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2.
Food Funct ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226996

RESUMO

Lactobacillus plantarum FZU3013, a probiotic previously isolated from the traditional brewing process of Hongqu rice wine, may have the beneficial effect of improving the disorders of lipid metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the role of L. plantarum FZU3013 in improving non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) associated with hyperlipidemia in mice fed a high-fat diet. The results indicated that L. plantarum FZU3013 intervention significantly reduced the HFD-induced body weight gain and the abnormal levels of serum total triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and inhibited the excessive accumulation of liver lipids. In addition, L. plantarum FZU3013 also promoted the excretion of bile acids through feces. Metagenomic and multivariate statistical analysis revealed that L. plantarum FZU3013 made significant structural changes in the intestinal microbiome of the mice fed with HFD, in particular by modulating the relative abundance of some function related microbial phylotypes. Furthermore, ultra-performance liquid chromatography with quadruple-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS)-based liver metabolomics demonstrated that L. plantarum FZU3013 had a significant regulatory effect on the composition of liver metabolites in hyperlipidemic mice, especially on the levels of some important biomarkers involved in the pathways of glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid degradation, fatty acid elongation, glycerolipid metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism, etc. Moreover, L. plantarum FZU3013 regulated the mRNA expression levels of the genes responsible for liver lipid and cholesterol metabolism. L. plantarum FZU3013 intervention increased the hepatic mRNA levels of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and the bile salt export pump (BSEP), suggesting enhanced bile acid synthesis and excretion from the liver. These findings present new evidence supporting that L. plantarum FZU3013 has the potential to improve lipid metabolism disorders through modulating specific intestinal microbial phylotypes and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism related genes, therefore it could be used as a potential functional food for the prevention of NAFL and hyperlipidemia.

3.
Virol Sin ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239446

RESUMO

Human beings have experienced a serious public health event as the new pneumonia (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus has killed more than 3000 people in China, most of them elderly or people with underlying chronic diseases or immunosuppressed states. Rapid assessment and early warning are essential for outbreak analysis in response to serious public health events. This paper reviews the current model analysis methods and conclusions from both micro and macro perspectives. The establishment of a comprehensive assessment model, and the use of model analysis prediction, is very efficient for the early warning of infectious diseases. This would significantly improve global surveillance capacity, particularly in developing regions, and improve basic training in infectious diseases and molecular epidemiology.

5.
Food Funct ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219261

RESUMO

Macroalgae Laminaria japonica (MLJ) has been reported to exhibit various biological activities including improving immunity, anti-aging, anti-tumor, anti-atherosclerosis and anti-diabetic, but the protective mechanisms of MLJ consumption against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with hyperlipidemia remain poorly understood. This study demonstrated that MLJ consumption prevented high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD associated with hyperlipidemia in a rat model, and improved hyperlipidemia-related parameters, e.g. serum and hepatic lipid profiles. Moreover, histological analysis showed that MLJ reduced lipid deposition in adipocytes and hepatocytes compared with the HFD group. Such beneficial effects may be associated with the modulation of the intestinal microbiota, especially some key microbial phylotypes involved in lipid metabolism homeostasis. The underlying protective mechanisms of MLJ consumption against HFD-induced NAFLD associated with hyperlipidemia were also studied by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadruple-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS)-based liver metabolomics coupled with pathway analysis. The metabolic pathway enrichment analysis of the differentially abundant hepatic metabolites indicated that primary bile acid biosynthesis metabolism and cysteine and methionine metabolism were the two main metabolic pathways altered by MLJ consumption when compared with the model group. The analysis of the transcription levels of liver-related genes by RT-qPCR and the expressions of liver-related proteins by immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that MLJ consumption could regulate the levels of mRNA transcription and protein expression related to hepatic lipid metabolism. In short, this study indicates that MLJ could be developed as functional food supplement for the prevention or treatment of NAFLD associated with hyperlipidemia.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(3): e201204, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186746

RESUMO

Importance: Enrollment in Medicare Advantage (MA) has been increasing and has reached one-third of total Medicare enrollment. Because of data limitations, direct comparison of inpatient rehabilitation services between MA and traditional Medicare (TM) beneficiaries has been very scarce. Subgroups of elderly individuals admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) may experience different care outcomes by insurance types. Objective: To measure the differences in length of stay and health outcomes of inpatient rehabilitation services between TM and MA beneficiaries in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multiyear cross-sectional study used the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation to assess rehabilitation services received by elderly (aged >65 years) Medicare beneficiaries in IRFs between 2007 and 2016 for stroke, hip fracture, and joint replacement. Generalized linear models were used to assess whether an association existed between Medicare insurance type and IRF care outcomes. Models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, clinical conditions, and facility characteristics. Data were analyzed from September 2018 to August 2019. Exposures: Medicare insurance plan type, TM or MA. Main Outcomes and Measures: Inpatient length of stay in IRFs, functional improvements, and possibility of returning to the community after discharge. Results: The sample included a total of 1 028 470 patients (634 619 women [61.7%]; mean [SD] age, 78.23 [7.26] years): 473 017 patients admitted for stroke, 323 029 patients admitted for hip fracture, and 232 424 patients admitted for joint replacement. Individuals enrolled in MA plans were younger than TM beneficiaries (mean [SD] age, 76.96 [7.02] vs 77.95 [7.26] years for stroke, 79.92 [6.93] vs 80.85 [6.87] years for hip fracture, and 74.79 [6.58] vs 75.88 [6.80] years for joint replacement) and were more likely to be black (17 086 [25.5%] vs 54 648 [17.9%] beneficiaries) or Hispanic (14 496 [28.5%] vs 24 377 [8.3%] beneficiaries). The MA beneficiaries accounted for 21.8% (103 204 of 473 017) of admissions for stroke, 11.5% (37 160 of 323 029) of admissions for hip fracture, and 11.8% (27 314 of 232 424) of admissions for joint replacement. The MA beneficiaries had shorter mean lengths of stay than did TM beneficiaries for both stroke (0.11 day; 95% CI, -0.15 to -0.07 day; 1.15% shorter) and hip fracture (0.17 day; 95% CI, -0.21 to -0.13 day; 0.85% shorter). The MA beneficiaries also had higher possibilities of returning to the community than did TM beneficiaries, by 3.0% (95% CI, 2.6%-3.4%) for stroke and 5.0% (95% CI, 4.4%-5.6%) for hip fracture. The shorter length of stay and better ultimate outcomes were achieved without substantially compromising the intermediate functional improvements. Facility type (freestanding vs within an acute care hospital) and patient alternative payment sources other than Medicare (none vs other) partially explained the differences between insurance types. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that MA enrollees experience shorter length of stay and better outcomes for postacute care than do TM beneficiaries in IRFs. The magnitude of the differences depends on treatment deferability, patient sociodemographic subgroups, and facility characteristics.

7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 126: 110076, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169759

RESUMO

Gegen Qilian Decoction (GGQLD) is a well-established classic Chinese medicine prescription in treating nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the molecular mechanism of GGQLD action on NASH is still not clear. This study aimed to assess the anti-NASH effect of GGQLD, and to explore its molecular mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. In HFD-fed rats, GGQLD decreased significantly serum triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHO), total bile acid (TBA), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), free fatty acid (FFA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, increased levels of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) Ahcy, Gpx1, Mat1a, GNMT, and reduced the expression of ALDOB. In RAW264.7 macrophages, GGQLD reduced the expression levels of inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA, and diminished NASH by increasing differentially expressed genes (DEGs) CBS, Mat1a, Hnf4α and Pparα to reduce oxidative stress or lipid metabolism. The results of DEGs verification also showed that GGQLD up-regulated expressions of Hnf4α, Pparα and Cbs genes. In HepG2 cells, GGQLD decreased IL-6 levels and intracellular TG content, and inhibited FFA-induced expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In summary, GGQLD abates NASH associated liver injuries via anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory response involved inhibition of TLR4 signal pathways. These findings provide new insights into the anti-NASH therapy by GGQLD.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(3): e200731, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159811

RESUMO

Importance: Disparities in health insurance coverage by immigration status are well documented; however, there are few data comparing long-term changes in insurance coverage between immigrant and nonimmigrant adults as they age into older adulthood. Objective: To compare longitudinal changes in insurance coverage over 24 years of follow-up between recent immigrant, early immigrant, and nonimmigrant adults in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study. Data were collected biennially from 1992 to 2016. The population included community-dwelling US adults born between 1931 and 1941 and aged 51 to 61 years at baseline. Statistical analysis was performed from February 3, 2017, to January 10, 2020. Exposures: Participants were categorized as nonimmigrants (born in the US), early immigrants (immigrated to the US before the age of 18 years), and recent immigrants (immigrated to the US from the age of 18 years onward). Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported data on public, employer, long-term care, and other private insurance were used to define any insurance coverage. Longitudinal changes in insurance coverage were examined over time by immigration status using generalized estimating equations accounting for inverse probability of attrition weights. The association between immigration status and continuous insurance coverage was also evaluated. Results: A total of 9691 participants were included (mean [SD] age, 56.0 [3.2] years; 5111 [52.6%] female). Nonimmigrants composed 90% (n = 8649) of the cohort; early immigrants, 2% (n = 201); and recent immigrants, 8% (n = 841). Insurance coverage increased from 68%, 83%, and 86% of recent immigrant, early immigrant, and nonimmigrant older adults, respectively, in 1992 to 97%, 100%, and 99% in 2016. After accounting for selective attrition, recent immigrants were 15% less likely than nonimmigrants to have any insurance at baseline (risk ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.82-0.88), driven by lower rates of private insurance. However, disparities in insurance decreased incrementally over time and were eliminated, such that insurance coverage rates were similar between groups as participants attained Medicare age eligibility. Furthermore, recent immigrants were less likely than nonimmigrants to be continuously insured (risk ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.85-0.94). Conclusions and Relevance: Among community-dwelling adults who were not age eligible for Medicare, recent immigrants had lower rates of health insurance, but this disparity was eliminated over the 24-year follow-up period because of uptake of public insurance among all participants. Future studies should evaluate policies and health care reforms aimed at reducing disparities among vulnerable populations such as recent immigrants who are not age eligible for Medicare.

9.
Acta Otolaryngol ; : 1-4, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068453

RESUMO

Background: It has been demonstrated that miRNAs play critical roles in the tumorigenesis and progression of various tumors.Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine the serum miR-632 levels in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and to investigate its diagnostic and prognostic value.Materials and methods: We detected serum miR-632 levels in 162 LSCC patients and 42 healthy volunteers. The ROC curve was carried out to determine diagnostic accuracy.Results: We observed that serum miR-632 levels were upregulated in LSCC patients compared with healthy volunteers (p < .01). Subsequent results from ROC indicated that high sensitivity and specificity of serum miR-632 for diagnosing LSCC (area under the curve 0.8828). In addition, it was found that high expressions of serum miR-632 were significantly associated with advanced N stage (p = .020), histological grade (p = .001), and TNM stage (p = .014). Furthermore, patients with higher serum miR-632 expression had a shorter OS and DFS time than those with lower serum miR-632 levels.Conclusion: Our data revealed that serum miR-632 may be a potential noninvasive biomarker which may become a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for LSCC patients.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 716: 136414, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045769

RESUMO

Effects of natural forest conversion (NFC) on soil nutrient turnover are substantially mediated by soil microbial extracellular hydrolytic enzymatic activities (Hy-EEAs) and oxidative enzymatic activities (Ox-EEAs). Yet it remains largely unknown the indicative links between soil Hy- and Ox-EEAs and soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) supplies based on economic theories of microbial metabolism under NFC. Here we used a meta-analysis approach to synthesize the responses of the soil C-, N-, P-degrading Hy-EEAs and Ox-EEAs, soil microbial biomass, soil organic C, total N, P and available P parameters to natural forest conversion from 51 peer-reviewed studies. Our results showed that NFC notably decreased soil Hy-EEAs but statistically insignificant reduction of soil Ox-EEAs. The changes of soil Hy- and Ox-EEAs were significantly and positively associated with soil organic C, available P as well as microbial biomass C and N but significantly and negatively correlated with soil pH, whereas the changes of soil C/N impacted on soil Ox-EEAs remarkably but not for soil Hy-EEAs. The depletion of soil organic carbon stimulated soil microbial secretion of Hy- and Ox-EEAs. The soil total N scarcity only provoked soil microbial Hy-EEAs rather than Ox-EEAs. The soil total P dearth quickened the soil Ox-EEAs, however, the plenitude of soil available P suppressed soil Hy- and Ox-EEAs. Moreover, the eco-enzymatic stoichiometry of soil Hy-EEAs indicated that soil N and P nutrient limitation after NFC restricted soil microbial N- and P-acquiring enzymes secretion, which ultimately reduced resources availability for C acquisition. Altogether, the distinct responses of soil Hy- and Ox-EEAs depended on substrate availability peculiarly for soil N and P gains of microorganisms for further enzymatic ability on soil C decomposition and highlighted the abundant or absent supply of soil N and P for positive or negative enzymatic activities on metabolic requirement of soil edaphons.

11.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 186, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) microsymbionts belonging to the bacterial genera Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) have been isolated across the globe. Individual symbiosis genes (e.g., nodC) of these rhizobia can be different within each genus and among distinct genera. Little information is available about the symbiotic structure of indigenous Rhizobium strains nodulating introduced bean plants or the emergence of a symbiotic ability to associate with bean plants in Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer strains. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 29 representative bean microsymbionts (21 Rhizobium, four Ensifer, and four Bradyrhizobium) and compared them with closely related reference strains to estimate the origins of symbiosis genes among these Chinese bean microsymbionts. RESULTS: Comparative genomics demonstrated horizontal gene transfer exclusively at the plasmid level, leading to expanded diversity of bean-nodulating Rhizobium strains. Analysis of vertically transferred genes uncovered 191 (out of the 2654) single-copy core genes with phylogenies strictly consistent with the taxonomic status of bacterial species, but none were found on symbiosis plasmids. A common symbiotic region was wholly conserved within the Rhizobium genus yet different from those of the other two genera. A single strain of Ensifer and two Bradyrhizobium strains shared similar gene content with soybean microsymbionts in both chromosomes and symbiotic regions. CONCLUSIONS: The 19 native bean Rhizobium microsymbionts were assigned to four defined species and six putative novel species. The symbiosis genes of R. phaseoli, R. sophoriradicis, and R. esperanzae strains that originated from Mexican bean-nodulating strains were possibly introduced alongside bean seeds. R. anhuiense strains displayed distinct host ranges, indicating transition into bean microsymbionts. Among the six putative novel species exclusive to China, horizontal transfer of symbiosis genes suggested symbiosis with other indigenous legumes and loss of originally symbiotic regions or non-symbionts before the introduction of common bean into China. Genome data for Ensifer and Bradyrhizobium strains indicated symbiotic compatibility between microsymbionts of common bean and other hosts such as soybean.

12.
JCO Oncol Pract ; : JOP1900498, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069189

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The number of nonelderly cancer survivors is expected to grow and so are their health care costs. Many cancer survivors worry about medical bills. This study examined the impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on the rate of insurance, average annual health care expenditure, and patient care experience among cancer survivors and investigated the patient characteristics that were associated with highly rated care experiences before and after ACA implementation. METHODS: The study is a cross-sectional analysis of adult, nonelderly cancer survivors in the 2011 and 2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey who completed health care experience questionnaires. Percent covered by insurance both before and after the ACA was calculated, including total out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses as a percentage of overall health care expenditure per patient. Regression was performed to determine characteristics associated with patient experience ratings. RESULTS: Health insurance coverage for cancer survivors was higher in 2016 than in 2011 (98.4% v 94.4%; P = .006). OOP spending as a percentage of health care expenditure among those with expenses decreased and was most striking in those with no insurance. Privately insured individuals were 3 times as likely to rate their care experience high compared with those with no insurance (odds ratio, 3.31; P < .0001). Those with above-average ratings of self-health and with few comorbidities rated their care experiences highly. CONCLUSION: After the ACA, OOP costs have decreased for all types of insurance coverage. The association between patient experience and health status warrants additional study to better manage and coordinate the care of such patients.

13.
Phys Med ; 71: 62-70, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092687

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To present a formalism to improve the accuracy of converting absorbed dose to medium in medium (Dm) to absorbed dose to water in medium (Dw) in small megavoltage photon fields for different human tissues in Dm-based treatment planning systems (TPS). METHODS: Eight kinds of real human tissues were simulated to convert Dm to Dw. Four kinds of virtual water media were deliberately designed to analyze source of deviations from the conventional Bragg-Gray theory. Mass electronic stopping powers were calculated using the ESTAR code. The phase-space data was generated by the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code. The dose deposition was calculated with the EGSnrc/DOSRZnrc code. Electron fluence spectra calculated with EGSnrc/FLURZnrc code were utilized to analyze fluence perturbations and determine fluence intensity (Φw,mint) and fluence spectral shape (Φw,mS) correction factors. RESULTS: Large conversion errors of Dw using Bragg-Gray theory were observed, such as 19.65% ± 9.58% (average value ± standard deviation, type A) for inflated lung (ICRU). Fluence perturbations could be exacerbated by severe charged particle disequilibrium conditions. These deviations were caused by the synergy between tissues' different mean excitation energies and smaller mass densities compared to those of water. Adding Φw,mint and Φw,mS correction factors to modify Bragg-Gray theory could greatly reduce Dw conversion errors, within 1.00% for all tissues studied. CONCLUSIONS: The current clinically used Dw conversion algorithm in commercial Dm-based TPS isn't appropriate for some human tissues in small field dosimetry. Correction factors should be exploited to improve the accuracy.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(3)2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033307

RESUMO

The monitoring and prediction of the landslide groundwater level is a crucial part of landslide early warning systems. In this study, Tangjiao landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir area (TGRA) in China was taken as a case study. Three groundwater level monitoring sensors were installed in different locations of the landslide. The monitoring data indicated that the fluctuation of groundwater level is significantly consistent with rainfall and reservoir level in time, but there is a lag. In addition, there is a spatial difference in the impact of reservoir levels on the landslide groundwater level. The data of two monitoring locations were selected for establishing the prediction model of groundwater. Combined with the qualitative and quantitative analysis, the influencing factors were selected, respectively, to establish the hybrid Genetic Algorithm-Support Vector Machine (GA-SVM) prediction model. The single-factor GA-SVM without considering influencing factors and the backpropagation neural network (BPNN) model were adopted to make comparisons. The results showed that the multi-factor GA-SVM performed the best, followed by multi-factor BPNN and single-factor GA-SVM. We found that the prediction accuracy can be improved by considering the influencing factor. The proposed GA-SVM model combines the advantages of each algorithm; it can effectively construct the response relationship between groundwater level fluctuations and influencing factors. Above all, the multi-factor GA-SVM is an effective method for the prediction of landslides groundwater in the TGRA.

15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(2): 1114-1127, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945745

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is a mitochondrial membrane protein that is essential for the regulation of mitochondrial ROS production and redox sensing. Although the physiological functions of Romo1 have been studied for the past few years, the role of Romo1 in cancer remained unclear. In this study, we found that the high expression of Romo1 is associated with the poor prognosis of glioblastoma patients. Further study revealed that Romo1 is highly expressed in macrophages, indicating that the overexpression of Romo1 may participate in the function of macrophages and contribute to the progression of glioblastoma. Through the glioblastoma mouse model, we found that the overexpression of Romo1 in bone marrow cells significantly inhibited the immune response within tumor microenvironment, and that the overexpression of Romo1 resulted in the M2 polarization of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) through mTORC1 signaling pathway. In addition, the inhibition of Romo1 combining with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy significantly improved the survival outcome of glioblastoma in mouse model. Collectively, our study highlights the important role of Romo1 in immune response especially the function of macrophages, and implicates it as a potential target of immunotherapy for glioblastoma.

16.
Water Res ; 172: 115504, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981901

RESUMO

Activation of persulfates (i.e., peroxydisulfate (PDS) and peroxymonosulfate (PMS)) by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) is reported to be effective in oxidative treatment of environmental contaminants. It has been widely accepted in numerous literature that sulfate radical (SO4•-) formed from the decomposition of persulfates activated by aqueous Fe(II) released from nZVI corrosion is responsible for the oxidative performance in nZVI/persulfates systems. In this work, by employing methyl phenyl sulfoxide (PMSO) as a probe, we demonstrated that the activation of persulfates by nZVI through electron transfer led to SO4•- formation, while the homogeneous activation of persulfate by the released Fe(II) resulted in ferryl ion species (Fe(IV)) generation in nZVI/persulfates systems. Similarly, nanoscale zero-valent aluminum (nZVAl) and zinc (nZVZn) were also demonstrated to be able to donate electron to persulfates leading to SO4•- formation. However, the insulative aluminum oxide shell hindered the electron transfer leading to the poor persulfates decomposition, while the conductive iron and zinc oxide shell enabled the electron transfer process resulting in a continuous generation of SO4•-. Further, it was obtained that the relative contribution of SO4•- and Fe(IV) in nZVI/persulfates systems was independent of the initial concentration of nZVI and PDS, but was positively correlated with PMS concentration. In addition, the increase of pH from 3 to 7 led to the decrease of the relative contribution of Fe(IV), which was rationalized by the decrease of availability of aqueous Fe(II) at higher pH. Our findings not only shed lights on the nature of the reactive intermediate formed in the nZVI/persulfates systems, but also unprecedentedly distinguished the surface activation of persulfates from the homogeneous catalysis process.


Assuntos
Ferro , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peróxidos , Sulfatos
17.
Food Nutr Bull ; 41(1): 102-120, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an active debate over the potential for market-based strategies to address micronutrient deficiencies in low- and middle-income countries. However, there are questions over the viability of market-based strategies, reflecting limited evidence on the value that low-income households attach to the nutritional attributes of processed foods. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate the willingness to pay of primary food purchasers in low-income households in rural Bangladesh for Shokti+, a nutritionally fortified yogurt produced and distributed by Grameen Danone Foods Limited. METHODS: A real choice experiment with economic incentives was conducted with 1000 rural food purchasers sampled from the distribution area of Shokti+ in rural Bangladesh. The choices of respondents revealed attribute nonattendance, favoring the fortification attribute over price. RESULTS: Results from a random parameter logit model found that respondents were willing to pay an average of 18 BDT (US$0.22) for fortification and 6 BDT (US$0.073) for brand name. The market price for Shokti+ at the time of the study was 10 BDT (US$0.12). The results from a random effects model suggest the magnitude of willingness to pay for fortification was primarily driven by the nutritional awareness of respondents but offset by household food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: The article concludes that, while there is a viable market for fortified yogurt in rural Bangladesh, efforts to promote this product as a strategy to address micronutrient deficiency are best targeted at low-income households with some capacity to pay for low priced commercially produced foods.

18.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(5): 1198-1208, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Primary tumor (PT) and metastatic lymph node (MLN) status have a great influence on diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Our main purpose was to investigate the imaging characteristics of PT or MLN by applying the 18F-FDG PET dynamic modeling approach for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Dynamic 18F-FDG PET scans were performed for 76 lung cancer patients, and 62 NSCLC cases were finally included in this study: 37 with newly diagnosed early and locally advanced lung cancer without distant metastases (group M0) and 25 metastatic lung cancer (group M1). Patlak graphic analysis (Ki calculation) based on the dynamic modeling and SUV analysis from conventional static data were performed. RESULTS: For PT, both KiPT (0.050 ± 0.005 vs 0.026 ± 0.004 min-1, p < 0.001) and SUVPT (8.41 ± 0.64 vs 5.23 ± 0.73, p < 0.01) showed significant higher values in group M1 than M0. For MLN, KiMLN showed significant higher values in M1 than M0 (0.033 ± 0.005 vs 0.016 ± 0.003 min-1, p < 0.01), while no significant differences were found for SUVMLN between M0 and M1 (4.22 ± 0.49 vs 5.57 ± 0.59, p > 0.05). Both SUV PT and KiPT showed significant high values in squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma, but neither SUVPT nor KiPT showed significant differences between EGFR mutants versus wild types. The overall Spearman analysis for SUV and Ki from different groups showed variable correlation (r = 0.46-0.94). CONCLUSION: The dynamic modeling for MLN (KiMLN) showed more sensitive than the static analysis (SUV) to detect metastatic lymph nodes in NSCLC, although both methods were sensitive for PT. This methodology of non-invasive imaging may become an important tool to evaluate MLN and PT status for patients who cannot undergo histological examination. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The clinical trial registration number is NCT03679936 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/).

19.
Cell Prolif ; 53(1): e12714, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Osteoclasts (OC) are unique terminally differentiated cells whose primary function is bone resorption. We previously showed that osteoprotegerin (OPG) inhibits OC differentiation in vitro by enhancing autophagy via the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway in vitro. Here, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism of AMPK mediated autophagy to regulate OPG-mediated inhibition of OC differentiation and identify potential therapeutic targets associated with bone loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the AMPK activator AICAR to determine the relationship between AMPK activation and OC differentiation, and studied the role of AMPK-mediated autophagy in OPG-mediated inhibition of OC differentiation by using autophagy inhibitors or AMPK knockdown. RESULTS: AMP-activated protein kinase activation caused LC3II accumulation and weakened OC differentiation activity. In contrast, inactivation of autophagy by 3-methyladenine or Bafilomycin A1 could attenuate OPG-mediated inhibition of OC differentiation via the AMPK/mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway. Furthermore, the AMPK inhibitor compound C and knockdown of AMPK impaired OPG-mediated inhibition of OC differentiation by inducing autophagy. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that the AMPK signalling pathway functions as a critical regulator in the OPG-mediated inhibition of OC differentiation, by inducing autophagy. Our results provide a basis for future bone-related studies on the AMPK signalling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/antagonistas & inibidores , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/análogos & derivados , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Ribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/farmacologia , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Osteoclastos/citologia , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 386: 121662, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771885

RESUMO

The catalytic performance of Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide (Fe3O4/rGO) nanocomposite makes it attractive for the removal of emerging pollutants from water, but the combination of its efficient adsorption and degradation of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances has not been studied. Here we report the optimal granular Fe3O4/rGO with high thermal and acid resistance stability through controlling its self-assembly for the adsorption and degradation of sodium p-perfluorous nonenoxybenzene sulfonate (OBS) from water. The maximum adsorption capacity for OBS was calculated to be 362.4 µmol/g according to Langmuir fitting. Electrostatic, π-π and hydrogen bonding interactions were involved in OBS adsorption, and the quaternary N in Fe3O4/rGO was a key adsorption site. The efficiency of the utilization of free radicals generated in Fenton-like and persulfate (PS) systems increased with the increase of OBS adsorbed onto the Fe3O4/rGO, while the increase of OBS amount adsorbed on Fe3O4/rGO would casue a slow OBS removal in the adsorption-degradation process due to the slow adsorption process. The Fenton-like oxidation was more efficient for OBS removal than PS oxidation. The spent Fe3O4/rGO was able to be reused in the Fenton-like system at least ten times, while the OBS removal in the PS reaction system was reduced to 47.8 % after six reuse cycles.

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