overexpression of antioxidant such as glutathione (GSH), which would consume the damage of ROS, as well as it could result in ineffective treatment. Herein, amplification of oxidative stress preferentially in tumor cells by consuming GSH or generating ROS is a reasonable treatment strategy to develop anticancer drugs. To achieve excellent therapeutic effects, we designed a GSH-scavenging and ROS-generating polymeric micelle mPEG-S-S-PCL-Por (MSLP) for amplifying oxidative stress and enhanced anticancer therapy. The amphiphilic polymer of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG)-S-S-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-Protoporphyrin (Por) was self-assembled into polymeric micelles with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) for treatment and tracking via FRET. Spherical DOX/MSLP micelles with the average size of 88.76 ±â€¯3.52 nm was procured with negatively charged surface, reduction sensitivity and high drug loading content (17.47 ±â€¯1.53 %). The intracellular ROS detection showed that the MSLP could deplete glutathione and regenerate additional ROS. The cellular uptake of DOX/MSLP micelles was grabbed real-time monitoring by the Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) effect between DOX and MSLP. The reduction-sensitive polymeric micelles MSLP as amplifying oxidative stress vehicles combined chemotherapy and PDT exhibited significant antitumor activity both in vitro (IC50 = 0.041 µg/mL) and much better antitumor efficacy than that of mPEG-PCL-Por (MLP) micelles in vivo.

18.
Microb Pathog ; 155: 104913, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915204

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) disrupts the host microbial balance. During disease progression, the oral microbial environment is altered in untreated people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA); however, no studies have reported changes in salivary microbial diversity during different stages of HIV infection. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the relationships between immune dysfunction and changes in saliva microbiota. To this end, we collected saliva samples from 11 HIV-negative individuals and 44 PLWHA during different stages based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria (stage 0, early stage during the first 6 months after infection; stages 1, 2, and 3 associated with CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of ≥500, 200-499, and ≤200 or opportunistic infection, respectively). We analyzed salivary microbial community diversity using polymerase chain reaction amplification and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. We found that HIV-positive individuals had significantly greater alpha-diversity in the microbial community composition compared with HIV-negative controls (P < 0.05) except for AIDS (stage 3); however, the predominant salivary microbiota in the five groups remained similar. Porphyromonas in the four positive groups was the only genus that was significantly less abundant in the HIV-positive groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). There were some consistencies between the general abundance of salivary microbiota and AIDS disease progression. Lots of bacterial abundances in the saliva increased dramatically during the acute HIV infection (stage 0), and some of the negligible and abnormally proliferating bacteria in the asymptomatic stage showed a downward trend. Additionally, in the AIDS stage, partial inhibition was observed. Notably, Porphyromonas was closely related to the immune activation of HIV, showing a decline in abundance once infected with HIV. Solobacterium, which induces inflammation, was negatively correlated with CD4 counts. Overall, our findings provided important insights into changes in salivary microbial diversity in PLWHA.

19.
Org Lett ; 23(8): 3184-3189, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792337

RESUMO

The vicinal diamine motif plays a significant role in natural products, drug design, and organic synthesis, and development of synthetic methods for the synthesis of diamines is a long-standing interest. Herein, we report a regioselective intermolecular three-component vicinal diamination of styrenes with acetonitrile and azodicarboxylates. The diamination products can be produced in moderate to excellent yields via the Ritter reaction. Synthetic applications and theoretical studies of this reaction have been conducted.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764877

RESUMO

This paper presents a recursive feature elimination (RFE) mechanism to select the most informative genes with a least square kernel extreme learning machine (LSKELM) classifier. Describing the generalization ability of LSKELM in a way that is related to small norm of weights, we proposed a ranking criterion to evaluate the importance of genes by the norm of weights obtained by LSKELM network. The proposed method is called LSKELM-RFE algorithm, which first employs the original genes to build a LSKELM classifier, and then ranks the genes according to their importance given by the norm of LSKELM network output weights, and finally removes a least important gene. Benefiting from the random mapping mechanism of the extreme learning machine (ELM) kernel, there are no parameter of LSKELM-RFE needs to be manually tuned. A comparative study among our proposed algorithm and other two famous RFE algorithms has shown that LSKELM-RFE outperforms other RFE algorithms in both the computational cost and generalization ability.

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