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1.
Small Methods ; 8(1): e2300768, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37840449

RESUMO

Despite the impressive advances in the synthesis of atomically precise graphene nanostructures witnessed during the last decade, advancing in compositional complexity faces major challenges. The concept of introducing the desired functional groups or dopants in the molecular precursor often fails due to their lack of stability during the reaction path. Here, a study on the stability of different pyridine and pyrimidine moieties during the on-surface synthesis of graphene nanoribbons on Au(111) is presented. Combining bond-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the thermal evolution of the nitrogen dopants throughout the whole reaction sequence is tracked. A comparative experimental and ab initio electronic characterization confirms the presence of dopants in the final structures, revealing also that the pyridinic nitrogen leads to a significant band downshift. The results demonstrate that, by using synthetic strategies to lower the reaction temperatures, one can preserve specific N-heterocycles throughout all the reaction steps of the synthesis of graphene nanoribbons and beyond the interibbon coupling reaction that leads to nanoporous graphene.

2.
Open Vet J ; 13(11): 1409-1415, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38107223

RESUMO

Background: The Central American bushmaster (Lachesis stenophrys) is one of the largest pitvipers in the Americas, with relatively low abundance, suspected population declines, and continuing loss, fragmentation, and habitat degradation. Aim: Conservation actions, both in the wild and in captivity, bear the need for health parameters that allow managers and veterinarians to have a better understanding of health, especially when there are relatively few individuals in captivity to obtain robust information since there is no published information on the genus. To have hematological and biochemical reference ranges on the genus Lachesis. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 32 individuals (18 females and 14 males) under human care from 7 zoological institutions from August 2022 to January 2023 and performed hematological and biochemical analyses. Results: Reference intervals of hematological analytes included packed cell volume (17.51%-37.27%), total red blood cell count (0.36-0.92 × 1012/l), hemoglobin (61.73-145.23 g/l), white blood cell count (3.18-13.79 × 109/l), lymphocytes (2.16%-11.23%), azurophils (0.50%-4.20%), monocytes (0.00%-0.21%), heterophils (0.05%-1.12%), eosinophils (0.00%-0.19%), basophils (0.00%-2.00%), and total thrombocyte count (0.68-6.68 × 109/l), and biochemistry reference intervals included total protein (41.76-111.31 g/l), albumin (11.46-28.69 g/l), globulins (29.25-85.14 g/l), aspartate aminotransferase (1.44-68.75 U/l), creatinine kinase (52.72-625.00 U/l), uric acid (20.02-438.53 µmol/l), glucose (0.68-3.29 mml/l), cholesterol (41.74-13.25 mmol/l), calcium (1.78-6.06 mmol/l), and phosphorus (0.72-2.26 mmol/l). Conclusion: This is the first report on the genus Lachesis reporting hematological and biochemical reference ranges.


Assuntos
Crotalinae , Hematologia , Humanos , Animais , Costa Rica
4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(20): 11420-11430, 2023 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37167538

RESUMO

Per- and poly(fluoroalkyl) substances (PFAS) are environmentally persistent pollutants that are of growing concern due to their detrimental effects at ultratrace concentrations (ng·L-1) in human and environmental health. Suitable technologies for on-site ultratrace detection of PFAS do not exist and current methods require complex and specialized equipment, making the monitoring of PFAS in distributed water infrastructures extremely challenging. Herein, we describe amplifying fluorescent polymers (AFPs) that can selectively detect perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at concentrations of ng·L-1. The AFPs are highly fluorinated and have poly(p-phenylene ethynylene) and polyfluorene backbones bearing pyridine-based selectors that react with acidic PFAS via a proton-transfer reaction. The fluorinated regions within the polymers partition PFAS into polymers, whereas the protonated pyridine units create lower-energy traps for the excitons, and emission from these pyridinium sites results in red-shifting of the fluorescence spectra. The AFPs are evaluated in thin-film and nanoparticle forms and can selectively detect PFAS concentrations of ∼1 ppb and ∼100 ppt, respectively. Both polymer films and nanoparticles are not affected by the type of water, and similar responses to PFAS were found in milliQ water, DI water, and well water. These results demonstrate a promising sensing approach for on-site detection of aqueous PFAS in the ng·L-1 range.

5.
ACS Nano ; 17(3): 2580-2587, 2023 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692226

RESUMO

The formation of two types of nanographenes from custom designed and synthesized molecular precursors has been achieved through thermally induced intramolecular cyclodehydrogenation reactions on the semiconducting TiO2(110)-(1×1) surface, confirmed by the combination of high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) measurements, and corroborated by theoretical modeling. The application of this protocol on differently shaped molecular precursors demonstrates the ability to induce a highly efficient planarization reaction both within strained pentahelicenes as well as between vicinal phenyl rings. Additionally, by the combination of successive Ullmann-type polymerization and cyclodehydrogenation reactions, the archetypic 7-armchair graphene nanoribbons (7-AGNRs) have also been fabricated on the titanium dioxide surface from the standard 10,10'-dibromo-9,9'-bianthryl (DBBA) molecular precursors. These examples of the effective cyclodehydrogenative planarization processes provide perspectives for the rational design and synthesis of molecular nanostructures on semiconductors.

7.
Nat Chem ; 14(12): 1451-1458, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36163268

RESUMO

Carbon nanostructures with zigzag edges exhibit unique properties-such as localized electronic states and spins-with exciting potential applications. Such nanostructures however are generally synthesized under vacuum because their zigzag edges are unstable under ambient conditions: a barrier that must be surmounted to achieve their scalable integration into devices for practical purposes. Here we show two chemical protection/deprotection strategies, demonstrated on labile, air-sensitive chiral graphene nanoribbons. Upon hydrogenation, the chiral graphene nanoribbons survive exposure to air, after which they are easily converted back to their original structure by annealing. We also approach the problem from another angle by synthesizing a form of the chiral graphene nanoribbons that is functionalized with ketone side groups. This oxidized form is chemically stable and can be converted to the pristine hydrocarbon form by hydrogenation and annealing. In both cases, the deprotected chiral graphene nanoribbons regain electronic properties similar to those of the pristine nanoribbons. We believe both approaches may be extended to other graphene nanoribbons and carbon-based nanostructures.

8.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1208: 339851, 2022 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525595

RESUMO

We have designed and prepared an electrochemical biosensor for lactate determination. Through a diazotation process, the enzyme lactate oxidase (LOx) is anchored onto chevron-like graphene nanoribbons (GNR), previously synthesized by a solution-based chemical route, and used as modifiers of glassy carbon electrodes. In a first step, we have performed the grafting of a 4-carboxyphenyl film, by electrochemical reduction of the corresponding 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salt, on the GNR-modified electrode surface. In this way, the carboxylic groups are exposed to the solution, enabling the covalent immobilization of the enzyme through the formation of an amide bond between these carboxylic groups and the amine groups of the enzyme. The biosensor design was optimized through the morphological and electrochemical characterization of each construction step by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.The cyclic voltammetric response of the biosensor in a solution of hydroxymethylferrocene in presence of l-lactate evidenced a clear electrocatalytic effect powered by the specific design of the biosensing platform with LOx covalently attached to the GNR layer. From the calibration procedures employed for l-lactate determination, a linear concentration range of 3.4 · 10-5- 2.8 · 10-4 M and a detection limit of 11 µM were obtained, with relative errors and relative standard deviations less than 6.0% and 8.4%, respectively. The applicability of the biosensor was tested by determining lactate in apple juices, leading to results that are in good agreement with those obtained with a well-established enzymatic spectrophotometric assay kit.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Grafite , Nanotubos de Carbono , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Grafite/química , Ácido Láctico , Oxigenases de Função Mista , Nanotubos de Carbono/química
9.
Adv Mater ; 34(20): e2110099, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334133

RESUMO

Nanometer scale lateral heterostructures with atomically sharp band discontinuities can be conceived as the 2D analogues of vertical Van der Waals heterostructures, where pristine properties of each component coexist with interfacial phenomena that result in a variety of exotic quantum phenomena. However, despite considerable advances in the fabrication of lateral heterostructures, controlling their covalent interfaces and band discontinuities with atomic precision, scaling down components and producing periodic, lattice-coherent superlattices still represent major challenges. Here, a synthetic strategy to fabricate nanometer scale, coherent lateral superlattice heterojunctions with atomically sharp band discontinuity is reported. By merging interdigitated arrays of different types of graphene nanoribbons by means of a novel on-surface reaction, superlattices of 1D, and chemically heterogeneous nanoporous junctions are obtained. The latter host subnanometer quantum dipoles and tunneling in-gap states, altogether expected to promote interfacial phenomena such as interribbon excitons or selective photocatalysis.

10.
Nano Lett ; 22(1): 164-171, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936370

RESUMO

Open-shell graphene nanoribbons have become promising candidates for future applications, including quantum technologies. Here, we characterize magnetic states hosted by chiral graphene nanoribbons (chGNRs). The substitution of a hydrogen atom at the chGNR edge by a ketone effectively adds one pz electron to the π-electron network, producing an unpaired π-radical. A similar scenario occurs for regular ketone-functionalized chGNRs in which one ketone is missing. Two such radical states can interact via exchange coupling, and we study those interactions as a function of their relative position, which includes a remarkable dependence on the chirality, as well as on the nature of the surrounding ribbon, that is, with or without ketone functionalization. Besides, we determine the parameters whereby this type of system with oxygen heteroatoms can be adequately described within the widely used mean-field Hubbard model. Altogether, we provide insight to both theoretically model and devise GNR-based nanostructures with tunable magnetic properties.

11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(50): 26346-26350, 2021 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664770

RESUMO

The Diels-Alder reaction is one of the most popular reactions in organic chemistry. However, its use in the field of on-surface synthesis is hampered by the spatial restrictions of this cycloaddition reaction. Herein we selected a cyclic strained triyne to demonstrate an on-surface hexadehydro-Diels-Alder reaction in a single molecule. The reaction was studied in detail by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) with CO-functionalized tips. Our results pave the way to use this iconic pericyclic reaction for on-surface synthesis, introducing the concept of atom economy in the field.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(18): 10845-10851, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908516

RESUMO

The on-surface synthesis of non-planar nanographenes is a challenging task. Herein, with the aid of bond-resolving scanning tunneling microscopy (BRSTM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we present a systematic study aiming at the fabrication of corannulene-based nanographenes via intramolecular cyclodehydrogenation on a Au(111) surface. The formation of non-planar targeted products is confirmed to be energetically unfavorable compared to the formation of planar/quasi-planar undesired competing monomer products. In addition, the activation of intermolecular coupling further inhibits the formation of the final targeted product. Although it was not possible to access the corannulene moiety by means of on-surface synthesis, partial cyclodehydrogenation of the molecular precursors was demonstrated.

13.
ACS Nano ; 15(3): 5610-5617, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656868

RESUMO

Nanostructured graphene has been widely studied in recent years due to the tunability of its electronic properties and its associated interest for a variety of fields, such as nanoelectronics and spintronics. However, many of the graphene nanostructures of technological interest are synthesized under ultrahigh vacuum, and their limited stability as they are brought out of such an inert environment may compromise their applicability. In this study, a combination of bond-resolving scanning probe microscopy (BR-SPM), along with theoretical calculations, has been employed to study (3,1)-chiral graphene nanoribbons [(3,1)-chGNRs] that were synthesized on a Au(111) surface and then exposed to oxidizing environments. Exposure to the ambient atmosphere, along with the required annealing treatment to desorb a sufficiently large fraction of contaminants to allow for its postexposure analysis by BR-SPM, revealed a significant oxidation of the ribbons, with a dramatically disruptive effect on their electronic properties. More controlled experiments avoiding high temperatures and exposing the ribbons only to low pressures of pure oxygen show that also under these more gentle conditions the ribbons are oxidized. From these results, we obtain additional insights into the preferential reaction sites and the nature of the main defects that are caused by oxygen. We conclude that graphene nanoribbons with zigzag edge segments require forms of protection before they can be used in or transferred through ambient conditions.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14614, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884078

RESUMO

We employ chevron-like graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) synthesized by a solution-based chemical route to develop a novel electrochemical sensor for determination of the neurotransmitter epinephrine (EPI). The sensor surface, a glassy carbon electrode modified with GNRs, is characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, which show that the electrode surface modification comprises of bi-dimensional multilayer-stacked GNRs that retain their molecular structure. The charge transfer process occurring at the electrode interface is evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The sensor is applied to the determination of EPI, employing as an analytical signal the reduction peak corresponding to the epinephrinechrome-leucoepinephrinechrome transition (E = - 0.25 V) instead of the oxidation peak usually employed in the literature (E = + 0.6 V) in order to minimize interferences. The results obtained demonstrate that chevron-like nanoribbons synthesized by solution methods exhibit reliable electrocatalytic activity for EPI determination. Using differential pulse voltammetry, we obtain a linear concentration range from 6.4 × 10-6 to 1.0 × 10-4 M and a detection limit of 2.1 × 10-6 M. The applicability of the sensor was evaluated by determining EPI in pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory results.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Epinefrina/análise , Grafite/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Análise Espectral/métodos
15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(17): 177201, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412280

RESUMO

Graphene can develop large magnetic moments in custom-crafted open-shell nanostructures such as triangulene, a triangular piece of graphene with zigzag edges. Current methods of engineering graphene nanosystems on surfaces succeeded in producing atomically precise open-shell structures, but demonstration of their net spin remains elusive to date. Here, we fabricate triangulenelike graphene systems and demonstrate that they possess a spin S=1 ground state. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy identifies the fingerprint of an underscreened S=1 Kondo state on these flakes at low temperatures, signaling the dominant ferromagnetic interactions between two spins. Combined with simulations based on the meanfield Hubbard model, we show that this S=1 π paramagnetism is robust and can be turned into an S=1/2 state by additional H atoms attached to the radical sites. Our results demonstrate that π paramagnetism of high-spin graphene flakes can survive on surfaces, opening the door to study the quantum behavior of interacting π spins in graphene systems.

16.
Chem Sci ; 11(21): 5441-5446, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34094071

RESUMO

Fine management of chiral processes on solid surfaces has progressed over the years, yet still faces the need for the controlled and selective production of advanced chiral materials. Here, we report on the use of enantiomerically enriched molecular building blocks to demonstrate the transmission of their intrinsic chirality along a sequence of on-surface reactions. Triggered by thermal annealing, the on-surface reactions induced in this experiment involve firstly the coupling of the chiral reactants into chiral polymers and subsequently their transformation into planar prochiral graphene nanoribbons. Our study reveals that the axial chirality of the reactant is not only transferred to the polymers, but also to the planar chirality of the graphene nanoribbon end products. Such chirality transfer consequently allows, starting from adequate enantioenriched reactants, for the controlled production of chiral and prochiral organic nanoarchitectures with pre-defined handedness.

17.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(12)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817022

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and thus, an extensively studied disease. Nonetheless, the effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury elicited by oxidative stress on cardiac fibroblast function associated with tissue repair are not completely understood. Ascorbic acid, deferoxamine, and N-acetylcysteine (A/D/N) are antioxidants with known cardioprotective effects, but the potential beneficial effects of combining these antioxidants in the tissue repair properties of cardiac fibroblasts remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the pharmacological association of these antioxidants, at low concentrations, could confer protection to cardiac fibroblasts against simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury. To test this, neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts were subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion in the presence or absence of A/D/N treatment added at the beginning of simulated reperfusion. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue staining, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed using a 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate probe. Cell death was measured by flow cytometry using propidium iodide. Cell signaling mechanisms, differentiation into myofibroblasts and pro-collagen I production were determined by Western blot, whereas migration was evaluated using the wound healing assay. Our results show that A/D/N association using a low concentration of each antioxidant increased cardiac fibroblast viability, but that their separate administration did not provide protection. In addition, A/D/N association attenuated oxidative stress triggered by simulated ischemia/reperfusion, induced phosphorylation of pro-survival extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and PKB (protein kinase B)/Akt, and decreased phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic proteins p38- mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, treatment with A/D/N also reduced reperfusion-induced apoptosis, evidenced by a decrease in the sub-G1 population, lower fragmentation of pro-caspases 9 and 3, as well as increased B-cell lymphomaextra large protein (Bcl-xL)/Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) ratio. Furthermore, simulated ischemia/reperfusion abolished serum-induced migration, TGF-ß1 (transforming growth factor beta 1)-mediated cardiac fibroblast-to-cardiac myofibroblast differentiation, and angiotensin II-induced pro-collagen I synthesis, but these effects were prevented by treatment with A/D/N. In conclusion, this is the first study where a pharmacological combination of A/D/N, at low concentrations, protected cardiac fibroblast viability and function after simulated ischemia/reperfusion, and thereby represents a novel therapeutic approach for cardioprotection.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(73): 10256-10259, 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141797

RESUMO

A nanographene formed by the fusion of 22 benzene rings has been prepared by combining an in-solution Pd-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction and on-surface Au-promoted cyclodehydrogenation. The structure and electronic properties of the resulting three-fold symmetric C66H24 molecule have been characterized by scanning probe microscopy with atomic resolution and corroborated by theoretical modelling.

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