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1.
J Hosp Infect ; 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Catheter removal is recommended in adults with S. aureus central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) but is controversial in children with long-term central venous catheters (LTCVC). We evaluated the occurrence of catheter salvage strategy (CSS) in children with S. aureus LTCVC-associated CLABSI and assessed determinants of CSS failure. METHODS: We retrospectively included children (<18 years) with an LTCVC and hospitalized with S. aureus CLABSI in 8 French tertiary care hospitals (2010-2018). CSS was defined as an LTCVC left in place ≥ 72 hours after initiating empiric antibiotic treatment for suspected bacteremia. Characteristics of patients were reviewed, and multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with CSS failure (i.e., persistence, recurrence, or complications of bacteremia). RESULTS: We included 273 episodes of S. aureus LTCVC-associated CLABSI. CSS was chosen in 194 out of 273 (71%) cases and failed in 74 of them (38%). The main type of CSS failure was the persistence of bacteremia (39 out of 74 cases, 53%). Factors independently associated with CSS failure were: history of catheter infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.18, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.38-7.36), CLABSI occurring on an implantable venous access device (aOR 7.61, 95%CI 1.98-29.20) when compared with tunneled-cuffed CVC, polymicrobial CLABSI (aOR 3.45, 95%CI 1.25-9.50), and severe sepsis at the initial stage of infection (aOR 4.46, 95%CI 1.18-16.82). CONCLUSIONS: CSS was frequently chosen in children with S. aureus LTCVC-associated CLABSI, and failure occurred in one-third of cases. The identified risk factors may help clinicians identify children at risk for CSS failure.

2.
NPJ Digit Med ; 7(1): 162, 2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38902477

RESUMO

Middle-ear conditions are common causes of primary care visits, hearing impairment, and inappropriate antibiotic use. Deep learning (DL) may assist clinicians in interpreting otoscopic images. This study included patients over 5 years old from an ambulatory ENT practice in Strasbourg, France, between 2013 and 2020. Digital otoscopic images were obtained using a smartphone-attached otoscope (Smart Scope, Karl Storz, Germany) and labeled by a senior ENT specialist across 11 diagnostic classes (reference standard). An Inception-v2 DL model was trained using 41,664 otoscopic images, and its diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by calculating class-specific estimates of sensitivity and specificity. The model was then incorporated into a smartphone app called i-Nside. The DL model was evaluated on a validation set of 3,962 images and a held-out test set comprising 326 images. On the validation set, all class-specific estimates of sensitivity and specificity exceeded 98%. On the test set, the DL model achieved a sensitivity of 99.0% (95% confidence interval: 94.5-100) and a specificity of 95.2% (91.5-97.6) for the binary classification of normal vs. abnormal images; wax plugs were detected with a sensitivity of 100% (94.6-100) and specificity of 97.7% (95.0-99.1); other class-specific estimates of sensitivity and specificity ranged from 33.3% to 92.3% and 96.0% to 100%, respectively. We present an end-to-end DL-enabled system able to achieve expert-level diagnostic accuracy for identifying normal tympanic aspects and wax plugs within digital otoscopic images. However, the system's performance varied for other middle-ear conditions. Further prospective validation is necessary before wider clinical deployment.

3.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 39: 100868, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38420107

RESUMO

Background: The clinical management of Child sexual abuse (CSA) demands specialised skills from healthcare professionals due to its sensitivity, legal implications, and serious physical health and mental health effects. Standardised, comprehensive clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) may be pivotal. In this systematic review, we examined existing CSA national CPGs (NCPGs) from European countries to assess their quality and reporting. Methods: We systematically searched six international databases and multiple grey literature sources, reporting by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards. Eligible guidelines were CSA guidance from national health agencies or societies in 34 COST Action 19106 Network Countries (CANC), published between January 2012 and November 2022. Two independent researchers searched, screened, reviewed, and extracted data. NCPGs were compared for completeness with reference WHO 2017 and 2019 guidelines. We used the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) to appraise quality and reporting. PROSPERO: CRD42022320747. Findings: Of 2919 records identified by database searches, none met inclusion criteria. Of 4714 records identified by other methods, 24 NCPGs from 17 (50%) of CANC countries were included. In 17 (50%) of eligible countries, no NCPGs were found. Content varied significantly within and between countries. NCPGs lacked many components in state-of-the art clinical practice compared to WHO reference standards, particularly in safety and risk assessment, interactions with caregivers, and mental health interventions. Appraisal by AGREE II revealed shortcomings in NCPG development, regarding scientific rigour, stakeholder involvement, implementation and evaluation. Interpretation: A notable number of European countries lack an NCPG; existing NCPGs often fall short. The healthcare response to CSA in Europe requires a coordinated approach to develop and implement high-quality CPGs. We advocate for a multidisciplinary team to develop a pan-European CSA guideline to ensure quality care for survivors. Funding: Funding was provided by the International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children.

4.
J Pediatr ; 264: 113763, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37778411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the level of inconsistency between pictures on baby diaper packaging and safe infant sleep recommendations (SISRs) in Europe. STUDY DESIGN: We attempted to identify all packaging of baby diapers sold in 11 European countries for infants weighing less than 5 kg through internet searches from July 2022 through February 2023. For each type of package, we extracted whether there was a picture depicting a baby, whether the baby was sleeping, and whether the picture of the sleeping baby was inconsistent with ≥1 of 3 SISRs: (i) nonsupine sleeping position, (ii) soft objects or loose bedding, or (iii) sharing a sleep surface with another person. Data were aggregated at the country level, and a random-effects meta-analysis of proportions was used to obtain summary estimates. The outcome was the summary estimate of the proportion of pictures that were inconsistent with SISRs. RESULTS: We identified 631 baby diaper packaging types of which 49% (95% CI: 42-57; n = 311) displayed a picture of a sleeping baby. Among those 311 packages, 79% (95% CI 73-84) were inconsistent with ≥1 SISR, including a nonsupine sleeping position, 45% (95% CI 39-51), soft objects or loose bedding such as pillows or blankets, 51% (95% CI 46-57), and sharing a sleep surface with another person, 10% (95% CI 4-18). CONCLUSIONS: Pictures on baby diaper packaging in Europe are often inconsistent with SISRs. The prevention of sudden unexpected death in infancy requires action from manufacturers and legislators to stop parents' exposure to misleading images that may lead to dangerous practices.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita do Lactente , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Morte Súbita do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , Pais , Embalagem de Medicamentos , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Sono
5.
Arch Pediatr ; 30(8): 591-594, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37709607

RESUMO

The role of nutritional interventions for the primary prevention of cow's milk allergy (CMA) remains debated as well as the role of early introduction of allergenic foods, which is largely encouraged from the beginning of complementary feeding. Considering the introduction of cow's milk protein (CMP), current recommendations suggest avoidance of any cow's milk formula (CMF) supplements in breastfed infants in the maternity ward. By contrast, based on poor evidence, some authors support systematic supplements of CMP in breastfed children at risk of allergy from the first week of life. The Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Pediatrics considers that such a proposal requires more clinical studies and mainly randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trials before becoming a recommendation.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Lactente , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/prevenção & controle , Aleitamento Materno , Leite , Fórmulas Infantis , Alérgenos , Prevenção Primária
6.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 24(9): e441-e451, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37260312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the distribution, consequences and potential determinants of time to antibiotics administration in children with community-onset severe bacterial infections (COSBIs). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the available data from a prospective population-based study from 2009 to 2014. SETTING: An administrative area in western France accounting for 13% of the national pediatric population. PATIENTS: All children from 1 month to 16 years old admitted to a PICU or who died before admission and had a COSBI. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The time to antibiotics was divided into patient interval (from first signs of COSBI to the first medical consultation) and medical interval (from the first consultation to appropriate antibiotics administration). The association between the medical interval and child outcome was studied by a multinomial logistic regression model and the potential determinants of the patient and medical intervals were by a Cox proportional-hazards model. Of the 227 children included (median age 2.1 yr), 22 died (9.7%), and 21 (9.3%) had severe sequelae at PICU discharge. Median patient and medical intervals were 7.0 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 2.0-16.5 hr) and 3.3 hours (IQR, 1.1-12.2 hr), respectively. The last quartile of medical interval was not associated with death (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.7; 95% CI, 0.8-17.5) or survival with severe sequelae (aOR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.4-4.0) versus survival without severe sequelae. Patient interval was shorter in younger children (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99), and medical interval was reduced when the first consultation was conducted in a hospital (aHR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0) versus outpatient medicine. CONCLUSIONS: For children with COSBI, we found no significant association between medical interval and mortality or severe sequelae. An initial hospital referral could help reduce the time to antibiotics in COSBIs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Bacterianas , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Prospectivos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico
7.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e064008, 2023 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37068895

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with potentially severe health and mental health consequences. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) should be familiar with risk factors and potential indicators of CSA, and able to provide appropriate medical management. The WHO issued global guidelines for the clinical care of children with CSA, based on rigorous review of the evidence base. The current systematic review identifies existing CSA guidelines issued by government agencies and academic societies in the European Region and assesses their quality and clarity to illuminate strengths and identify opportunities for improvement. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This 10-database systematic review will be conducted according to the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines and will be reported according to The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Guidance for HCPs regarding CSA, written by a national governmental agency or academic society of HCPs within 34 COST Action 19106 Network Countries (CANC) and published in peer-reviewed or grey literature between January 2012 and November 2022, is eligible for inclusion. Two independent researchers will search the international literature, screen, review and extract data. Included guidelines will be assessed for completeness and clarity, compared with the WHO 2017/2019 guidelines on CSA, and evaluated for consistency between the CANC guidelines. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II tool and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology will be used to evaluate CANC guidelines. Descriptive statistics will summarise content similarities and differences between the WHO guidelines and national guidelines; data will be summarised using counts, frequencies, proportions and per cent agreement between country-specific guidelines and the WHO 2017/2019 guidelines. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: There are no individuals or protected health information involved and no safety issues identified. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed medical journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022320747.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Delitos Sexuais , Criança , Humanos , Literatura Cinzenta , Saúde Mental , Projetos de Pesquisa
8.
Acta Paediatr ; 112(4): 876-882, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36780249

RESUMO

AIM: Our aim was to assess suboptimal care before a diagnosis of severe child physical abuse in western France. METHODS: A confidential inquiry was carried out, based on children under 6 years of age who were hospitalised in the Nantes regional university hospital from 2016 to 2018. Two researchers retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all the children who were reported to the authorities for suspected severe child physical abuse. Two experts determined the optimality of care and identified the main categories of suboptimal care. RESULTS: The median age of the 94 children included in the study was 8 months. A fifth of them had intra-cranial injuries and a quarter had fractures. One child died and a third had severe sequelae at hospital discharge. Included children frequently (37%) received suboptimal care before the diagnosis of severe CPA and this fell into two categories: delayed diagnosis was experienced by 17% and ineffective secondary prevention by 22%. CONCLUSION: Suboptimal care for severe child physical abuse was frequent and fell into two categories: delayed diagnosis and ineffective secondary prevention. These results can help us to design corrective actions.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Diagnóstico Tardio , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Abuso Físico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevenção Secundária , Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico
9.
Eur J Pediatr ; 182(3): 1019-1028, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542162

RESUMO

Incomplete vaccination in the pediatric population is a growing public health issue in high-income countries, but its determinants are poorly understood. Their identification is necessary to design target actions that can improve vaccination uptake. Our aim was to assess the determinants of incomplete vaccination in two-year-old children in France. Among the 18,329 children included in the 2011 ELFE French nationwide population-based birth cohort, we selected those for whom vaccination status was available at age two years. Incomplete vaccination was defined as ≥ 1 missing dose of recommended vaccines. Potential determinants of incomplete vaccination were identified by using logistic regression, taking into account attrition and missing data. Of the 5,740 (31.3%) children analyzed, 46.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 44.7-48.0) were incompletely vaccinated. Factors independently associated with incomplete vaccination were having older siblings (adjusted odds ratio 1.18, 95% CI [1.03-1.34] and 1.28 [1.06-1.54] for one and ≥ 2 siblings, respectively, vs. 0), residing in an isolated area (1.92 [1.36-2.75] vs. an urban area), parents not following health recommendations or using alternative medicines (1.81 [1.41-2.34] and 1.23 [1.04-1.46], respectively, vs. parents confident in institutions and following heath recommendations), not being visited by a maternal and child protection service nurse during the child's first two months (1.19 [1.03-1.38] vs. ≥ 1 visit), and being followed by a general practitioner (2.87 [2.52-3.26] vs. a pediatrician). CONCLUSIONS: Incomplete vaccination was highly prevalent in the studied pediatric population and was associated with several socio-demographic, parental, and healthcare service characteristics. These findings may help in designing targeted corrective actions. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Incomplete vaccination in the pediatric population is a growing public health issue in high-income countries. • The partial understanding of the determinants of incomplete vaccination precludes the design of effective targeted corrective actions. WHAT IS NEW: • High prevalence of incomplete vaccination at age two years in France. • Incomplete vaccination was independently associated with several socio-demographic, parental, and healthcare service characteristics.


Assuntos
Coorte de Nascimento , Vacinação , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Pais , Família , França
10.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 76(3): e46-e60, 2023 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399776

RESUMO

Reducing the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is one of the top priorities of public health policies worldwide. One of the recognized means of achieving this objective is to improve the diet quality. The Nutri-Score (N-S) is a [five-color-A, B, C, D, E letters] front-of-pack labeling logo intended to help consumers quickly identify the healthier prepackaged foods within a food category. Available studies have shown that the N-S is an efficient tool to achieve this aim in terms of consumers' awareness, perception, understanding, and purchasing and that its use may help to reduce the prevalence of NCDs. The N-S is currently implemented on a voluntary basis in 7 European countries and a discussion is underway within the European Commission to achieve a harmonized mandatory label. However, no study on the putative impact of the N-S on children's dietary patterns and health is available. The N-S is not applicable to infants' and young children's formulas and to specific baby foods, the compositions of which are already laid down in European Union regulations. The N-S does not replace age-appropriate dietary guidelines. As children consume an increasing number of adult type and processed foods, the relevance of the N-S for children should be evaluated considering the children's high specific requirements, especially in younger children. This is especially necessary for fitting fat and iron requirements, whereas protein-rich foods should be better framed. Moreover, efforts should be made to inform on how to use the N-S and in education on healthy diets.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alimentos Infantis , Adulto , Lactente , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Escolaridade , Alimentos Formulados , Valor Nutritivo
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2226182, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040743

RESUMO

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic and the containment and mitigation measures taken were feared to be associated with increased child abuse. Objective: To investigate the trend of abusive head trauma (AHT) incidence and severity in infants during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a time-series analysis of a longitudinal, population-based, cohort study, all consecutive cases of AHT in infants younger than 12 months old referred between January 2017 and December 2021 to Necker Hospital for Sick Children, the single regional pediatric neurosurgery center for the Paris metropolitan area, were included. AHT was defined as 1 or more subdural hemorrhage and a positive multidisciplinary evaluation after a social, clinical, biological, and radiological workup. Data were analyzed from January to March 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the monthly incidence of AHT, which was analyzed using Poisson regression modeling. Secondary outcomes included mortality and severe morbidity and were studied with logistic and linear regressions. The monthly incidence of neurosurgical interventions for hydrocephalus was used as a control series. Results: Among the 99 included infants with AHT (median [IQR] age, 4 [3-6] months; 64 boys [65%]), 86 of 99 (87%) had bridging vein thrombosis, 74 of 99 (75%) had retinal hemorrhages, 23 of 72 (32%) had fractures, 26 of 99 (26%) had status epilepticus, 20 of 99 (20%) had skin injuries, 53 of 99 (54%) underwent neurosurgical interventions, and 13 of 99 (13%) died. Compared with the prepandemic period (2017-2019), AHT incidence was stable in 2020 (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.59-1.77) and then significantly increased in 2021 (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.23-2.99). The severity of AHT worsened in 2021 in terms of mortality (odds ratio 9.39; 95% CI, 1.88-47.00). Other secondary outcomes and the control series were not significantly modified. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, a marked increase in AHT incidence and severity occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Paris metropolitan area. These results suggest the need for clinical awareness and preventive actions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pandemias , Paris/epidemiologia
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2216778, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696162

RESUMO

Importance: Assessment of the quality of initial care is necessary to target priority actions that can reduce the still high morbidity and mortality due to community-onset severe bacterial infections (COSBIs) among children. Objective: To study the prevalence, characteristics, and determinants of suboptimal care in the initial management of COSBIs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, population-based, cohort study and confidential enquiry was conducted between August 2009 and January 2014 in western France, a region accounting for 15% of the French pediatric population (1 968 474 children aged 1 month to 16 years) and including 6 pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and 35 emergency departments. Participants included all children aged 1 month to 16 years who died before PICU admission or were admitted to a PICU with a COSBI (ie, bacterial sepsis, including meningitis, purpura fulminans, and pulmonary, osteoarticular, intra-abdominal, cardiac, and soft-tissue severe infections). Data were analyzed from March to June 2020. Exposures: Suboptimal care determined according to evaluation of 8 types of care: (1) the delay in seeking care by family, (2) the physician's evaluation of severity, (3) the patient's referral at the first consultation with signs of severity, (4) the timing and (5) dosage of antibiotic treatment, (6) the timing and (7) volume of fluid bolus administration, and (8) the clinical reassessment after fluid bolus. Main Outcomes and Measures: Two experts assessed the quality of care before death or PICU admission as optimal, possibly suboptimal, or certainly suboptimal. The consequences and determinants of certainly suboptimal care were identified with multinomial logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models. Results: Of the 259 children included (median [IQR] age, 24 [6-66] months; 143 boys [55.2%]), 27 (10.4%) died, and 25 (9.6%) had severe sequelae at PICU discharge. The quality of care was certainly suboptimal in 89 cases (34.4%). Suboptimal care was more frequent in children with sequelae (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.61; 95% CI, 1.19-26.36) and less frequent in children who died (aOR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.04-0.65) vs those surviving without sequelae. Factors independently associated with suboptimal care were age younger than 5 years (aOR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.25-7.90), diagnosis of sepsis with no source (aOR, 5.77; 95% CI, 1.64-20.30) or meningitis (aOR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.15-9.96) vs other severe infections, and care by a primary care physician (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.17-8.88) vs a pediatric hospital service. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that suboptimal care is frequent in the initial management of COSBI and is associated with severe sequelae. The paradoxical association with reduced risk of death may be explained by an insufficient adjustment on bacterial or host intrinsic factors. Management could be optimized by improving the quality of primary care, especially for young children.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Sepse , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/terapia , Adulto Jovem
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e225964, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467734

RESUMO

Importance: An international comparison of pediatric outpatient prescriptions (POPs) is pivotal to investigate inadequate practices at the national scale and guide corrective actions. Objective: To compare annual POP prevalence among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries. Evidence Review: Two independent reviewers systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and institutes of public health or drug agency websites for studies published since 2000 and reporting POP prevalence (expressed as number of patients aged <20 years with ≥1 POP per 1000 pediatric patients per year) in OECD member countries or large geographic areas within them. Risk of bias was assessed for exhaustiveness and representativeness. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were used to compare the highest and lowest POP prevalence among countries overall, by levels of Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification for the overall pediatric population, and by age group (ie, ages <5-6 vs ≥5-6 years), stratifying on prescription-only drug (POD) status. Findings: Among 11 studies performed on 3 regional and 8 national medicoadministrative databases in 11 countries, 35 552 550 pediatric patients were included. The overall risk of bias was low (10 studies were representative [90.9%], and the prevalence denominator included nonusers of health care for 9 studies [81.8%]). Prevalence of 1 or more POP per year ranged from 480 to 857 pediatric patients per 1000 in Sweden and France, respectively (PR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.8-1.8]). Overall, among 8 studies reporting ATC level 1 drugs, Denmark had the lowest POP prevalence (eg, systemic hormonal preparations: 9 pediatric patients per 1000 per year) and France the highest (eg, systemic hormonal preparation: 216 pediatric patients per 1000 per year). Among 8 studies reporting ATC level 2 drugs for PODs, the PR between France and Denmark was 108.2 (95% CI, 108.2-108.2) for systemic corticosteroids and 2.1 (95% CI, 2.1-2.1) for drugs for obstructive airway disease. The PR for antibiotics was 3.4 (95% CI, 3.4-3.4) between New Zealand and Sweden. For pediatric patients aged 5 to 6 years or older, the PR for sex hormones was 2.1 (95% CI, 2.1-2.1) between Denmark and France. Among 7 studies reporting ATC level 5 drugs, the prevalence of the 10 most prevalent PODs was less than 100 pediatric patients per 1000 per year in Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands and less than 300 pediatric patients per 1000 per year in France and New Zealand. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found large between-country variations in POPs, which may suggest substantial inappropriate prescriptions. The findings may suggest guidance for educational campaigns and regulatory decisions in some OECD member countries.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Prescrições , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , França , Humanos , Prevalência
15.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 16: 100339, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35252944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The infant mortality rate (IMR) serves as a key indicator of population health. METHODS: We used data from the French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies on births and deaths during the first year of life from 2001 to 2019 to calculate IMR aggregated by month. We ran joinpoint regressions to identify inflection points and assess the linear trend of each segment. Exploratory analyses were performed for overall IMR, as well as by age at death subgroups (early neonatal [D0-D6], late neonatal [D7-27], and post-neonatal [D28-364]), and by sex. We performed sensitivity analyses by excluding deaths at D0 and using other time-series modeling strategies. RESULTS: Over the 19-year study period, 53,077 infant deaths occurred, for an average IMR of 3·63/1000 (4·00 in male, 3·25 in female); 24·4% of these deaths occurred during the first day of life and 47·8% during the early neonatal period. Joinpoint analysis identified two inflection points in 2005 and 2012. The IMR decreased sharply from 2001 to 2005 (slope: -0·0167 deaths/1000 live births/month; 95%CI: -0·0219 to -0·0116) and then decreased slowly between 2005 and 2012 (slope: -0·0041; 95%CI: -0·0065 to -0·0016). From 2012 onwards, a significant increase in IMR was observed (slope: 0·0033; 95%CI: 0·0011 to 0·0056). Subgroup analyses indicated that these trends were driven notably by an increase in the early neonatal period. Sensitivity analyses provided consistent results. INTERPRETATION: The recent historic increase in IMR since 2012 in France should prompt urgent in-depth investigation to understand the causes and prepare corrective actions. FUNDING: No financial relationships with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years, no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

16.
J Pediatr ; 245: 158-164.e4, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the ambulatory proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prescription in French children, its trends, and the impact of French (2014) and international (2018) clinical guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: We described PPI prescription rates based on national dispensation data in French children (IQVIA's Xponent database, 2009-2019). Using a segmented linear regression, we assessed the impact of clinical guidelines on PPI prescription rates. Analyses were performed for the overall pediatric population and by age subgroups (infants <2 years old, children 2-11 years old, adolescents 12-17 years old). RESULTS: During the study period, 8 060 288 pediatric PPI prescriptions were filled, with a mean PPI prescription rate of 52.5 per 1000 inhabitants per year. Between 2009 and 2019, the PPI prescription rate increased by 41% in the overall pediatric population (+110% in infants). The PPI prescription rate showed seasonal patterns with peaks in winter. After the release of French guidelines, significant decreases in trends of prescription rates occurred overall (change in trend -0.28, 95% CI -0.34;-0.23) and across all age groups. In infants, this change in trend was not sufficient to reverse the PPI prescription rate that was still increasing over time. In children, the PPI prescription rate slightly decreased and in adolescents, it was stable. After the release of international guidelines, a significant decrease in trend occurred in adolescents only (change in trend -0.26, 95% CI -0.47; -0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric PPI prescription rate in France was high, displayed a major increase over the last decade, mainly among infants, and was modestly affected by clinical guidelines.


Assuntos
Prescrições , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Padrões de Prática Médica , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Projetos de Pesquisa
17.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 684628, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746044

RESUMO

Objective(s): Blood cultures (BC), when performed in children seen in the emergency department with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are most of the time sterile. We described the diagnostic accuracy of white blood cells (WBC), absolute neutrophils count (ANC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT) to predict blood culture (BC) result in childhood CAP. Study Design: Secondary analysis of a prospective study carried out in eight pediatric emergency departments (France, 2009-2018), including children (≤15 years) with CAP. Analyses involved univariate comparisons and ROC curves. Results: We included 13,752 children with CAP. BC was positive in 137 (3.6%) of the 3,829 children (mean age 3.7 years) in whom it was performed, mostly with Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 107). In children with bacteremia, ANC, CRP and PCT levels were higher (median 12,256 vs. 9,251/mm3, 223 vs. 72 mg/L and 8.6 vs. 1.0 ng/mL, respectively; p ≤ 0.002), but WBC levels were not. The area under the ROC curve of PCT (0.73 [95%CI 0.64-0.82]) was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.01) than that of WBC (0.51 [0.43-0.60]) and of ANC (0.55 [0.46-0.64]), but not than that of CRP (0.66 [0.56-0.76]; p = 0.21). CRP and PCT thresholds that provided a sensitivity of at least 90% were 30 mg/L and 0.25 ng/mL, respectively, for a specificity of 25.4 and 23.4%, respectively. CRP and PCT thresholds that provided a specificity of at least 90% were 300 mg/L and 20 ng/mL, respectively, for a sensitivity of 31.3 and 28.9%, respectively. Conclusions: PCT and CRP are the best routinely available predictive biomarkers of bacteremia in childhood CAP.

18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2129068, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787659

RESUMO

Importance: The highly variable practices observed regarding the early detection and diagnostic workup of suspected child physical abuse contribute to suboptimal care and could be partially related to discrepancies in clinical guidelines. Objective: To systematically evaluate the completeness, clarity, and consistency of guidelines for child physical abuse in high-income countries. Evidence Review: For this systematic review, national or regional guidelines that were disseminated from 2010 to 2020 related to the early detection and diagnostic workup of child physical abuse in infants aged 2 years or younger by academic societies or health agencies in high-income countries were retrieved. The definitions of sentinel injuries and the recommended diagnostic workup (imaging and laboratory tests) for child physical abuse were compared. Data were analyzed from July 2020 to February 2021. Findings: Within the 20 included guidelines issued in 15 countries, 168 of 408 expected statements (41%) were missing and 10 statements (4%) were unclear. Among 16 guidelines characterizing sentinel injuries, all of them included skin injuries, such as bruises, hematoma, or burns, but only 8 guidelines (50%) included intraoral injuries and fractures. All 20 guidelines agreed on the indication for radiological skeletal survey, head computed tomography, and head magnetic resonance imaging but differed for those of bone scintigraphy, follow-up skeletal survey, spinal magnetic resonance imaging, cranial ultrasonography, chest computed tomography, and abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography. Additionally, 16 guidelines agreed on exploring primary hemostasis and coagulation but not on the tests to perform, and 8 guidelines (50%) mentioned the need to investigate bone metabolism. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that guidelines for the diagnosis of child physical abuse in infants were often clear but lacked completeness and were discrepant on major issues. These results may help identify priorities for well-designed original diagnostic accuracy studies, systematic reviews, or an international consensus process to produce clear and standardized guidelines to optimize practices and infant outcomes.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Países Desenvolvidos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
19.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 5: 100114, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The monitoring of head circumference (HC) is essential to early detect any conditions affecting its growth in early childhood. A positive secular trend and regional specificities in HC suggested the need to provide updated national HC reference growth charts. METHODS: We extracted all growth data collected from 42 primary-care physicians from across the French metropolitan territory who used the same electronic medical-records software. We selected HC measurements up to age five years for all children who were born after 1990 with birth weight > 2500 g. We derived new HC growth charts by using Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape, then externally validated them until 30 months of age by comparison with the national population-based Étude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE) birth cohort and compared them to previous French and WHO growth charts. FINDINGS: With 973,869 HC measurements from 157,762 children, new calibrated HC growth charts from birth to age five years were generated. The new HC growth charts showed good external fit by comparison with the ELFE birth cohort. As compared with the new HC growth charts, the previous French and WHO growth charts mean HC z-scores were, respectively, -0.4 and -0.6 SD for girls and -0.2 and -0.6 SD for boys. INTERPRETATION: We produced and validated national calibrated HC growth charts by using a novel big-data approach applied to data routinely collected in clinical practice. Comparison with previous French and WHO growth charts confirmed a positive secular trend since the 1960s and regional specificities. FUNDING: The French Ministry of Health; Laboratoires Guigoz-General Pediatrics section of the French Society of Pediatrics-Paediatric Epidemiological Research Group; the French Association of Ambulatory Pediatrics; and educational grant from the Regional Health Agency of Ile-de-France.

20.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 7: 100129, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paediatric outpatient prescription (POP) monitoring is pivotal to identify inadequate prescriptions and optimize drug use. We aimed at describing recent trends in POPs in France. METHODS: All reimbursed dispensations of outpatient prescribed drugs (excluding vaccines) were prospectively collected for the paediatric population (<18 years old) in the French national health database in 2010-2011 and 2018-2019 (mean 117,356,938/year). POP prevalence (proportion of children receiving ≥1 drug prescriptions/year) was calculated by age groups and compared by prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). Given the large sample size, 95% confidence intervals of POP prevalences and PRRs did not differ from estimates. FINDINGS: Among the 14,510,023 children resident in France in 2018-2019, mean POP prevalence was 857‰ children. Most prescribed therapeutic classes were analgesics (643‰), antibiotics (405‰), nasal corticosteroids (328‰), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (244‰), antihistamines (246‰) and systemic corticosteroids (210‰). POPs decreased with age from 976‰ for infants to 782‰ for adolescents. Children <6 years old were notably more exposed to inhaled corticosteroids (PRR=3.06), non-penicillin beta-lactam antibacterial agents (PRR=3.05) and systemic corticosteroids (PRR=2.11) than older ones. The POP prevalence was slightly higher (PRR=1.04) during 2018-2019 than 2010-2011, with marked increases for anti-emetics (PRR=1.84), vitamin D (PRR=1.49), proton pump inhibitors (PRR=1.42), systemic contraceptives (PRR=1.24) and nasal corticosteroids (PRR=1.21) and decreases for propulsive/prokinetic agents (PRR=0.09), NSAIDs (PRR=0.73) and systemic antibiotics (PRR=0.88). INTERPRETATION: POP remained highly prevalent in France throughout the 2010s, especially for children <6 years old, with only a few improvements for selected therapeutic classes. These findings should prompt clinical guidance campaigns and/or regulatory policies. FUNDING: Internal funding.

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