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1.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-26, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the mediating effects of maternal perception of child weight (weight perception) and concern about overweight (weight concern) on the paths between child weight and maternal feeding practices. SETTING: Pudong District, Shanghai, China. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 1164 mothers who were primary caregivers of preschool children. RESULTS: Sixty percent of the mothers perceived their overweight/obese children as normal weight or even underweight. The disagreement between actual child weight and maternal weight perception was statistically significant (Kappa = 0.212, P < 0.001). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that weight perception fully mediated the relationship between child BMI Z-scores and pressure to eat. Weight concern fully mediated the relationships between child BMI Z-scores and the other three feeding practices. The serial mediating effects of weight perception and concern were statistically significant for the paths between child BMI Z-score and monitoring (ß = 0.035, P < 0.001), restriction (ß = 0.022, P < 0.001), and food as a reward (ß = -0.017, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Child weight may influence maternal feeding practices through weight perception and concern. Thus, interventions are needed to increase the accuracy of weight perception, which may influence several maternal feeding practices and thereby contribute to child health.

2.
Fam Pract ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with stigma and discrimination. Health care providers should approach these patients professionally and without stigma, since treatment of obesity requires a relationship with mutual understanding between the doctor and patient. OBJECTIVE: To explore how patients and general practitioners (GPs) perceive obesity, using Q-methodology, which allows quantitative analysis of qualitative data. METHODS: A Q-methodology study, comprising 24 patients with obesity and 24 GPs. We created 48 statements with viewpoints on obesity. All participants sorted these statements in a forced grid with a quasi-normal distribution ranking from -5 (most disagree) to +5 (most agree). Subsequently, factor analysis was performed. Six patients were interviewed to explain their viewpoints. RESULTS: Analysis yielded 3 dominant groups (factors) of patients: (i) They acknowledge the importance of healthy lifestyle and feel mistreated by health care. (ii) They have a decreased quality of life, but do not blame health care, and (iii) They don't need treatment and don't have an impaired quality of life. For the GPs, the 3 dominant factors were: (i) They have understanding for the patients and feel that health care is insufficient, (ii) They believe that obesity may be hereditary but mainly is a lifestyle problem, and (iii) They believe obesity can be treated but is very difficult. CONCLUSIONS: Viewpoints on obesity were different, both within and between the groups. Some GPs consider obesity mainly as a lifestyle problem, rather than a chronic disease. If patients and doctors can find mutual viewpoints on obesity, both patient satisfaction and a treatment strategy will be more effective.


Obesity affects quality of life and increases the risk of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Achieving and maintaining weight loss is difficult and for this reason a mutual understanding between the general practitioner (GP) and the patient is crucial. We used Q-methodology to study the patients and GPs perspectives on obesity. We show that there are different groups of patients that have different perspectives on obesity, but also different groups of doctors who have different perspectives on obesity. If the GP is aware of the fact that the patients' viewpoints regarding obesity may be different than his/her own viewpoints, it allows improvement of the doctor­patient communication and hence, patient satisfaction.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because of the irregular shape of the scapula and the different types of fractures, a standard internal fixation device is lacking in clinical practice, even though there are many options available. The study aimed to compare the therapeutic efficacy of titanium anatomical and reconstructive plates for extraarticular fractures of the scapula (Miller types IIb, IIc, and IV). METHODS: A retrospective study of 41 patients who underwent treatment for extraarticular fractures of the scapula between March 2017 and March 2020 was conducted. Patients were divided into two groups based on the fixation device, the titanium anatomical plate group (n=20 patients) and the titanium reconstructive plate group (n=21 patients). After follow-up for 12-18 months, the general characteristics, perioperative characteristics, postoperative follow-up findings, and imaging data of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: The surgical procedures were uneventful in both groups. The anatomical plate group significantly outperformed the reconstructive plate group with respect to surgical duration and intraoperative blood loss (p < 0.001). At three-month postoperative follow-up, the Constant-Murley score (p = 0.026), shoulder flexion range of motion, and shoulder abduction range of motion in the anatomical plate group were all significantly more effective than those of the reconstructive plate group (p < 0.001). The postoperative WOSI scores of the two groups were similar. Imaging showed functional recovery and stable and reliable fixation in both groups. Time to bone union was similar in both groups (anatomical PLATE GROUP: 9.10 ± 1.25 weeks and reconstructive plate group: 9.24 ± 1.41, p=0.742). No complications occurred in all patients, such as fixation failure, instability or bone nonunion. CONCLUSION: Surgeons should favorably consider titanium anatomical plates for treatment of extraarticular scapula fractures due to their clear efficacy associated with shorter surgical time, less intraoperative blood loss, better fixation, and rapid short-term functional recovery.

4.
Int Heart J ; 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034916

RESUMO

Atherosclerotic cerebrocardiovascular disease is the major cause of acute ischemic diseases in humans. Impaired efferocytosis contributes to the progression of atherosclerosis. Pathological and apoptotic cells fail to undergo effective phagocytic clearance, leading to increased inflammation and necrotic core formation. Previously, we reported that 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated sonodynamic therapy (SDT) promotes apoptotic cell efferocytosis via ATP release in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the exact signaling molecule involved in this process is still unknown. In the present study, sinoporphyrin sodium-mediated SDT (DVDMS-SDT) was applied to balloon-denuded rabbits in vivo to observe changes in the composition of atherosclerotic lesions. Cultured human THP-1-derived and mouse peritoneal macrophage-derived foam cells were used for in vitro mechanistic studies. Three days after DVDMS-SDT treatment, macrophage efferocytosis was significantly enhanced whereas local inflammation was attenuated in rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. At days 7 and 28, the histopathological analysis showed that DVDMS-SDT inhibited the progression of atherosclerosis, reduced the macrophage content, and increased the smooth muscle cell content in a time-dependent manner. Mechanistically, DVDMS-SDT activated mitochondria-caspase apoptosis in foam cells. Interestingly, activated by DVDMS-SDT, caspase-3 a key factor of apoptosis, reduced the expression of the anti-phagocytic molecule CD47 in foam cells. Of great importance, the promotion of macrophage efferocytosis by DVDMS-SDT can be eliminated by the overexpression of CD47. Overall, these results demonstrated that DVDMS-SDT effectively boosted efferocytosis via deactivation of CD47 expression, thereby reducing inflammation in advanced atherosclerotic plaques.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(2)2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062387

RESUMO

Strawberries are susceptible to mechanical damage. The detection of damaged strawberries by their volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can avoid the deficiencies of manual observation and spectral imaging technologies that cannot detect packaged fruits. In the present study, the detection of strawberries with impact damage is investigated using electronic nose (e-nose) technology. The results show that the e-nose technology can be used to detect strawberries that have suffered impact damage. The best model for detecting the extent of impact damage had a residual predictive deviation (RPD) value of 2.730, and the correct rate of the best model for identifying the damaged strawberries was 97.5%. However, the accuracy of the prediction of the occurrence time of impact was poor, and the RPD value of the best model was only 1.969. In addition, the gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analysis further shows that the VOCs of the strawberries changed after suffering impact damage, which was the reason why the e-nose technology could detect the damaged fruit. The above results show that the mechanical force of impact caused changes in the VOCs of strawberries and that it is possible to detect strawberries that have suffered impact damage using e-nose technology.

6.
Environ Int ; 160: 107076, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbamate pesticides are widely used in agriculture and cause widespread human exposure. The health effect of carbamates on physical development remains unclear. The current study aimed to explore the carbamate's health effect on physical development. METHODS: Prenatal, 3-year-old, 7-year-old urinary carbofuranphenol concentration was measured by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and adjusted by creatinine. Anthropometric indices were measured by standard method and z-score standardized. Generalized linear models (GLM) were using to assess associations between exposure measurements and anthropometric indices. The generalized estimate equation (GEE) was applied to analyze the association between multiperiod exposure and anthropometric indices, and time-interaction terms were used to exam health effect consistency of exposure in each period. Gender-stratified analysis were conducted according to results of gender-interaction terms to identify gender-specific effects. RESULTS: The gender-interaction term of prenatal exposure with height z-score was significant (ß = -0.057; 95% CI: -0.113, -0.001; p = 0.045). The 3-year-old carbofuranphenol level showed negative associations with weight z-score (ß = -0.019; 95% CI: -0.038, -0.000; p = 0.040), height z-score (ß = -0.015; 95% CI: -0.028, -0.001; p = 0.026), chest circumference (ß = -0.086; 95% CI: -0.171, -0.001; p = 0.046), and waist circumference (ß = -0.128; 95% CI: -0.230, -0.026; p = 0.014). No statistically significant trend was found for prenatal and 7-year-old carbofuranphenol levels. In GEEs, carbofuranphenol level was negatively associated with weight z-score (ß = -0.103; 95% CI: -0.195, -0.011; p = 0.027), height z-score (ß = -0.087; 95% CI: -0.152, -0.022; p = 0.008), and chest circumference (ß = -0.472; 95% CI: -0.918, -0.026; p = 0.037). Boy's height z-score was inversely associated with carbamate exposure (ß = -0.140; 95% CI: -0.227, -0.053; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal and postnatal carbamate exposure may affect physical developmental process.

7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 171: 182-190, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007949

RESUMO

In plants, ammonium (NH4+) is the main nitrogen source and acts as a physiological and morphological response signaling molecule. Melatonin and dopamine are associated with plant responses to abiotic stress. However, previous studies have rarely focused on nutrient stress, and the roles of melatonin and dopamine in the uptake and metabolism of nitrogen in plants remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of melatonin and dopamine on nitrogen utilization efficiency in apple seedlings under two NH4+ concentrations (2 and 0.1 mM) by measuring plant growth, root system architecture, 15NH4+ content, and related enzyme activity and gene expression. Under low nitrogen supply, apple seedling growth slowed and showed marked reductions in biomass accumulation, chlorophyll content, and nutrient uptake. However, both melatonin and dopamine significantly improved plant growth, chlorophyll content, and root development and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity. Exogenous application of melatonin or dopamine also promoted the absorption and accumulation of 15NH4+ and enhanced nitrogen metabolism-related enzyme activity. At the molecular level, melatonin and dopamine significantly increased the expression levels of nitrogen metabolism genes and transporter genes. Overall, these results suggest that melatonin and dopamine can relieve nutrient stress caused by low concentrations of NH4+ through regulating the absorption and metabolism of nitrogen.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Malus , Melatonina , Dopamina , Melatonina/farmacologia , Nitrogênio , Plântula
8.
Cancer Manag Res ; 14: 177-187, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35046725

RESUMO

Objective: The peritoneal cancer index (PCI) is used to evaluate the peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer. A higher value indicates more widespread and/or larger tumors in the peritoneal cavity. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are representative blood markers of systemic inflammatory responses, and D-dimer (DDI) is the final stable product of fibrin. This study explores the association of NLR, PLR, and DDI with PCI and assesses the clinical utility of a new blood score combining the NLR, PLR, and DDI (NPD score) for PCI and the prognosis prediction of gastric cancer. Methods: This was a single-center, nonrandomized, retrospective, cohort study. We evaluated the risk factors for high PCI (≥15) using univariate and multivariate analyses. According to the findings of the ROC analysis, we determined the cut-off values of NLR, PLR and DDI and created the NPD score. The patients were grouped into high-risk and low-risk groups based on their NPD score (<2 and ≥2, respectively). Results: Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated that the NLR, PLR, and DDI were independent risk factors for high PCI (P < 0.05). The NPD score of the high-risk group was ≥2, and the NPD score of the low-risk group was <2. The median survival time was 14.2 in the high-risk group and 25.6 in the low-risk group. The NPD score was significantly higher in the high-PCI group than that in the low-PCI group. The survival of the high-risk group was significantly worse than that of the low-risk group (P = 0.003). NPD score decrease was an independent predictive factor for PCI decrease. Conclusion: NLR, PLR, and DDI are potential independent risk factors for high PCI in patients with peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer. The NPD scoring system can help in predicting PCI and the prognosis of patients with peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer.

9.
HGG Adv ; 3(1): 100081, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35047865

RESUMO

While 9p deletion and duplication syndromes have been studied for several years, small sample sizes and minimal high-resolution data have limited a comprehensive delineation of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. In this study, we examined genetic data from 719 individuals in the worldwide 9p Network Cohort: a cohort seven to nine times larger than any previous study of 9p. Most breakpoints occur in bands 9p22 and 9p24, accounting for 35% and 38% of all breakpoints, respectively. Bands 9p11 and 9p12 have the fewest breakpoints, with each accounting for 0.6% of all breakpoints. The most common phenotype in 9p deletion and duplication syndromes is developmental delay, and we identified eight known neurodevelopmental disorder genes in 9p22 and 9p24. Since it has been previously reported that some individuals have a secondary structural variant related to the 9p variant, we examined our cohort for these variants and found 97 events. The top secondary variant involved 9q in 14 individuals (1.9%), including ring chromosomes and inversions. We identified a gender bias with significant enrichment for females (p = 0.0006) that may arise from a sex reversal in some individuals with 9p deletions. Genes on 9p were characterized regarding function, constraint metrics, and protein-protein interactions, resulting in a prioritized set of genes for further study. Finally, we achieved precision genomics in one child with a complex 9p structural variation using modern genomic technologies, demonstrating that long-read sequencing will be integral for some cases. Our study is the largest ever on 9p-related syndromes and provides key insights into genetic factors involved in these syndromes.

10.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 1): 1094-1104, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879587

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: The coalescence of bare droplets when surface tension dominates always results in one larger spherical droplet. In contrast, droplets coated with particles may be stabilized into non-spherical structures after arrested coalescence, which can be achieved by different approaches, such as changing the particle surface coverage. The size of particles coating the initial liquid marbles can be used to control the coalescence dynamics and the resulting morphology of arrested droplets. EXPERIMENT: We characterized the electrocoalescence of liquid marbles coated with particles ranging from hundred nanometers to hundred micrometers. The electrocoalescence was recorded using high-speed imaging. FINDINGS: When the electrocoalescence initiates, particles jam and halt the relaxation of the marbles at different stages, resulting in four possible final morphologies that are characterized using the Gaussian curvature at the neck region. The four regimes are total coalescence, arrested puddle coalescence, arrested saddle coalescence, and non-coalescence. The coalescence is initiated at the center of the contact zone, independent of the particle size. Small particles show little resistance to the coalescence, while marbles coated by large particles demonstrate a viscous-like behavior, indicated by the growth of the liquid bridge and the damping. The present study provides guidelines for applications that involve the formulation of liquid marbles with complex morphologies.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio , Tamanho da Partícula , Tensão Superficial
11.
Analyst ; 147(2): 318-324, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919107

RESUMO

Biotin is widely used in biological applications due to its highly selective and stable interaction with avidin, which highlights the great potential value of the quantitative determination of biotin concentration. However, the currently reported methods have many defects such as complicated operation processes and low sensitivity. Here, the time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay is introduced to establish a convenient, rapid and sensitive biotin quantitative detection strategy. Europium cryptate (Eu3+) acts as an energy donor to label streptavidin, while APC acts as an energy acceptor to label biotin. Biotin in aqueous solution interacts with streptavidin in a competition mode. The obtained biotin detection range is 0.05-100 nM and the optimal limit of detection (LOD) of 0.03 nM biotin is obtained. Furthermore, an enzyme digestion test and a competition mode test were performed to analyze biotin in different states. The method used in this work has greatly improved the sensitivity of biotin quantitative detection and it's for the first time that a systematic study on the difference between free and bound biotin based on concentration results is conducted. It can be further extended to the detection of other biological molecules or multiplex detection of other small molecules.


Assuntos
Biotina , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Limite de Detecção , Estreptavidina , Tecnologia
13.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 720722, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880787

RESUMO

Nature exposure is known to promote life satisfaction and well-being, and indirect exposure through windows is likely to benefit isolated populations. However, whether such type of exposure can benefit prisoners, the extremely isolated population, is unknown. In the current study, we investigated 326 male prisoners from three prisons in southwest China. Psychological variables including depression, anxiety, loneliness, distress tolerance, life satisfaction, and well-being were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), short-form UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-6), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5), respectively. Structural equation modeling was employed to identify the pathways from the visibility of nature through windows to prisoners' life satisfaction and well-being. Our results demonstrated that visibility of nature promoted the frequency and duration of viewing nature through windows. The frequency directly affected well-being, but the duration did not effectively affect any measured variables. The visibility of nature enhanced life satisfaction mainly via direct effects but enhanced well-being mainly via indirect effects. Regarding the indirect pathways, the visibility of nature increased distress tolerance and thus reduced loneliness and mental health problems. The reduced mental health problem, in turn, promoted life satisfaction and well-being. Our findings suggest that nature exposure through windows is effective in enhancing prisoners' life satisfaction and well-being. The policymaker may need to consider nature-based solutions such as indirect nature exposure in prions to benefit isolated populations.

14.
Chemphyschem ; 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882928

RESUMO

Modulating the local electronic state of metal compounds through interfacial interaction has become a key method for manufacturing high-performance hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts. The electron-rich active sites can promote the adsorption of hydrogen, which accelerates the Volmer step and thereby enhances the electrocatalytic performance of HER. Here, we found that the strong interfacial interaction between TiO nanodots (TiO/Co-S) and Co-S nanosheets could advantageously improve the performance toward HER of electrocatalyst. Meanwhile, XPS results showed that modulating the local electronic structure of the TiO nanodots produces electron-rich regions on Co. As a result, the overpotential of the TiO/Co-S nanocomposite at 10 mA cm-2 was 107 mV, and the Tafel slope was 83.3 mV dec-1 . This study focused on the effect of the solid-solid interface on the local electronic structure of the catalytic metal active sites and successfully improved the catalytic activity of transition metal materials in HER catalysis.

15.
Comput Biol Med ; 140: 105039, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864299

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental illness characterized by persistent feeling of depressed mood and loss of interest. It would cause, in a severe case, suicide behaviors. In clinical settings, automatic MDD detection is mainly based on electroencephalogram (EEG) signals with supervised learning techniques. However, supervised-based MDD detection methods encounter two ineviTable bottlenecks: firstly, such methods rely heavily on an EEG training dataset with MDD labels annotated by a physical therapist, leading to subjectivity and high cost; secondly, most of EEG signals are unlabeled in a real scenario. In this paper, a novel semisupervised-based MDD detection method named MDD-TSVM is presented. Specifically, the MDD-TSVM utilizes the semisupervised method of transductive support vector machine (TSVM) as its backbone, further dividing the unlabeled penalty item of the TSVM objective function into two pseudo-labeled penalty items with or without MDD. By such improvement, the MDD-SVM can make full use of labeled and unlabeled datasets as well as alleviate the class imbalance problem. Experiment results showed that our proposed MDD-TSVM achieved F1 score of 0.85 ± 0.05 and accuracy of 0.89 ± 0.03 on identifying MDD patients, which is superior to the state-of-the-art methods.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 770846, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867399

RESUMO

Aims: Peiminine has been reported to have various pharmacological properties, including anticancer activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of this alkaloid on osteosarcoma and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods: To evaluate the antiosteosarcoma effects of peiminine in vitro, cell viability was assessed by CCK-8 and live/dead assays; the effects of the drug on apoptosis and the cell cycle were examined by flow cytometry; the effects on cell migration and invasion were detected by wound healing and Transwell assays, respectively, while its effects on autophagy were observed by transmission electron microscopy and an LC3 fluorescent puncta formation assay. The role of autophagy in the peiminine-mediated effects in osteosarcoma cells was evaluated by CCK-8 assay and western blotting after the application of the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. The effect of peiminine on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was analyzed using fluorescence confocal microscopy and spectrophotometry. Additionally, peiminine-treated osteosarcoma cells were exposed to SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, and N-acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger, after which the contribution of the ROS/JNK signaling pathway to osteosarcoma was assessed using cell viability and LC3 fluorescent puncta formation assays, flow cytometry, and western blotting. A xenograft mouse model of osteosarcoma was generated to determine the antitumor effects of peiminine in vivo. Results: Peiminine suppressed proliferation and metastasis and induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy in osteosarcoma cells. These anticancer effects of peiminine were found to be dependent on intracellular ROS generation and activation of the JNK pathway. In line with these results, peiminine significantly inhibited xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Conclusions: Peiminine induced G0/G1-phase arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy in human osteosarcoma cells via the ROS/JNK signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Our study may provide an experimental basis for the evaluation of peiminine as an alternative drug for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

17.
Adipocyte ; 10(1): 658-669, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872433

RESUMO

Important candidate genes that regulate lipid metabolism have the potential to increase the content of intramuscular fat (IMF) and improve meat quality. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine like 1(SPARCL1) is a secreted glycoprotein with important physiological functions and is involved in the proliferation and differentiation of various cells. However, the role of the SPARCL1 gene in sheep preadipocytes and its regulatory mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of SPARCL1 on the proliferation and differentiation of sheep preadipocytes. The results showed that the expression level of the SPARCL1 gene is higher in fat tissue than in other tissues, and the gene was significantly increased on the 6th day of preadipocyte differentiation. In the preadipocyte proliferation stage, interference of SPARCL1 gene reduced cell viability and increased cell apoptosis. In preadipocyte differentiation stage, SPARCL1 overexpression significantly inhibited lipid droplets accumulation and triglyceride content by increasing Wnt10b, Fzd8, IL6, and ß-catenin and inhibiting PPARγ, C/EBPα, LPL, and IGF1 genes expression, whereas SPARCL1 deficiency significantly promoted cell differentiation by inhibiting ß-catenin and increasing GSK3ß, PPARγ, C/EBPα, and LPL. The results of this study suggest that SPARCL1 plays a negative role during preadipocyte differentiation and may become a novel target for regulating preadipocyte differentiation and improving IMF.Abbreviations: IMF: Intramuscular fat SPARCL1: Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine like 1 PPARγ: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ C/EBPα: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α LPL: Lipoprotein lipase IGF1: Insulin-like growth factor 1 Wnt10b: Wnt family member 10B Fzd8: Frizzled class receptor 8 IL6: Interleukin 6 ß-catenin: Catenin beta interacting protein 1 GSK3ß: Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta LRP5/6: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890506

RESUMO

Polymer dielectrics can be cost-effective alternatives to conventional inorganic dielectric materials, but their practical application is critically hindered by their breakdown under high electric fields driven by excited hot charge carriers. Using a joint experiment-simulation approach, we show that a 2D nanocoating of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) mitigates the damage done by hot carriers, thereby increasing the breakdown strength. Surface potential decay and dielectric breakdown measurements of hBN-coated Kapton show the carrier-trapping effect in the hBN nanocoating, which leads to an increased breakdown strength. Nonadiabatic quantum molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that hBN layers at the polymer-electrode interfaces can trap hot carriers, elucidating the observed increase in the breakdown field. The trapping of hot carriers is due to a deep potential well formed in the hBN layers at the polymer-electrode interface. Searching for materials with similar deep well potential profiles could lead to a computationally efficient way to design good polymer coatings that can mitigate breakdown.

19.
Chem Biol Interact ; 351: 109770, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861246

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the rapid progress in the diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis of some types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), especially those with double-hit or double-expressor genotypes, remains poor. Novel targets and compounds are needed to improve the prognosis of NHL. METHODS: We investigated the effect of ZCL-082, a novel boron-containing compound with anti-proliferating activity against ovarian cancer cells, on NHL cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by CCK-8 assay, Annexin V/PI double staining assay, RH123/PI double staining, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. NF-κB pathway activity was analyzed using luciferase reporter gene assay and RT-PCR. The location of p65 was detected by immunofluorescence and nuclear/cytoplasmic fractionation assay. Immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to detect the binding between p65 and p300. CETSA and molecular docking assay were carried out to test the interaction between ZCL-082 and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1). Kinase reaction was conducted to examine the inhibition of RSK1 kinase activity by ZCL-082. RESULTS: We found that ZCL-082 can induce the apoptosis of various NHL cell lines in vitro and in vivo. ZCL-082 significantly inhibits TNFα- or LPS-induced NF-κB activation without disturbing TNFα-induced IκBα degradation or the nuclear translocation and DNA-binding ability of p65. However, ZCL-082 markedly suppresses the phosphorylation of p65 on Ser536 and the interaction between p65 and p300. The overexpression of the phosphomimetic mutant of p65 at Ser536 partially abrogates ZCL-082-induced cell death. We further found that ZCL-082 directly binds to and inhibits the activity of RSK1. RSK1 can phosphorylate RelA/p65 on Ser536 and its overexpression is associated with the poor prognosis of lymphoma. The overexpression of RSK1 partially rescues ZCL-082-induced cell death. Molecular docking studies show that ZCL-082 fits well with the N-terminal kinase domain of RSK1. Furthermore, the combination of ZCL-082 and BCL-2 inhibitor ABT-199 has a synergistic apoptosis-inducing effect against double-hit lymphoma cell line OCI-Ly10. DISCUSSION: We found that ZCL-082 is a highly promising anti-lymphoma compound that targets RSK1 and interferes with the RSK1/NF-κB signaling pathway. The combination of ZCL-082 with BCL-2 inhibitor may represent a novel strategy to improve the outcome of double-hit or double-expressor lymphoma.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886260

RESUMO

Although water insecurity has been discussed in general, its impacts on mothers' physical and mental health, and infants' and young children's feeding (IYCF), has largely been ignored. This study explores household water insecurity experiences and their association with optimal health and nutrition of women and children in the Rajanpur district of Punjab Province. Using focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informants (KIIs) interviews from an area with high maternal-child malnutrition prevalence, a qualitative study was conducted to describe local experiences of water acquirement and arrangement, and of the consequences of water insecurity. The findings highlight that rural Western marginalized populations of the Rajanpur district rely on brackish, canal, or flood surface water as the water supply is absent, which intensifies mothers' work burden and stress, and often makes them victims of violence, stigma, and sickness. Water fetching impacts women in unforeseen ways, impacting the psychosocial and physical health of mothers engaged in maternal breastfeeding. Water insecurity, originally rooted in regional disparities, compounds with gender inequities, which leads to maternal stress and child sickness. Justice in water resources is imperative and urgent in the deprived South of Punjab province for improving public health nutrition.

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