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1.
FASEB J ; 38(3): e23448, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305779

RESUMO

Diabetes causes a range of complications that can affect multiple organs. Hyperglycemia is an important driver of diabetes-associated complications, mediated by biological processes such as dysfunction of endothelial cells, fibrosis, and alterations in leukocyte number and function. Here, we dissected the transcriptional response of key cell types to hyperglycemia across multiple tissues using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and identified conserved, as well as organ-specific, changes associated with diabetes complications. By studying an early time point of diabetes, we focus on biological processes involved in the initiation of the disease, before the later organ-specific manifestations had supervened. We used a mouse model of type 1 diabetes and performed scRNA-seq on cells isolated from the heart, kidney, liver, and spleen of streptozotocin-treated and control male mice after 8 weeks and assessed differences in cell abundance, gene expression, pathway activation, and cell signaling across organs and within organs. In response to hyperglycemia, endothelial cells, macrophages, and monocytes displayed organ-specific transcriptional responses, whereas fibroblasts showed similar responses across organs, exhibiting altered metabolic gene expression and increased myeloid-like fibroblasts. Furthermore, we found evidence of endothelial dysfunction in the kidney, and of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in streptozotocin-treated mouse organs. In summary, our study represents the first single-cell and multi-organ analysis of early dysfunction in type 1 diabetes-associated hyperglycemia, and our large-scale dataset (comprising 67 611 cells) will serve as a starting point, reference atlas, and resource for further investigating the events leading to early diabetic disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hiperglicemia , Camundongos , Animais , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Células Endoteliais , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hiperglicemia/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
2.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38270932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A reduction in both dystrophin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) secondary to microRNA-31 (miR-31) upregulation contributes to the atrial electrical remodelling that underpins human and experimental atrial fibrillation (AF). By contrast, patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), who lack dystrophin and NOS1 and, at least in the skeletal muscle, have raised miR-31 expression, do not have increase susceptibility to AF in the absence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Here we investigated whether dystrophin-deficiency is also associated with atrial upregulation of miR-31, loss of NOS1 protein, and increased AF susceptibility in young mdx mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Echocardiography showed normal cardiac structure and function in 12- 13 weeks mdx mice, with no indication by assay of hydroxyproline that atrial fibrosis had developed. Absence of dystrophin in mdx mice was accompanied by an overall reduction in syntrophin and a lower NOS1 protein content in the skeletal muscle and in the left atrial and ventricular myocardium, with the latter occurring alongside reduced Nos1 transcript levels (exons 1-2 by qPCR) and an increase in NOS1-polyubiquitination (assessed using tandem polyubiquitination pulldowns; P<0.05 vs. WT). Neither the upregulation of miR-31 nor the substantial reduction in NOS activity observed in the skeletal muscle was present in the atrial tissue of mdx mice. At difference with the skeletal muscle, the mdx atrial myocardium showed a reduction in the constitutive NOS inhibitor, caveolin-1, coupled with an increase in NOS3 serine1177 phosphorylation, in the absence of differences in the protein content of other NOS isoforms or in the relative expression NOS1 splice variants. In line with these findings, transoesophageal atrial burst pacing revealed no difference in AF susceptibility between mdx mice and their wild type littermates. CONCLUSIONS: Dystrophin depletion is not associated with atrial miR-31 upregulation, reduced NOS activity or increased AF susceptibility in the mdx mouse. Compared with the skeletal muscle, the milder atrial biochemical phenotype may explain why patients with DMD do not exhibit a higher prevalence of atrial arrhythmias despite a reduction in NOS1 content.

3.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 324(4): H430-H442, 2023 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36735402

RESUMO

The cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a critical regulator of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) function and redox signaling, with reduced BH4 implicated in multiple cardiovascular disease states. In the myocardium, augmentation of BH4 levels can impact on cardiomyocyte function, preventing hypertrophy and heart failure. However, the specific role of endothelial cell BH4 biosynthesis in the coronary circulation and its role in cardiac function and the response to ischemia has yet to be elucidated. Endothelial cell-specific Gch1 knockout mice were generated by crossing Gch1fl/fl with Tie2cre mice, generating Gch1fl/flTie2cre mice and littermate controls. GTP cyclohydrolase protein and BH4 levels were reduced in heart tissues from Gch1fl/flTie2cre mice, localized to endothelial cells, with normal cardiomyocyte BH4. Deficiency in coronary endothelial cell BH4 led to NOS uncoupling, decreased NO bioactivity, and increased superoxide and hydrogen peroxide productions in the hearts of Gch1fl/flTie2cre mice. Under physiological conditions, loss of endothelial cell-specific BH4 led to mild cardiac hypertrophy in Gch1fl/flTie2cre hearts. Endothelial cell BH4 loss was also associated with increased neuronal NOS protein, loss of endothelial NOS protein, and increased phospholamban phosphorylation at serine-17 in cardiomyocytes. Loss of cardiac endothelial cell BH4 led to coronary vascular dysfunction, reduced functional recovery, and increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia-reperfusion injury. Taken together, these studies reveal a specific role for endothelial cell Gch1/BH4 biosynthesis in cardiac function and the response to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. Targeting endothelial cell Gch1 and BH4 biosynthesis may provide a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of cardiac dysfunction and ischemia-reperfusion injury.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrate a critical role for endothelial cell Gch1/BH4 biosynthesis in coronary vascular function and cardiac function. Loss of cardiac endothelial cell BH4 leads to coronary vascular dysfunction, reduced functional recovery, and increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia/reperfusion injury. Targeting endothelial cell Gch1 and BH4 biosynthesis may provide a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of cardiac dysfunction, ischemia injury, and heart failure.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica , Camundongos , Animais , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/genética , Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , GTP Cicloidrolase/genética , GTP Cicloidrolase/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo
4.
Nat Cardiovasc Res ; 2: 1221-1245, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500966

RESUMO

Propiogenic substrates and gut bacteria produce propionate, a post-translational protein modifier. In this study, we used a mouse model of propionic acidaemia (PA) to study how disturbances to propionate metabolism result in histone modifications and changes to gene expression that affect cardiac function. Plasma propionate surrogates were raised in PA mice, but female hearts manifested more profound changes in acyl-CoAs, histone propionylation and acetylation, and transcription. These resulted in moderate diastolic dysfunction with raised diastolic Ca2+, expanded end-systolic ventricular volume and reduced stroke volume. Propionate was traced to histone H3 propionylation and caused increased acetylation genome-wide, including at promoters of Pde9a and Mme, genes related to contractile dysfunction through downscaled cGMP signaling. The less severe phenotype in male hearts correlated with ß-alanine buildup. Raising ß-alanine in cultured myocytes treated with propionate reduced propionyl-CoA levels, indicating a mechanistic relationship. Thus, we linked perturbed propionate metabolism to epigenetic changes that impact cardiac function.

5.
Cardiovasc Res ; 118(1): 184-195, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098411

RESUMO

AIMS: Systemic inflammation and increased activity of atrial NOX2-containing NADPH oxidases have been associated with the new onset of atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardiac surgery. In addition to lowering LDL-cholesterol, statins exert rapid anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, the clinical significance of which remains controversial. METHODS AND RESULTS: We first assessed the impact of cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on atrial nitroso-redox balance by measuring NO synthase (NOS) and GTP cyclohydrolase-1 (GCH-1) activity, biopterin content, and superoxide production in paired samples of the right atrial appendage obtained before (PRE) and after CPB and reperfusion (POST) in 116 patients. The effect of perioperative treatment with atorvastatin (80 mg once daily) on these parameters, blood biomarkers, and the post-operative atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was then evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 80 patients undergoing cardiac surgery on CPB. CPB and reperfusion led to a significant increase in atrial superoxide production (74% CI 71-76%, n = 46 paired samples, P < 0.0001) and a reduction in atrial tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) (34% CI 33-35%, n = 36 paired samples, P < 0.01), and in GCH-1 (56% CI 55-58%, n = 26 paired samples, P < 0.001) and NOS activity (58% CI 52-67%, n = 20 paired samples, P < 0.001). Perioperative atorvastatin treatment prevented the effect of CPB and reperfusion on all parameters but had no significant effect on the postoperative right AERP, troponin release, or NT-proBNP after cardiac surgery. CONCLUSION: Perioperative statin therapy prevents post-reperfusion atrial nitroso-redox imbalance in patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery but has no significant impact on postoperative atrial refractoriness, perioperative myocardial injury, or markers of postoperative LV function. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01780740.


Assuntos
Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Função do Átrio Direito/efeitos dos fármacos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Átrios do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Nitrosos/metabolismo , Período Refratário Eletrofisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , /metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Inglaterra , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Circulation ; 144(12): 961-982, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk in diabetes remains elevated despite glucose-lowering therapies. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia induces trained immunity in macrophages, promoting persistent proatherogenic characteristics. METHODS: Bone marrow-derived macrophages from control mice and mice with diabetes were grown in physiological glucose (5 mmol/L) and subjected to RNA sequencing (n=6), assay for transposase accessible chromatin sequencing (n=6), and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (n=6) for determination of hyperglycemia-induced trained immunity. Bone marrow transplantation from mice with (n=9) or without (n=6) diabetes into (normoglycemic) Ldlr-/- mice was used to assess its functional significance in vivo. Evidence of hyperglycemia-induced trained immunity was sought in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with diabetes (n=8) compared with control subjects (n=16) and in human atherosclerotic plaque macrophages excised by laser capture microdissection. RESULTS: In macrophages, high extracellular glucose promoted proinflammatory gene expression and proatherogenic functional characteristics through glycolysis-dependent mechanisms. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from diabetic mice retained these characteristics, even when cultured in physiological glucose, indicating hyperglycemia-induced trained immunity. Bone marrow transplantation from diabetic mice into (normoglycemic) Ldlr-/- mice increased aortic root atherosclerosis, confirming a disease-relevant and persistent form of trained innate immunity. Integrated assay for transposase accessible chromatin, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and RNA sequencing analyses of hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages revealed a proinflammatory priming effect in diabetes. The pattern of open chromatin implicated transcription factor Runt-related transcription factor 1 (Runx1). Similarly, transcriptomes of atherosclerotic plaque macrophages and peripheral leukocytes in patients with type 2 diabetes were enriched for Runx1 targets, consistent with a potential role in human disease. Pharmacological inhibition of Runx1 in vitro inhibited the trained phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia-induced trained immunity may explain why targeting elevated glucose is ineffective in reducing macrovascular risk in diabetes and suggests new targets for disease prevention and therapy.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/imunologia , Hiperglicemia/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Transgênicos
7.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(11): 2354-2364, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483749

RESUMO

AIMS: Gp91-containing NADPH oxidases (NOX2) are a significant source of myocardial superoxide production. An increase in NOX2 activity accompanies atrial fibrillation (AF) induction and electrical remodelling in animal models and predicts incident AF in humans; however, a direct causal role for NOX2 in AF has not been demonstrated. Accordingly, we investigated whether myocardial NOX2 overexpression in mice (NOX2-Tg) is sufficient to generate a favourable substrate for AF and further assessed the effects of atorvastatin, an inhibitor of NOX2, on atrial superoxide production and AF susceptibility. METHODS AND RESULTS: NOX2-Tg mice showed a 2- to 2.5-fold higher atrial protein content of NOX2 compared with wild-type (WT) controls, which was associated with a significant (twofold) increase in NADPH-stimulated superoxide production (2-hydroxyethidium by HPLC) in left and right atrial tissue homogenates (P = 0.004 and P = 0.019, respectively). AF susceptibility assessed in vivo by transoesophageal atrial burst stimulation was modestly increased in NOX2-Tg compared with WT (probability of AF induction: 88% vs. 69%, respectively; P = 0.037), in the absence of significant alterations in AF duration, surface ECG parameters, and LV mass or function. Mechanistic studies did not support a role for NOX2 in promoting electrical or structural remodelling, as high-resolution optical mapping of atrial tissues showed no differences in action potential duration and conduction velocity between genotypes. In addition, we did not observe any genotype difference in markers of fibrosis and inflammation, including atrial collagen content and Col1a1, Il-1ß, Il-6, and Mcp-1 mRNA. Similarly, NOX2 overexpression did not have consistent effects on RyR2 Ca2+ leak nor did it affect PKA or CaMKII-mediated RyR2 phosphorylation. Finally, treatment with atorvastatin significantly inhibited atrial superoxide production in NOX2-Tg but had no effect on AF induction in either genotype. CONCLUSION: Together, these data indicate that while atrial NOX2 overexpression may contribute to atrial arrhythmogenesis, NOX2-derived superoxide production does not affect the electrical and structural properties of the atrial myocardium.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/enzimologia , Átrios do Coração/enzimologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Miócitos Cardíacos/enzimologia , NADPH Oxidase 2/biossíntese , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Atorvastatina/farmacologia , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Indução Enzimática , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Átrios do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , NADPH Oxidase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Circ Res ; 128(5): 585-601, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494625

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In diabetic patients, heart failure with predominant left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is a common complication for which there is no effective treatment. Oxidation of the NOS (nitric oxide synthase) cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and dysfunctional NOS activity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the diabetic vascular and cardiomyopathic phenotype. OBJECTIVE: Using mice models and human myocardial samples, we evaluated whether and by which mechanism increasing myocardial BH4 availability prevented or reversed LV dysfunction induced by diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: In contrast to the vascular endothelium, BH4 levels, superoxide production, and NOS activity (by liquid chromatography) did not differ in the LV myocardium of diabetic mice or in atrial tissue from diabetic patients. Nevertheless, the impairment in both cardiomyocyte relaxation and [Ca2+]i (intracellular calcium) decay and in vivo LV function (echocardiography and tissue Doppler) that developed in wild-type mice 12 weeks post-diabetes induction (streptozotocin, 42-45 mg/kg) was prevented in mGCH1-Tg (mice with elevated myocardial BH4 content secondary to trangenic overexpression of GTP-cyclohydrolase 1) and reversed in wild-type mice receiving oral BH4 supplementation from the 12th to the 18th week after diabetes induction. The protective effect of BH4 was abolished by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of nNOS (the neuronal NOS isoform) in mGCH1-Tg. In HEK (human embryonic kidney) cells, S-nitrosoglutathione led to a PKG (protein kinase G)-dependent increase in plasmalemmal density of the insulin-independent glucose transporter GLUT-1 (glucose transporter-1). In cardiomyocytes, mGCH1 overexpression induced a NO/sGC (soluble guanylate cyclase)/PKG-dependent increase in glucose uptake via GLUT-1, which was instrumental in preserving mitochondrial creatine kinase activity, oxygen consumption rate, LV energetics (by 31phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy), and myocardial function. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered a novel mechanism whereby myocardial BH4 prevents and reverses LV diastolic and systolic dysfunction associated with diabetes via an nNOS-mediated increase in insulin-independent myocardial glucose uptake and utilization. These findings highlight the potential of GCH1/BH4-based therapeutics in human diabetic cardiomyopathy. Graphic Abstract: A graphic abstract is available for this article.


Assuntos
/análogos & derivados , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , /uso terapêutico , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , GTP Cicloidrolase/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
10.
Nanomedicine ; 18: 391-401, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448526

RESUMO

Herein, we maximize the labeling efficiency of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) using perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFCE-NP) and 19F MRI detectability, determine the temporal dynamics of single-cell label uptake, quantify the temporal viability/fluorescence persistence of labeled CPCs in vitro, and implement in vivo, murine cardiac CPC MRI/tracking that could be translatable to humans. FuGENEHD-mediated CPC PFCE-NP uptake is confirmed with flow cytometry/confocal microscopy. Epifluorescence imaging assessed temporal viability/fluorescence (up to 7 days [D]). Nonlocalized murine 19F MRS and cardiac MRI studied label localization in terminal/longitudinal tracking studies at 9.4 T (D1-D8). A 4-8 fold 19F concentration increase is evidenced in CPCs for FuGENE vs. directly labeled cells. Cardiac 19F signals post-CPC injections diminished in vivo to ~31% of their values on D1 by D7/D8. Histology confirmed CPC retention, dispersion, and macrophage-induced infiltration. Intra-cardiac injections of PFCE-NP-labeled CPCs with FuGENE can be visualized/tracked in vivo for the first time with 19F MRI.


Assuntos
Rastreamento de Células , Endocitose , Flúor/química , Fluorocarbonos/metabolismo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Miocárdio/citologia , Nanopartículas/química , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Fluorescência , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Fatores de Tempo
11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(30): 25056-25068, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965724

RESUMO

Medium-chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (MCL-PHAs) have demonstrated exceptional properties for cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) applications. Despite prior work on MCL-PHA/polycaprolactone (PCL) blends, optimal scaffold production and use as an alternative delivery route for controlled release of seeded cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) in CTE applications in vivo has been lacking. We present herein applicability of MCL-PHA/PCL (95/5 wt %) blends fabricated as thin films with an improved performance compared to the neat MCL-PHA. Polymer characterization confirmed the chemical structure and composition of the synthesized scaffolds, while thermal, wettability, and mechanical properties were also investigated and compared in neat and porous counterparts. In vitro cytocompatibility studies were performed using perfluorocrown-ether-nanoparticle-labeled murine CPCs and studied using confocal microscopy and 19F magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seeded scaffolds were implanted and studied in the postmortem murine heart in situ and in two additional C57BL/6 mice in vivo (using single-layered and double-layered scaffolds) and imaged immediately after and at 7 days postimplantation. Superior MCL-PHA/PCL scaffold performance has been demonstrated compared to MCL-PHA through experimental comparisons of (a) morphological data using scanning electron microscopy and (b) contact angle measurements attesting to improved CPC adhesion, (c) in vitro confocal microscopy showing increased SC proliferative capacity, and (d) mechanical testing that elicited good overall responses. In vitro MRI results justify the increased seeding density, increased in vitro MRI signal, and improved MRI visibility in vivo, in the double-layered compared to the single-layered scaffolds. Histological evaluations [bright-field, cytoplasmic (Atto647) and nuclear (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) stains] performed in conjunction with confocal microscopy imaging attest to CPC binding within the scaffold, subsequent release and migration to the neighboring myocardium, and increased retention in the murine myocardium in the case of the double-layered scaffold. Thus, MCL-PHA/PCL blends possess tremendous potential for controlled delivery of CPCs and for maximizing possible regeneration in myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/química , Animais , Coração , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Poliésteres , Células-Tronco , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
12.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190558, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324754

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To a) achieve cardiac 19F-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of perfluoro-crown-ether (PFCE) labeled cardiac progenitor stem cells (CPCs) and bone-derived bone marrow macrophages, b) determine label concentration and cellular load limits, and c) achieve spectroscopic and image-based quantification. METHODS: Theoretical simulations and experimental comparisons of spoiled-gradient echo (SPGR), rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE), and steady state at free precession (SSFP) pulse sequences, and phantom validations, were conducted using 19F MRI/Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) at 9.4 T. Successful cell labeling was confirmed using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. For CPC and macrophage concentration quantification, in vitro and post-mortem cardiac validations were pursued with the use of the transfection agent FuGENE. Feasibility of fast imaging is demonstrated in murine cardiac acquisitions in vivo, and in post-mortem murine skeletal and cardiac applications. RESULTS: SPGR/SSFP proved favorable imaging sequences yielding good signal-to-noise ratio values. Confocal microscopy confirmed heterogeneity of cellular label uptake in CPCs. 19F MRI indicated lack of additional benefits upon label concentrations above 7.5-10 mg/ml/million cells. The minimum detectable CPC load was ~500k (~10k/voxel) in two-dimensional (2D) acquisitions (3-5 min) using the butterfly coil. Additionally, absolute 19F based concentration and intensity estimates (trifluoroacetic-acid solutions, macrophages, and labeled CPCs in vitro and post-CPC injections in the post-mortem state) scaled linearly with fluorine concentrations. Fast, quantitative cardiac 19F-MRI was demonstrated with SPGR/SSFP and MRS acquisitions spanning 3-5 min, using a butterfly coil. CONCLUSION: The developed methodologies achieved in vivo cardiac 19F of exogenously injected labeled CPCs for the first time, accelerating imaging to a total acquisition of a few minutes, providing evidence for their potential for possible translational work.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética de Flúor-19/métodos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Macrófagos/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Imagens de Fantasmas
14.
Sci Rep ; 6: 30902, 2016 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27481317

RESUMO

An essential factor for the production of nitric oxide by nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1), major modulator of cardiac function, is the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). BH4 is regulated by GTP cyclohydrolase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in BH4 biosynthesis which catalyses the formation of dihydroneopterin 3'triphosfate from GTP, producing BH4 after two further steps catalyzed by 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase and sepiapterin reductase. However, there are other essential factors involved in the regulation of NOS1 activity, such as protein inhibitor of NOS1 (PIN), calmodulin, heat shock protein 90, and NOS interacting protein. All these molecules have never been analysed in human non-ischemic dilated hearts (DCM). In this study we demonstrated that the upregulation of cardiac NOS1 is not accompanied by increased NOS1 activity in DCM, partly due to the elevated PIN levels and not because of alterations in biopterin biosynthesis. Notably, the PIN concentration was significantly associated with impaired ventricular function, highlighting the importance of this NOS1 activity inhibitor in Ca(2+) homeostasis. These results take a central role in the current list of targets for future studies focused on the complex cardiac dysfunction processes through more efficient harnessing of NOS1 signalling.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/patologia , Dineínas do Citoplasma/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , /metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dineínas do Citoplasma/genética , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/genética
15.
Sci Transl Med ; 8(340): 340ra74, 2016 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27225184

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a growing public health burden, and its treatment remains a challenge. AF leads to electrical remodeling of the atria, which in turn promotes AF maintenance and resistance to treatment. Although remodeling has long been a therapeutic target in AF, its causes remain poorly understood. We show that atrial-specific up-regulation of microRNA-31 (miR-31) in goat and human AF depletes neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) by accelerating mRNA decay and alters nNOS subcellular localization by repressing dystrophin translation. By shortening action potential duration and abolishing rate-dependent adaptation of the action potential duration, miR-31 overexpression and/or disruption of nNOS signaling recapitulates features of AF-induced remodeling and significantly increases AF inducibility in mice in vivo. By contrast, silencing miR-31 in atrial myocytes from patients with AF restores dystrophin and nNOS and normalizes action potential duration and its rate dependency. These findings identify atrial-specific up-regulation of miR-31 in human AF as a key mechanism causing atrial dystrophin and nNOS depletion, which in turn contributes to the atrial phenotype begetting this arrhythmia. miR-31 may therefore represent a potential therapeutic target in AF.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Distrofina/metabolismo , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação/genética , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Cabras , Humanos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
16.
Sci Rep ; 6: 24060, 2016 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27041589

RESUMO

The role of nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) as a major modulator of cardiac function has been extensively studied in experimental models; however, its role in human ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) has never been analysed. Thus, the objectives of this work are to study NOS1 and NOS-related counterparts involved in regulating physiological function of myocyte, to analyze NOS1 localisation, activity, dimerisation, and its relationship with systolic function in ICM. The study has been carried out on left ventricular tissue obtained from explanted human hearts. Here we demonstrate that the upregulation of cardiac NOS1 is not accompanied by an increase in NOS activity, due in part to the alterations found in molecules involved in the regulation of its activity. We observed partial translocation of NOS1 to the sarcolemma in ischemic hearts, and a direct relationship between its protein levels and systolic ventricular function. Our findings indicate that NOS1 may be significant in the pathophysiology of human ischemic heart disease with a preservative role in maintaining myocardial homeostasis.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/genética , Transporte Proteico , Sarcolema/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 5(3): e003208, 2016 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27001967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide synthase uncoupling occurs under conditions of oxidative stress modifying the enzyme's function so it generates superoxide rather than nitric oxide. Nitric oxide synthase uncoupling occurs with chronic pressure overload, and both are ameliorated by exogenous tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-a cofactor required for normal nitric oxide synthase function-supporting a pathophysiological link. Genetically augmenting BH4 synthesis in endothelial cells fails to replicate this benefit, indicating that other cell types dominate the effects of exogenous BH4 administration. We tested whether the primary cellular target of BH4 is the cardiomyocyte or whether other novel mechanisms are invoked. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (mGCH1) and wild-type littermates underwent transverse aortic constriction. The mGCH1 mice had markedly increased myocardial BH4 and, unlike wild type, maintained nitric oxide synthase coupling after transverse aortic constriction; however, the transverse aortic constriction-induced abnormalities in cardiac morphology and function were similar in both groups. In contrast, exogenous BH4 supplementation improved transverse aortic constricted hearts in both groups, suppressed multiple inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated infiltration of inflammatory macrophages into the heart early after transverse aortic constriction. CONCLUSIONS: BH4 protection against adverse remodeling in hypertrophic cardiac disease is not driven by its prevention of myocardial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling, as presumed previously. Instead, benefits from exogenous BH4 are mediated by a protective effect coupled to suppression of inflammatory pathways and myocardial macrophage infiltration.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citoproteção , Modelos Animais de Doenças , GTP Cicloidrolase/genética , GTP Cicloidrolase/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/enzimologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Miócitos Cardíacos/enzimologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Transdução de Sinais , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/enzimologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle
18.
Lancet ; 385 Suppl 1: S82, 2015 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26312904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of atrial fibrillation remains a challenge. This condition remodels atrial electrical properties, which promote resistance to treatment. Although remodelling has long been a therapeutic target in atrial fibrillation, its causes remain incompletely understood. We aimed to evaluate the role of miR-31-dependent reduction in dystrophin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, also known as NOS1) on atrial electrical properties and atrial fibrillation inducibility. METHODS: We recruited 258 patients (209 patients in sinus rhythm and 49 with permanent atrial fibrillation) from the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK; written informed consent was obtained from each participant. We also used a goat model of pacing-induced atrial fibrillation (24 with atrial fibrillation vs 20 controls in normal sinus rythm) and nNos-knock-out mice (n=28 compared with 27 wild-type littermates). Gene expression of miR-31, dystrophin, and nNOS was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR; protein content was measured by immunoblotting; NOS activity was evaluated with high-performance liquid chromatography; action potential duration (APD) and rate dependent adaptation were assessed by single-cell patch-clamping, and atrial fibrillation inducibility was evaluated by transoesophageal atrial burst stimulation. FINDINGS: We found that atrial-specific upregulation of miR-31 in human atrial fibrillation caused dystrophin (DYS) translational repression and accelerated mRNA degradation of nNOS leading to a profound reduction in atrial DYS and nNOS protein content and in nitric oxide availability. In human atrial myocytes obtained from patients in sinus rhythm, nNOS inhibition was sufficient to recapitulate hallmark features of remodelling induced by atrial fibrillation, such as shortening of APD and loss of APD rate-dependency, but had no effect in patients with atrial fibrillation. In mice, nNos gene deletion or inhibition shortened atrial APD and increased atrial fibrillation inducibility in vivo. Inhibition of miR-31 in human atrial fibrillation recovered DYS and nNOS, and normalised APD and APD rate-dependency. Prevention of miR-31 binding to nNOS 3'UTR recovered both nNOS protein and gene expression but had no effect on the DYS protein or mRNA level (consistent with the mRNA degradation of nNOS by miR-31). Prevention of miR-31 binding to DYS 3'UTR increased DYS protein but not mRNA is consistent with translation repression of DYS by miR-31; recovery of DYS protein increased nNOS protein but not mRNA in keeping with a stabilising effect of DYS on nNOS protein. In goats, a reduction in dystrophin and nNOS protein content was associated with upregulation of miR-31 in the atria but not in the ventricles. INTERPRETATION: The findings suggest that atrial-specific upregulation of miR-31 in human atrial fibrillation is a key mechanism causing atrial loss of dystrophin and nNOS; this loss leads to the electrical phenotype induced by atrial fibrillation. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation (BHF) Programme grant (for BC and XL), BHF Centre of Excellence in Oxford (SR), Leducq Foundation (in part for BC and SR), the European Union's seventh Framework Programme Grant Agree.

19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1294: 103-15, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25783880

RESUMO

Genetically encoded biosensors that make use of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are important tools for the study of compartmentalized cyclic nucleotide signaling in living cells. With the advent of germ line and tissue-specific transgenic technologies, the adult mouse represents a useful tool for the study of cardiovascular pathophysiology. The use of FRET-based genetically encoded biosensors coupled with this animal model represents a powerful combination for the study of cAMP signaling in live primary cardiomyocytes. In this chapter, we describe the steps required during the isolation, viral transduction, and culture of cardiomyocytes from an adult mouse to obtain reliable expression of genetically encoded FRET biosensors for the study of cAMP signaling in living cells.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/genética , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Transdução Genética , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/métodos , Células Cultivadas , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos/virologia , Transdução de Sinais
20.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 73: 80-91, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24631761

RESUMO

Significant advances in our understanding of the ability of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) to modulate cardiac function have provided key insights into the role NOS play in the regulation of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in health and disease. Through both cGMP-dependent and cGMP-independent (e.g. S-nitrosylation) mechanisms, NOS have the ability to alter intracellular Ca(2+) handling and the myofilament response to Ca(2+), thereby impacting the systolic and diastolic performance of the myocardium. Findings from experiments using nitric oxide (NO) donors and NOS inhibition or gene deletion clearly implicate dysfunctional NOS as a critical contributor to many cardiovascular disease states. However, studies to date have only partially addressed NOS isoform-specific effects and, more importantly, how subcellular localization of NOS influences ion channels involved in myocardial EC coupling and excitability. In this review, we focus on the contribution of each NOS isoform to cardiac dysfunction and on the role of uncoupled NOS activity in common cardiac disease states, including heart failure, diabetic cardiomyopathy, ischemia/reperfusion injury and atrial fibrillation. We also review evidence that clearly indicates the importance of NO in cardioprotection. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Redox Signalling in the Cardiovascular System".


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/enzimologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Acoplamento Excitação-Contração/fisiologia , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo
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