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1.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040370

RESUMO

Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is aberrantly expressed or mutated in multiple types of cancer cells and plays an oncogenic role in tumorigenesis and development in most cancers. Results from pilot clinical studies have implied that EZH2 inhibitors have therapeutic potential against some cancers. However, the exact mechanisms by which EZH2 plays oncogenic roles and EZH2 inhibition exerts anticancer effects are incompletely understood. To date, the findings of studies focusing on EZH2 and cancer cells have failed to fully explain the observations in preclinical and clinical studies. Therefore, recent studies about the roles of EZH2 in cancers have shifted from cancer cells to immune cells. The human immune system is a complex network comprising multiple subpopulations of immune cells. Immune cells communicate and interact with cancer cells during cancer development and treatment, dictating the fate of cancer cells. Elucidating the roles of EZH2 in immune cells, especially in cancer patients, promises the identification of novel immunotherapeutic strategies or priming of existing immunotherapies against cancer. Hence, we reviewed the studies focusing on the involvement of EZH2 in various immune cells, aiming to provide ideas for immunotherapies targeting EZH2 in immune cells.

2.
Bot Stud ; 61(1): 27, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genotypic variations are seen in cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation in rice plants. Cultivars that show low Cd translocation from the root into shoot can be selected to reduce Cd contamination in rice grains. This study aims to clarify the physiological regulation related to Cd absorption by rice plants for screening out the cultivars, which have relatively low Cd accumulation in grains. Eight Taiwan mega cultivars of paddy rice: japonica (TY3, TK9, TNG71, and KH145 cultivars), indica (TCS10 and TCS17 cultivars), and glutinous (TKW1 and TKW3 cultivars), which are qualified with the criteria for rice grain quality by the Council of Agriculture, Taiwan, were used for illustration. An experiment in hydroponics was conducted for the rice seedlings with a treatment of 50 µM CdCl2 for 7 days. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: After the Cd treatment, the reductions in shoot growth were more significant than those in root growth; however, Cd absorbed in the rice plant was sequestered much more in the root. The malondialdehyde (MDA) was preferentially accumulated in rice root but the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was increased more significantly in the shoot; the antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), were pronounced more in rice shoot. CONCLUSIONS: The rice cultivars preferentially accumulated Cd in the root rather than the shoot with the Cd treatment, which resulted in significant enhancements of MDA and growth reductions in the root. However, H2O2 accumulation was toward the shoot to retard shoot growth suddenly and then the root could keep a gradual growth. Also, the rice cultivars, which preferentially accumulate Cd in the root, would have the regulation tendency of SOD toward the shoot. Due to that SOD is responsible for H2O2 production, H2O2 accumulation would be thus toward the shoot. Moreover, the cultivars, which have a less regulation tendency of APX toward the shoot, would present higher translocation of Cd into the shoot.

3.
J Biomater Appl ; : 885328220963934, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045872

RESUMO

Dental implants are the most innovative and superior treatment modality for tooth replacement. However, titanium implants still suffer from insufficient antibacterial capability and peri-implant diseases remain one of the most common and intractable complications. To prevent peri-implant diseases, a composite coating containing a new antibacterial agent, (Z-)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-2(5H)-furanone (BBF) was fabricated on titanium. This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial activity of the composite coating against two common peri-implant pathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans). The morphology of the composite coating showed that BBF-loaded poly(L-lactic acid) nanospheres were well-distributed in the pores of the microarc oxidation coating, and cross-linked with each other and the wall pores by gelatin. A release study indicated that the antibacterial coating could sustain the release of BBF for 60 d, with a slight initial burst release occurring during the first 4 h. The antibacterial rate of the composite coating for adhering bacteria was the highest (over 97%) after 1 d and over 90% throughout a 30-day incubation period. The total fluorescence intensity of the composite coating was the lowest, and the vast majority of the fluorescence was red (dead bacteria). Moreover, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that the relative gene expression of the adherent bacteria on the composite coating was down-regulated. It was therefore concluded that the composite coating fabricated on titanium, which showed excellent and relatively long-term antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, is a potential and promising strategy to be applied on dental implants for the prevention of peri-implant diseases.

4.
Nature ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029008

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury in mammals is thought to trigger scar formation with little regeneration of axons1-4. Here we show that a crush injury to the spinal cord in neonatal mice leads to scar-free healing that permits the growth of long projecting axons through the lesion. Depletion of microglia in neonatal mice disrupts this healing process and stalls the regrowth of axons, suggesting that microglia are critical for orchestrating the injury response. Using single-cell RNA sequencing and functional analyses, we find that neonatal microglia are transiently activated and have at least two key roles in scar-free healing. First, they transiently secrete fibronectin and its binding proteins to form bridges of extracellular matrix that ligate the severed ends of the spinal cord. Second, neonatal-but not adult-microglia express several extracellular and intracellular peptidase inhibitors, as well as other molecules that are involved in resolving inflammation. We transplanted either neonatal microglia or adult microglia treated with peptidase inhibitors into spinal cord lesions of adult mice, and found that both types of microglia significantly improved healing and axon regrowth. Together, our results reveal the cellular and molecular basis of the nearly complete recovery of neonatal mice after spinal cord injury, and suggest strategies that could be used to facilitate scar-free healing in the adult mammalian nervous system.

5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 89(Pt B): 107074, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a new method for predicting tumor prognosis, the predictive effect of immune-related gene pairs (IRGPs) has been confirmed in several cancers, but there is no comprehensive analysis of the clinical significance of IRGPs in gastric cancer (GC). METHOD: Clinical and gene expression profile data of GC patients were obtained from the GEO database. Based on the ImmPort database, differentially expressed immune-related gene (DEIRG) events were determined by a comparison of GC samples and adjacent normal samples. Cox proportional regression was used to construct an IRGP signature, and its availability was validated using three external validation datasets. In addition, we explored the association between clinical data and immune features and established a nomogram to predict outcomes in GC patients. RESULT: A total of 88 DEIRGs were identified in GC from the training set, which formed 3828 IRGPs. Fourteen overall survival (OS)-related IRGPs were used to construct the prognostic signature. As a result, patients in the high-risk group exhibited poorer OS compared to those in the low-risk group. In addition, the fraction of CD8+ T cells, plasma cells, CD4 memory activated T cells, and M1 macrophages was higher in the high-risk group. Expression of two immune checkpoints, CD276 and VTCN1, was significantly higher in the high-risk group as well. Based on the independent prognostic factors, a nomogram was established and showed excellent performance. CONCLUSION: The 14 OS-related IRGP signature was associated with OS, immune cells, and immune checkpoints in GC patients, and it could provide the basis for related immunotherapy.

6.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 266, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be involved in regulating chemo-resistance of NSCLC, however, the role of lncRNA SNHG14 in the DDP-resistance of NSCLC remains unexplored. METHODS: Relative expression of SNHG14, HOXB13 and miR-133a in DDP-resistant A549 (A549/DDP) cell and its parental cell A549 were measured using qRT-PCR. Cell proliferation viability of indicated A549/DDP cell was estimated via CCK-8 and colony formation experiments. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed through flow cytometry. Expression of apoptosis-related protein and HOXB13 were detected via western blot. The interaction among SNHG14, HOXB13 and miR-133a was predicted by bioinformatics and validated by dual-luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: LncRNA SNHG14 and HOXB13 were upregulated while miR-133a was downregulated in A549/DDP cell line compared to A549 cell line. SNHG14 knockdown or miR-133a overexpression was demonstrated to increase the DDP-sensitivity of A549/DDP cells. SNHG14 was revealed to compete with HOXB13 for miR-133a binding in A549/DDP cells. Inhibition of miR-133a in A549 cells could reverse the promotive effects of SNHG14 knockdown on DDP-sensitivity, as well as the inhibitory effects on HOXB13 expression. HOXB13 overexpression was revealed to abolish the enhanced effects of miR-133a on the sensitivity of A549/DDP cell to DDP. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that SNHG14 was involved in the development of DDP-resistance of A549/DDP cells through miR-133a/HOXB13 axis, which may present a path to novel therapeutic stratagems for DDP resistance of NSCLC.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085924

RESUMO

Background: Long non-coding RNA Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) antisense RNA 1 (ZEB2-AS1) has been shown to promote tumor progression. However, the clinical significance and fundamental function role of ZEB2-AS1 in osteosarcoma (OS) was poorly understood. Methods: The expression of ZEB2-AS1 was determined in tumor tissues and matched normal tissues from 67 OS patients using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis. Clinical value of ZEB2-AS1 was evaluated by Chi square test and Kaplan-Meier method. Cell proliferation was analyzed using CCK-8 assay, colony formation. Cell apoptosis status was determined by caspase-3 activity assay. Cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were investigated by scratch wound healing, transwell invasion assays and western blotting. Results: Clinical association analysis revealed that high ZEB2-AS1 expression correlated with tumor size, distant metastasis and poor prognosis of OS patients. Moreover, ZEB2-AS1 expression was identified as an independent prognostic factor for OS patients. Loss-of-function assays demonstrated that ZEB2-AS1 knockdown suppressed the proliferation and induced apoptosis in OS cells. In addition, ZEB2-AS1 knockdown inhibited cell migration, invasion, EMT of OS cells in vitro. Conclusions: Taken together, our data demonstrate that ZEB2-AS1 serves a putative oncogenic role and associates with unfavorable prognosis in OS.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086784

RESUMO

Heterostructured, including heterophase, noble-metal nanomaterials have attracted much interest due to their promising applications in diverse fields. However, great challenges still remain in the rational synthesis of well-defined noble-metal heterophase nanostructures. Herein, we report the preparation of Pd nanoparticles with an unconventional hexagonal close-packed (2H type) phase, referred to as 2H-Pd nanoparticles, via a controlled phase transformation of amorphous Pd nanoparticles. Impressively, by using the 2H-Pd nanoparticles as seeds, Au nanomaterials with different crystal phases epitaxially grow on the specific exposed facets of the 2H-Pd, i.e., face-centered cubic (fcc) Au (fcc-Au) on the (002)h facets of 2H-Pd while 2H-Au on the other exposed facets, to achieve well-defined fcc-2H-fcc heterophase Pd@Au core-shell nanorods. Moreover, through such unique facet-directed crystal-phase-selective epitaxial growth, a series of unconventional fcc-2H-fcc heterophase core-shell nanostructures, including Pd@Ag, Pd@Pt, Pd@PtNi, and Pd@PtCo, have also been prepared. Impressively, the fcc-2H-fcc heterophase Pd@Au nanorods show excellent performance toward the electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR) for production of carbon monoxide with Faradaic efficiencies of over 90% in an exceptionally wide applied potential window from -0.9 to -0.4 V (versus the reversible hydrogen electrode), which is among the best reported CO2RR catalysts in H-type electrochemical cells.

9.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 231, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing application of moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer. We presented our outcomes and treatment-related toxicities with moderately hypofractionated (67.5 Gy in 25 fractions) radiotherapy for a group of advanced prostate cancer patients from China. METHODS: From November 2006 to December 2018, 246 consecutive patients with prostate cancer confined to the pelvis were treated with moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy (67.5 Gy in 25 fractions). 97.6% of the patients received a different duration of androgen deprivation therapy. Failure-free survival (FFS), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative grade ≥ 2 late toxicity were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier actuarial method. Prognostic factors for FFS, PCSS, and OS were analyzed. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 74 months (range: 6-150 months). For all patients, the 5- and 10-year FFS rates were 80.0% (95% CI: 74.7-85.7%) and 63.5% (95% CI 55.4-72.8%). The failure rates for the intermediate, high-risk, locally advanced, and N1 groups were 6.1%, 13.0%, 18.4%, and 35.7%, respectively (P = 0.003). Overall, 5- and 10-year PCSS rates were 95.7% (95% CI 93.0-98.5%) and 88.2% (95% CI 82.8-93.8%). Prostate cancer-specific mortality rates for the high-risk, locally advanced, and N1 groups were 4.0%, 8.2%, and 23.8%, respectively (P < 0.001). Overall, 5- and 10-year actuarial OS rates were 92.4% (95% CI 88.8-96.1%) and 72.7% (95% CI 64.8-81.5%). High level prostate-specific antigen and positive N stage were significantly associated with worse FFS (P < 0.05). Advanced T stage and positive N stage emerged as worse predictors of PCSS (P < 0.05). Advanced age, T stage, and positive N stage were the only factors that were significantly associated with worse OS (P < 0.05). The 5-year cumulative incidence rate of grade ≥ 2 late GU and GI toxicity was 17.8% (95% CI 12.5-22.7%) and 23.4% (95% CI 17.7-28.7%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy (67.5 Gy in 25 fractions) for this predominantly high-risk, locally advanced, or N1 in Chinese patients demonstrates encouraging long-term outcomes and acceptable toxicity. This fractionation schedule deserves further evaluation in similar populations.

10.
Cell Transplant ; 29: 963689720960185, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028107

RESUMO

Patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of adult onset, were found less than 9 years of life expectancy after onset. The disorders include bradykinesia and rigidity commonly seen in Parkinsonism disease and additional signs such as autonomic dysfunction, ataxia, or dementia. In clinical treatments, MSA poorly responds to levodopa, the drug used to remedy Parkinsonism disease. The exact cause of MSA is still unknown, and exploring a therapeutic solution to MSA remains critical. A transgenic mouse model was established to study the feasibility of human adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) therapy in vivo. The human ADSCs were transplanted into the striatum of transgenic mice via intracerebral injection. As compared with sham control, we reported significantly enhanced rotarod performance of transgenic mice treated with ADSC at an effective dose, 2 × 105 ADSCs/mouse. Our ex vivo feasibility study supported that intracerebral transplantation of ADSC might alleviate striatal degeneration in MSA transgenic mouse model by improving the nigrostriatal pathway for dopamine, activating autophagy for α-synuclein clearance, decreasing inflammatory signal, and further cell apoptosis, improving myelination and cell survival at caudate-putamen.

11.
Andrologia ; : e13845, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053609

RESUMO

For the treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction, transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy (TSV) is the most common method, but the success rate is much lower than studies that have reported. So we developed a new ultrasound-guided seminal vesicle radiography (UGSVR) combining CT three-dimensional reconstruction (CT-TR) technique to improve the success rate of TSV. Between June 2018 and November 2019, 32 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to two groups: experimental group (UGSvR combining CT-TR) and control group (standard evaluation). Baseline information, including age, smoking history and body mass index (BMI), was compared preoperatively. Surgical parameters included success rates (SR), surgical time (ST), catheter days (CD), length of hospital stays (HS) and complications were compared between groups. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline data between the two groups (all p > .05). There were no significant differences in the CD, HS and complications between the two groups (all p > .05), but the differences in ST and SR were statistically significant (p < .05). In conclusion, this new technique of UGSvR combining CT-TR was achieving a satisfactory increase in the success rate of TSV, while not increasing the incidence of complications, compared to normal evaluation before TSV operation.

12.
Comput Med Imaging Graph ; 86: 101795, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070051

RESUMO

We propose a spatiotemporal model for cardiac magnetic resonance images (MRI) named SptDenNet. The proposed model is based on DenseNet and extracts spatial and temporal features simultaneously to exploit three-dimensional information on the heart over the cardiac loop cycle. To balance the model performance and efficiency, we construct a shared end-to-end framework, in which all frames of each selected short-axis (SAX) view slices are input to SptDenNet individually to extract spatiotemporal features. Then, the extracted features of all selected SAX view slices of a patient are concatenated and input to the subsequent fully connected layer and then a softmax layer to predict the left ventricular ejection fraction directly. To address the problem of class imbalance, we use FocalLoss function by reshaping the standard cross-entropy loss such that it down-weights the loss assigned to well-classified samples. We validate our proposed framework on the Second Annual Data Science Bowl dataset. Our prediction for the left ventricular ejection fraction obtains results comparable with state-of-the-art end-to-end approaches but without segmentation. The average mean absolute error of the ejection fraction is 6.84. To further verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework, we use 4-chamber view images from the same dataset to predict the cardiac function; we obtain an accuracy of 86.07%. Our approach constructs an end-to-end model to predict the ejection fraction automatically without using image segmentation, which helps reduce manual work. Moreover, the proposed approach is computationally efficient.

13.
Med Image Anal ; 67: 101826, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075638

RESUMO

Accurate vertebrae recognition is crucial in spinal disease localization and successive treatment planning. Although vertebrae detection has been studied for years, reliably recognizing vertebrae from arbitrary spine MRI images remains a challenge. The similar appearance of different vertebrae and the pathological deformations of the same vertebrae makes it difficult for classification in images with different fields of view (FOV). In this paper, we propose a Category-consistent Self-calibration Recognition System (Can-See) to accurately classify the labels and precisely predict the bounding boxes of all vertebrae with improved discriminative capabilities for vertebrae categories and self-awareness of false positive detections. Can-See is designed as a two-step detection framework: (1) A hierarchical proposal network (HPN) to perceive the existence of the vertebrae. HPN leverages the correspondence between hierarchical features and multi-scale anchors to detect objects. This correspondence tackles the image scale/resolution challenge. (2) A Category-consistent Self-calibration Recognition (CSRN) Network to classify each vertebra and refine their bounding boxes. CSRN leverages the dictionary learning principle to preserve the most representative features; it imposes a novel category-consistent constraint to force vertebrae with the same label to have similar features. CSRN then innovatively formulates message passing into the deep learning framework, which leverages the label compatibility principle to self-calibrate the wrong pre-recognitions. Can-See is trained and evaluated on a capacious and challenging dataset of 450 MRI scans. The results show that Can-See achieves high performance (testing accuracy reaches 0.955) and outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.

14.
Med Image Anal ; 67: 101861, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075640

RESUMO

Accurate vertebral body (VB) detection and segmentation are critical for spine disease identification and diagnosis. Existing automatic VB detection and segmentation methods may cause false-positive results to the background tissue or inaccurate results to the desirable VB. Because they usually cannot take both the global spine pattern and the local VB appearance into consideration concurrently. In this paper, we propose a Sequential Conditional Reinforcement Learning network (SCRL) to tackle the simultaneous detection and segmentation of VBs from MR spine images. The SCRL, for the first time, applies deep reinforcement learning into VB detection and segmentation. It innovatively models the spatial correlation between VBs from top to bottom as sequential dynamic-interaction processes, thereby globally focusing detection and segmentation on each VB. Simultaneously, SCRL also perceives the local appearance feature of each desirable VB comprehensively, thereby achieving accurate detection and segmentation result. Particularly, SCRL seamlessly combines three parts: 1) Anatomy-Modeling Reinforcement Learning Network dynamically interacts with the image and focuses an attention-region on the VB; 2) Fully-Connected Residual Neural Network learns rich global context information of the VB including both the detailed low-level features and the abstracted high-level features to detect the accurate bounding-box of the VB based on the attention-region; 3) Y-shaped Network learns comprehensive detailed texture information of VB including multi-scale, coarse-to-fine features to segment the boundary of VB from the attention-region. On 240 subjects, SCRL achieves accurate detection and segmentation results, where on average the detection IoU is 92.3%, segmentation Dice is 92.6%, and classification mean accuracy is 96.4%. These excellent results demonstrate that SCRL can be an efficient aided-diagnostic tool to assist clinicians when diagnosing spinal diseases.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5267, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077711

RESUMO

Peroxisomes perform beta-oxidation of branched and very-long chain fatty acids, which leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the peroxisomal lumen. Peroxisomes are therefore prone to ROS-mediated damages. Here, using light to specifically and acutely induce ROS formation within the peroxisomal lumen, we find that cells individually remove ROS-stressed peroxisomes through ubiquitin-dependent pexophagy. Heat shock protein 70 s mediates the translocation of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Stub1 (STIP1 Homology and U-Box Containing Protein 1) onto oxidatively-stressed peroxisomes to promote their selective ubiquitination and autophagic degradation. Artificially targeting Stub1 to healthy peroxisomes is sufficient to trigger pexophagy, suggesting a key role Stub1 plays in regulating peroxisome quality. We further determine that Stub1 mutants found in Ataxia patients are defective in pexophagy induction. Dysfunctional peroxisomal quality control may therefore contribute to the development of Ataxia.

16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093653

RESUMO

Sleep abnormalities are often a prominent contributor to withdrawal symptoms following chronic drug use. Notably, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep regulates emotional memory, and persistent REM sleep impairment after cocaine withdrawal negatively impacts relapse-like behaviors in rats. However, it is not understood how cocaine experience may alter REM sleep regulatory machinery, and what may serve to improve REM sleep after withdrawal. Here, we focus on the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), which regulate REM sleep initiation and maintenance. Using adult male Sprague-Dawley rats trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine, we did transcriptome profiling of LH MCH neurons after long-term withdrawal using RNA-sequencing, and performed functional assessment using slice electrophysiology. We found that 3 weeks after withdrawal from cocaine, LH MCH neurons exhibit a wide range of gene expression changes tapping into cell membrane signaling, intracellular signaling, and transcriptional regulations. Functionally, they show reduced membrane excitability and decreased glutamatergic receptor activity, consistent with increased expression of voltage-gated potassium channel gene Kcna1 and decreased expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor gene Grm5. Finally, chemogenetic or optogenetic stimulations of LH MCH neural activity increase REM sleep after long-term withdrawal with important differences. Whereas chemogenetic stimulation promotes both wakefulness and REM sleep, optogenetic stimulation of these neurons in sleep selectively promotes REM sleep. In summary, cocaine exposure persistently alters gene expression profiles and electrophysiological properties of LH MCH neurons. Counteracting cocaine-induced hypoactivity of these neurons selectively in sleep enhances REM sleep quality and quantity after long-term withdrawal.

17.
Biosystems ; 198: 104269, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038463

RESUMO

The noise-decomposition technique is applied in several fields, including genetic systems, optical images, recording, and navigation. In genetic systems, noise decomposition is usually achieved by using two reporters [Elowitz M.B., Levine A.J., Siggia E.D., Swain P·S., 2002. Stochastic gene expression in a single cell. Science 297, 1183-6.]. A reporter is a protein with fluorescence, an RNA hybridized with a fluorescent probe, or any other detectable intracellular component. If a reporter is constructed in addition to the original reporter, the system's stochasticity may change. Such phenomena became severe for genes in plasmids with a high copy number. By SSA (stochastic simulation algorithm), we observed an approximately 50% increment in the coefficient of variation while introducing additional reporters. Besides, if two reporters respond to the upstream element at a different time, the trunk noise (or extrinsic noise) cannot be accurately determined. This is because the "calculative trunk noise" changes along with the delay, though the real trunk noise does not. For RNA reporters, a 5-min transcriptional delay caused a calculative trunk noise that was 90% less than the real trunk noise. Fortunately, this problem is negligible when the degradation rate constant is low, and it is usually true in the case of the protein reporters. One can check the lifespan of the reporter before applying the noise-decomposition technique.

18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(20)2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096841

RESUMO

The radiation intensity of observed auroras in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) band varies dramatically with location for aerospace applications, requiring a photon counting imaging apparatus with a wide dynamic range. However, combining high spatial resolution imaging with high event rates is technically challenging. We developed an FUV photon counting imaging system for aurora observation. Our system mainly consists of a microchannel plate (MCP) stack readout using a wedge strip anode (WSA) with charge induction and high-speed electronics, such as a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) and pulse shaper. Moreover, we constructed an anode readout model and a time response model for readout circuits to investigate the counting error in high counting rate applications. This system supports global rates of 500 kilo counts, 0.610 dark counts s-1 cm-2 at an ambient temperature of 300 K and 111 µm spatial resolution at 400 kilo counts s-1 (kcps). We demonstrate an obvious photon count loss at incident intensities close to the counting capacity of the system. To preserve image quality, the response time should be improved and some noise performance may be sacrificed. Finally, we also describe the correlation between counting rate and imaging resolution, which further guides the design of space observation instruments.

19.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 2): 128274, 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038801

RESUMO

In this study, the strategy of utilizing a model hydrophobic molecule, octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA), to inhibit over-aggregation of MP during heating, aiming to alleviate high temperature-induced textural deterioration of MP gels, was proposed, and a series of experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness. The results showed that the effect was positively dependent on the concentrations of OSA. The addition of OSA at a concentration of 4 g/kg to 24 g/kg delayed the gelation temperature of MP, as confirmed by the DSC results, and inhibited the aggregation of MP through hydrophobic interactions between OSA and MP, as revealed by fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, when the concentration of OSA increased from 4 g/kg to 12 g/kg, the controlled aggregation of MP improved the gel properties of MP formed at high temperature, but when the concentration reached 24 g/kg, the protein aggregation was too inhibited to form developed gel networks.

20.
Cancer Med ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079470

RESUMO

The current TNM staging system uses the same category definitions for both rectal cancer patients with and without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT). However, ypTNM stage, especially ypN stage does not predict patient survival after NCRT well. Whether tumor regression in lymph nodes (LRG) may improve the prediction has not been well studied. In total, 358 patients with rectal cancer who received NCRT followed by radical resection were recruited from 2004 to 2015, and the median follow-up time was 57.5 months. The main outcome measure was disease-free survival (DFS). In univariate analysis, factors associated with DFS were ypT stage, ypN stage, number of negative lymph nodes (NLN), lymph node ratio (LNR), tumor regression grade (TRG), M-TTRG (modified ypT stage by combining ypT stage and TRG), maximum LRG (LRGmax), sum score of LRG (LRGsum), LRG ratio (average value of LRGsum), and M-NLRG (modified ypN stage by combining LRGmax and LNR). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, M-TTRG and M-NLRG (p < 0.001 and p = 0.030, respectively) were significantly associated with DFS. The estimated 5-year DFS rates were 86.6%, 60.3%, and 36.4% for patients with M-NLRG-0, M-NLRG-1, and M-NLRG-2, respectively (p < 0.001). A significant difference in survival was observed among patients with NCRT after incorporating TRG and LRG simultaneously into the current ypTNM staging system (p < 0.001). LRG was an important prognostic factor in rectal cancer patients treated with NCRT and could refine the ypTNM staging system. The modified ypTNM staging system in combination with LRGmax, LNR, and TRG could improve the DFS prediction in each subset of patients.

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