Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.900
Filtrar
1.
Elife ; 102021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477552

RESUMO

DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR) is thought to be restricted to the S- and G2- phases of the cell cycle in part due to 53BP1 antagonizing DNA end resection in G1-phase and non-cycling quiescent (G0) cells. Here, we show that LIN37, a component of the DREAM transcriptional repressor, functions in a 53BP1-independent manner to prevent DNA end resection and HR in G0 cells. Loss of LIN37 leads to the expression of HR proteins, including BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51, and promotes DNA end resection in G0 cells even in the presence of 53BP1. In contrast to 53BP1-deficiency, DNA end resection in LIN37-deficient G0 cells depends on BRCA1 and leads to RAD51 filament formation and HR. LIN37 is not required to protect DNA ends in cycling cells at G1-phase. Thus, LIN37 regulates a novel 53BP1-independent cell phase-specific DNA end protection pathway that functions uniquely in quiescent cells.

2.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500790

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of alleviation effects of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) on copper (Cu)-induced oxidative toxicity in grapevine roots. Root growth, Cu and cation accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and antioxidant activities were examined in grapevine roots grown in nutrient solutions. The experimental setting was divided into three sets; each set contained a check (Hoagland solution only) and four treatments of simultaneous exposure to 15 µM Cu with four cation levels (i.e., Ca set: 0.5, 2.5, 5, and 10 mM Ca; Mg set: 0.2, 2, 4, and 8 mM Mg; K set: 0.6, 2.4, 4.8, and 9.6 mM K). A damage assessment model (DAM)-based approach was then developed to construct the dose-effect relationship between cation levels and the alleviation effects on Cu-induced oxidative stress. Model parameterization was performed by fitting the model to the experimental data using a nonlinear regression estimation. All data were analyzed by a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by multiple comparisons using the least significant difference (LSD) test. The results showed that significant inhibitory effects on the elongation of roots occurred in grapevine roots treated with 15 µM Cu. The addition of Ca and Mg significantly mitigated phytotoxicity in root growth, whereas no significant effect of K treatment on root growth was found. With respect to oxidative stress, ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, as well as antioxidant (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) activities, were stimulated in the roots after exposure to 15 µM Cu for three days. Moreover, H2O2 levels decreased significantly as Ca, Mg, and K concentrations increased, indicating that the coexistence of these cations effectively alleviated Cu-induced oxidative stress; however, alleviative effects were not observed in the assessment of the MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Based on the DAM, an exponential decay equation was developed and successfully applied to characterize the alleviative effects of Ca, Mg, and K on the H2O2 content induced by Cu in the roots. In addition, compared with Mg and K, Ca was the most effective cation in the alleviation of Cu-induced ROS. Based on the results, it could be concluded that Cu inhibited root growth and Ca and Mg absorption in grapevines, and stimulated the production of ROS, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, the alleviation effects of cations on Cu-induced ROS were well described by the DAM-based approach developed in the present study.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502689

RESUMO

During military operations in high-temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions, the physiological state and combat capability of pilots are affected severely. In a fighter cockpit, experiments were conducted on thirteen voluntary subjects wearing pilot suits at 21 °C/30%, 30 °C/45%, and 38 °C/60% RH, respectively, in order to examine the physiological changes of pilots in combat thoroughly. The target strike performance, core and skin temperatures, pulse rate, and other parameters were measured and investigated. Significant inter-condition differences were noted in the pulse rate, core temperature, mean skin temperatures, and sweat amount, which increased markedly with elevating temperature and RH. Contrastively, blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) dropped with such elevations. Concerning the skin temperature, the chest and back skin temperatures remained stable, while the temperatures at the hands, feet, and lower arms underwent larger changes with the increasing temperature and humidity. At 38 °C/60% RH, the sweat amount was 3.7 times that at 21 °C/30% RH. The subjects' operational error rates increased as the core temperatures rose, showing high correlations (r2 = 0.81). The results could serve as a theoretical basis for the design of pilot protective equipment and the control of aircraft cockpit temperature.


Assuntos
Pilotos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Umidade , Temperatura Cutânea , Temperatura
4.
Clin J Pain ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted the updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the best available quantitative and qualitative evidence to evaluate the effects and safety of duloxetine for the treatment of knee Osteoarthritis (OA) pain. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search used three English and four Chinese biomedical databases from inception through July 10, 2020. We included randomized controlled trials of duloxetine with intervention duration of two weeks or longer for knee OA. The primary outcome was pain intensity measured by Brief Pain Inventory and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale. Secondary outcome measurements included 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Patient's Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I), Clinical Global Impressions of Severity (CGI-S), and adverse events. The quality of all included studies was evaluated using the Cochrane risk-of-bias criteria. The review was registered in the PROSPERO (CRD 42020194072). RESULTS: Six studies totaling 2,059 subjects met the eligibility criteria. Duloxetine had significant reductions in Brief Pain Inventory 24-h average pain (Mean Difference [MD]=-0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.92 to -0.57; P<0.00001; I2=13%; 5 trials; 1695 patients), patient general activity (MD=-0.76; 95% CI, -0.96 to -0.56; P<0.00001; I2=0%; 5 trials; 1694 patients), WOMAC physical function subscale (MD=-4.22; 95% CI, -5.14 to -3.30; P<0.00001; I2=26%; 5 trials; 1986 patients), PGI-I (MD=-0.48; 95% CI, -0.58 to -0.37; P<0.00001; I2=29%; 5 trials; 1741 patients), and CGI-S (MD=-0.34; 95% CI, -0.44 to -0.24; P<0.00001; I2=0%; 4 trials; 1178 patients) compared with placebo control. However, no difference on WOMAC pain subscale (SMD=-1.68; 95% CI, -3.45 to 0.08; P=0.06; I2=100%; 3 trials; 1104 patients) and in serious adverse events (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.40 to 2.11; P=0.84; I2=0%; 5 trials; 1762 patients) between duloxetine and placebo. Furthermore, duloxetine failed to show superior effects for improving the life quality and demonstrated more treatment-emergent adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Duloxetine may be an effective treatment option for knee OA patients but further rigorously designed and well-controlled randomized trials are warranted.

5.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 108: 103217, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481157

RESUMO

The RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168 recruit DNA damage response (DDR) factors to chromatin flanking DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) including 53BP1, which protects DNA ends from resection during DNA DSB repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Deficiency of RNF8 or RNF168 does not lead to demonstrable NHEJ defects, but like deficiency of 53BP1, the combined deficiency of XLF and RNF8 or RNF168 leads to diminished NHEJ in lymphocytes arrested in G0/G1 phase. The function of RNF8 in NHEJ depends on its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Loss of RNF8 or RNF168 in G0/G1-phase lymphocytes leads to the resection of broken DNA ends, demonstrating that RNF8 and RNF168 function to protect DNA ends from nucleases, pos sibly through the recruitment of 53BP1. However, the loss of 53BP1 leads to more severe resection than the loss of RNF8 or RNF168. Moreover, in 53BP1-deficient cells, the loss of RNF8 or RNF168 leads to diminished DNA end resection. We conclude that RNF8 and RNF168 regulate pathways that both prevent and promote DNA end resection in cells arrested in G0/G1 phase.

6.
Physiol Int ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529586

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate in-vivo and in-vitro effects of ferulic acid (FA) on glucocorticoid-induced osteoarthritis (GIO) to establish its possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: The effects of FA on cell proliferation, cell viability (MTT assay), ALP activity, and mineralization assay, and oxidative stress markers (ROS, SOD, GSH LDH and MDA levels) were investigated by MC3T3-E1 cell line. Wistar rats received standard saline (control group) or dexamethasone (GC, 2 mg-1 kg) or DEX+FA (50 and 100 mg-1 kg) orally for 8 weeks. Bone density, micro-architecture, bio-mechanics, bone turnover markers and histo-morphology were determined. The expression of OPG, RANKL, osteogenic markers, and other signalling proteins was assessed employing quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: The findings indicated the elevation of ALP mRNA expressions, osteogenic markers (Runx-2, OSX, Col-I, and OSN), and the ß-Catenin, Lrp-5 and GSK-3ß protein expressions. FA showed the potential to increase MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation, proliferation, and mineralization. FA increased oxidative stress markers (SOD, MDA, and GSH) while decreasing ROS levels and lactate dehydrogenase release in GIO rats. The OPG/RANKL mRNA expression ratio was increased by FA, followed by improved GSK-3ß and ERK phosphorylation with enhanced mRNA expressions of Lrp-5 and ß-catenin. Conclusion: These findings showed that FA improved osteoblasts proliferation with oxidative stress suppression by controlling the Lrp-5/GSK-3ß/ERK pathway in GIO, demonstrating the potential pathways involved in the mechanism of actions of FA in GIO therapy.

7.
PLoS Genet ; 17(9): e1009778, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491997

RESUMO

Meiosis initiation and progression are regulated by both germ cells and gonadal somatic cells. However, little is known about what genes or proteins connecting somatic and germ cells are required for this regulation. Our results show that deficiency for adhesion molecule IGSF11, which is expressed in both Sertoli cells and germ cells, leads to male infertility in mice. Combining a new meiotic fluorescent reporter system with testicular cell transplantation, we demonstrated that IGSF11 is required in both somatic cells and spermatogenic cells for primary spermatocyte development. In the absence of IGSF11, spermatocytes proceed through pachytene, but the pericentric heterochromatin of nonhomologous chromosomes remains inappropriately clustered from late pachytene onward, resulting in undissolved interchromosomal interactions. Hi-C analysis reveals elevated levels of interchromosomal interactions occurring mostly at the chromosome ends. Collectively, our data elucidates that IGSF11 in somatic cells and germ cells is required for pericentric heterochromatin dissociation during diplotene in mouse primary spermatocytes.

8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553909

RESUMO

The introduction of defects into hierarchical porous metal-organic frameworks (HP-MOFs) is of vital significance to boost their adsorption performance. Herein, an advanced template-assisted strategy has been developed to fine-tune the phosphate adsorption performance of HP-MOFs by dictating the type and number of defects in HP-UiO-66(Zr). To achieve this, monocarboxylic acids of varying chain lengths have been employed as template molecules to fabricate an array of defect-rich HP-UiO-66(Zr) derivatives following removal of the template. The as-prepared HP-UiO-66(Zr) exhibits a higher sorption capacity and faster sorption rate compared to the pristine UiO-66(Zr). Particularly, the octanoic acid-modulated UiO-66(Zr) exhibits a high adsorption capacity of 186.6 mg P/g and an intraparticle diffusion rate of 6.19 mg/g·min0.5, which are 4.8 times and 1.9 times higher than those of pristine UiO-66(Zr), respectively. The results reveal that defect sites play a critical role in boosting the phosphate uptake performance, which is further confirmed by various advanced characterizations. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the important role of defects in not only providing additional sorption sites but also reducing the sorption energy between HP-UiO-66(Zr) and phosphate. In addition, the hierarchical pores in HP-UiO-66(Zr) can accelerate the phosphate diffusion toward the active sorption sites. This work presents a promising route to tailor the adsorption performance of MOF-based adsorbents via defect engineering.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493197

RESUMO

Neuronal damage or degeneration is the main feature of neurological diseases. Regulation of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation is important in developing therapies to promote neuronal regeneration or synaptic network reconstruction. Neurogenesis is a multistage process in which neurons are generated and integrated into existing neuronal circuits. Neuronal differentiation is extremely complex because it can occur in different cell types and can be caused by a variety of inducers. Recently, natural compounds that induce neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation have attracted extensive attention. In this paper, the potential neural induction effects of medicinal plant-derived natural compounds on neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs), the cultured neuronal cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are reviewed. The natural compounds that are efficacious in inducing neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation include phenolic acids, polyphenols, flavonoids, glucosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, quinones, coumarins, and others. They exert neural induction effects by regulating signal factors and cell-specific genes involved in the process of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, including specific proteins (ß-tubulin III, MAP-2, tau, nestin, neurofilaments, GFAP, GAP-43, NSE), related genes and proteins (STAT3, Hes1, Mash1, NeuroD1, notch, cyclin D1, SIRT1, reggie-1), transcription factors (CREB, Nkx-2.5, Ngn1), neurotrophins (BDNF, NGF, NT-3) and signaling pathways (JAK/STAT, Wnt/ß-catenin, MAPK, PI3K/Akt, GSK-3ß/ß-catenin, Ca2+/CaMKII/ATF1, Nrf2/HO-1, BMP). The natural compounds with neural induction effects are of great value for neuronal regenerative medicine and provide promising prevention and treatment strategies for neurological diseases.

10.
ACS Sens ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498846

RESUMO

Histones are the alkali proteins in eukaryotic somatic chromatin cells which constitute the nucleosome structure together with DNA. Their abnormality is often associated with multiple tumorigenesis and other human diseases. Nevertheless, a simple and efficient super-resolution method to visualize histone distribution at the subcellular level is still unavailable. Herein, a Zn(II) terpyridine complex with rich-electronic azide units, namely, TpZnA-His, was designed and synthesized. The initial in vitro and in silico studies suggested that this complex is able to detect histones rapidly and selectively via charge-charge interactions with the histone H3 subunit. Its live cell nuclear localization, red-emission tail, and large Stokes shift allowed super-resolution evaluation of histone distributions with a clear distinction against nuclear DNA. We were able to quantitatively conclude three histone morphology alternations in live cells including condensation, aggregation, and cavity during activating histone acetylation. This work offers a better understanding as well as a versatile tool to study histone-involved gene transcription, signal transduction, and differentiation in cells.

11.
Genes Dev ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503990

RESUMO

Double-strand break (DSB) repair choice is greatly influenced by the initial processing of DNA ends. 53BP1 limits the formation of recombinogenic single-strand DNA (ssDNA) in BRCA1-deficient cells, leading to defects in homologous recombination (HR). However, the exact mechanisms by which 53BP1 inhibits DSB resection remain unclear. Previous studies have identified two potential pathways: protection against DNA2/EXO1 exonucleases presumably through the Shieldin (SHLD) complex binding to ssDNA, and localized DNA synthesis through the CTC1-STN1-TEN1 (CST) and DNA polymerase α (Polα) to counteract resection. Using a combinatorial approach of END-seq, SAR-seq, and RPA ChIP-seq, we directly assessed the extent of resection, DNA synthesis, and ssDNA, respectively, at restriction enzyme-induced DSBs. We show that, in the presence of 53BP1, Polα-dependent DNA synthesis reduces the fraction of resected DSBs and the resection lengths in G0/G1, supporting a previous model that fill-in synthesis can limit the extent of resection. However, in the absence of 53BP1, Polα activity is sustained on ssDNA yet does not substantially counter resection. In contrast, EXO1 nuclease activity is essential for hyperresection in the absence of 53BP1. Thus, Polα-mediated fill-in partially limits resection in the presence of 53BP1 but cannot counter extensive hyperresection due to the loss of 53BP1 exonuclease blockade. These data provide the first nucleotide mapping of DNA synthesis at resected DSBs and provide insight into the relationship between fill-in polymerases and resection exonucleases.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16309, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381062

RESUMO

There is a special node, which the large noise of the upstream element may not always lead to a broad distribution of downstream elements. This node is DNA, with upstream element TF and downstream elements mRNA and proteins. By applying the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) on gene circuits inspired by the fim operon in Escherichia coli, we found that cells exchanged the distribution of the upstream transcription factor (TF) for the transitional frequency of DNA. Then cells do an inverse transform, which exchanges the transitional frequency of DNA for the distribution of downstream products. Due to this special feature, DNA in the system of frequency modulation is able to reset the noise. By probability generating function, we know the ranges of parameter values that grant such an interesting phenomenon.

13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 189: 537-543, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416266

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a long-term allergic skin disorder that occurs most frequently in children. Currently, the common treatment of AD is corticosteroids; however, the drugs cause serious side effects. Therefore, there are many patients who seek complementary and alternative treatments such as healthy food. We report that fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus (COP) exhibit exceptional immuno-modulatory effects significantly improving atopic dermatitis (AD) at both in vitro and in vivo levels: First, we performed the P815 cell degranulation assay, of which the results revealed that COP possesses anti-degranulation activity suggesting COP is very conducive to relieving allergic reactions of AD. Next, we performed the animal model examination, of which AD was significantly improved, suggesting COP can focally and globally modulate the immune systems of animals. The systemic improvements were manifested clearly by decreased epidermal hyperplasia, reduced infiltration of eosinophils, and decreased expression of AD-associated cytokines. Notably, COP reduced epidermal hyperplasia by downregulating the expression of IL-22. COP displayed therapeutic effects, which is comparable to corticosteroids but lack corticosteroid side effects, such as weight loss in our animal study. COP is multitudinous immunomodulatory abilities to serve as a healthy food supplement at the current stage, not least beneficial to atopic dermatitis.

14.
Comput Biol Med ; 136: 104711, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388466

RESUMO

Detecting signet ring cells (SRCs) in pathological images is essential for carcinoma diagnosis. However, it is time consuming for pathologists to detect SRCs manually from pathological images, and the accuracy of detecting them is also relatively low because of their small sizes. Recently, the exploration of deep learning methods in pathology analysis has been widely investigated by researchers. Nevertheless, the automatic detection of SRCs from real pathological images faces two problems. One is that labeled pathological images are insufficient and usually incomplete. The other is that the training data and the real clinical data have a large difference in resolution. Hence, adopting the transfer learning method affects the performance of deep learning methods. To address these two problems, we present a unified framework named REUR [RetinaNet combining USRNet (unfolding super-resolution network) with the RGHMC (revised gradient harmonizing mechanism classification) loss] that can accurately detect SRCs in low-resolution (LR) pathological images. First, the framework with the super-resolution (SR) module can address the difference in resolution between the training data and the real clinical data. Second, the framework with the label correction module can obtain the revised ground-truth labels from noisy examples, which are embedded into the gradient harmonizing mechanism to acquire the RGHMC loss. The results of the numerical experiments showed that the framework can perform better than other one-stage detectors based on the RetinaNet architecture in the high-resolution (HR) noisy dataset. It achieved a kappa value of 0.74 and an accuracy of 0.89 in the test with 27 randomly selected whole slide images (WSIs), and, thus, it can assist pathologists in better analyzing WSIs. The framework provides an essential method in computer-aided diagnosis for medical applications.

15.
Talanta ; 234: 122674, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364474

RESUMO

Ambient ionization of glycans is simply and efficiently achieved by spraying from an alkali metal salt-impregnated paper surface. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and ring glycans easily form abundant alkali metal adduct ions, and give simple and clean high-quality mass spectra. The enhancement is specific for glycans, compared to a wide variety of non-glycan compounds present in a matrix. In addition, molecular weight of unknown glycans can be further identified based on the ion mass difference of various alkali metal adduct ions from a certain compound when using a mixed salt-impregnated paper containing five cation salts. Successful determination of glycans and glycoconjugates in plant extracts, honey, blood and urine demonstrates the practicability of this approach to complicated matrices, especially biological matrices.


Assuntos
Metais Alcalinos , Polissacarídeos , Peso Molecular , Oligossacarídeos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
16.
Int J Implant Dent ; 7(1): 69, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and clinical outcomes after augmentation with xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM) or free gingival graft (FGG) during different postoperative phases. METHODS: Forty-two patients (21 per group) with keratinized mucosa width (KMW) of < 2 mm at buccal implant sites in the posterior mandible were enrolled. All underwent vestibuloplasty and were allocated to either FGG (control) or XCM (test) group. Intraoperative morbidity of pain, stress, nausea, tolerance to time, and acceptance of surgery were evaluated immediately after surgery. The severity and duration of subjective pain, swelling, and bleeding were compared within a 2-week postoperative period. The willingness to retreat and satisfaction were assessed at 6 months. All PROMs were obtained using questionnaires and visual analog scales. The buccal KMW and other peri-implant parameters were also evaluated. RESULTS: No significant between-group differences were observed in PROMs immediately after surgery, except acceptance of surgery (0, 0-30.0 vs. 30, 0-50.0, p = 0.025). At 2 weeks, pain severity (46.7 ± 25.9 vs 61.9 ± 20.2, p = 0.040) and duration (5.52 ± 3.57 vs 8.48 ± 2.80, p = 0.005) were significantly lower in the test group, and pain perception during speaking and chewing was significantly higher for FGG, with no significant between-group differences in swelling and bleeding. At 6 months, the test group showed a higher willingness to retreat (76% vs 43%, p = 0.021); however, satisfaction with treatment outcomes was similar in both groups. At 6 months, the gain of KMW was significantly higher in FGG than in XCM (XCM: 1.57 ± 1.69 mm, FGG: 2.68 ± 1.80 mm, p = 0.003). Other peri-implant parameters did not show significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitation of the present nonrandomized study, XCM demonstrated more positive PROMs than FGG during different postoperative phases, mainly for less pain perception during the early healing stage, but was inferior to FGG in terms of gain of KMW. For KMW augmentation in the posterior mandible, XCM may be indicated when patients can bear little pain. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1900022575 , date of registration: 17/4/2019, retrospectively registered.

17.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338175

RESUMO

Inflammation is a central mechanism in metabolic disorders associated with morbidity and mortality and dietary factors can modulate inflammation. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between an empirically developed, food-based dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score and the risk of overall and cause-specific mortality, using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2014. EDIP score was derived by entering thirty-nine predefined commonly consumed food groups into the reduced rank regression models followed by stepwise linear regression, which was most predictive of two plasma inflammation biomarkers including C-reactive protein and leucocyte count among 25 500 US adults. This score was further validated in a testing set of 9466 adults. Deaths from baseline until 31 December 2015 were identified through record linkage to the National Death Index. During a median follow-up of 7·8 years among 40 074 participants, we documented 4904 deaths. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of EDIP score, those in the highest quintile had a higher risk of overall death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1·19, 95 % CI 1·08, 1·32, Ptrend = 0·002), and deaths from cancer (HR = 1·41, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·74, Ptrend = 0·017) and CVD (HR = 1·22, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·53, Ptrend = 0·211). When stratified by age, the association of EDIP with overall mortality was stronger among individuals under 65 years of age (Pinteraction = 0·001). Diets with a higher inflammatory potential were associated with increased risk of overall and cancer-specific mortality. Interventions to reduce the adverse effect of pro-inflammatory diets may potentially promote health and longevity.

18.
Cell Rep ; 36(8): 109607, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433035

RESUMO

The interrelation between hypoxia and immune response has pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of chronic metabolic diseases. However, the role of macrophage HIF-2α in NLRP3 inflammasome activation remains unclear. Here, we show that deficiency of HIF-2α in macrophages results in excessive activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in a manner dependent on CPT1A-mediated enhancement of fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Mechanistically, HIF-2α binds directly to the Cpt1a promoter and is involved in the regulation of H3K27me3 methylation during NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Myeloid-specific Hif2α knockout mice exhibit exacerbated insulin resistance and increased activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages. Overexpression of the Hif2α gene or stabilization of the protein by FG-4592 ameliorates insulin resistance and reduces NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. Taken together, our results suggest that macrophage HIF-2α inhibits FAO-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and alleviates insulin resistance.

19.
J Econ Entomol ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462779

RESUMO

Several species of drywood termites, subterranean termites, and fungus-growing termites cause extensive economic losses annually worldwide. Because no universal method is available for controlling all termites, correct species identification is crucial for termite management. Despite deep neural network technologies' promising performance in pest recognition, a method for automatic termite recognition remains lacking. To develop an automated deep learning classifier for termite image recognition suitable for mobile applications, we used smartphones to acquire 18,000 original images each of four termite pest species: Kalotermitidae: Cryptotermes domesticus (Haviland); Rhinotermitidae: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes flaviceps (Oshima); and Termitidae: Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki). Each original image included multiple individuals, and we applied five image segmentation techniques for capturing individual termites. We used 24,000 individual-termite images (4 species × 2 castes × 3 groups × 1,000 images) for model development and testing. We implemented a termite classification system by using a deep learning-based model, MobileNetV2. Our models achieved high accuracy scores of 0.947, 0.946, and 0.929 for identifying soldiers, workers, and both castes, respectively, which is not significantly different from human expert performance. We further applied image augmentation techniques, including geometrical transformations and intensity transformations, to individual-termite images. The results revealed that the same classification accuracy can be achieved by using 1,000 augmented images derived from only 200 individual-termite images, thus facilitating further model development on the basis of many fewer original images. Our image-based identification system can enable the selection of termite control tools for pest management professionals or homeowners.

20.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the work status of clinicians in China and their management strategy alteration for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A nationwide online questionnaire survey was conducted in 42 class-A tertiary hospitals across China. Experienced clinicians of HCC-related specialties responded with their work status and management suggestions for HCC patients during the pandemic. RESULTS: 716 doctors responded effectively with a response rate of 60.1%, and 664 were included in the final analysis. Overall, 51.4% (341/664) of clinicians reported more than a 60% reduction of the regular workload and surgeons declared the highest proportion of workload reduction. 92.5% (614/664) of the respondents have been using online medical consultation to substitute for the "face-to-face" visits. Adaptive adjustment for the treatment strategy for HCC was made, including the recommendations of noninvasive and minimally invasive treatments such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for early and intermediate stage. Targeted therapy has been the mainstay for advanced stage and also as a bridge therapy for resectable HCC. DISCUSSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, online medical consultation is recommended to avoid social contact. Targeted therapy as a bridge therapy is recommended for resectable HCC considering the possibility of delayed surgery.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...