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1.
Nanotechnology ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476749

RESUMO

WO3 is a typical photoanode material for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. However, the PEC activity of WO3 photoanode is limited by its poor visible light absorption as well as severe carrier recombination at electrode/electrolyte interface. Herein, we integrate small-band-gap CdIn2S4 nanoplates with hydrothermally-grown WO3 nanowall arrays to form into a three-dimensional (3D) WO3/CdIn2S4 heterojunction through a chemical bath deposition (CBD) process. The synthesis parameters of CdIn2S4, including reaction time and temperature, have been tuned to optimize the PEC performance. The WO3/CdIn2S4 composite photoanode prepared at 50 °C for 5 h exhibits the highest photocurrent of 1.06 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) without the presence of holes scavenger, which is about 5.9 times higher than that of bare WO3 photoanode. The band alignment between WO3 and CdIn2S4 is confirmed by the ultraviolet-visible light absorption spectra and ultraviolet photoelectron spectra. The PEC performance enhancement is attributed to the enhanced light absorption benefiting from the small band-gap of CdIn2S4 and efficient charge separation originating from the type II alignment between WO3 and CdIn2S4.

2.
Transplant Proc ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine could, through homocysteine oxidation, induce the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, leading to a reduction in glutathione-related antioxidants, and may impair graft functions in patients with renal transplants. The purpose of this study was to determine whether plasma homocysteine, glutathione, or its related antioxidants were related to graft functions in patients with renal transplants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 66 patients (mean age 48.4 years) with renal transplants (mean transplant duration 8.3 years). Patients were divided into 2 groups, based on their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): the moderate graft function group (eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, n = 37) and low graft function group (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, n = 29). We then determined their fasting levels of the following: malondialdehyde (MDA), homocysteine, cysteine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSH ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. RESULTS: We found in the low graft function group significantly higher levels of plasma homocysteine, cysteine, GSH, and GSH/GSSG ratios. But an intergroup difference was not found regarding levels of MDA, PLP, GSSG, and GSH-Px activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, the increased plasma homocysteine and GSH levels were independently associated with lower eGFR. No interaction existed between homocysteine and GSH levels in association with eGFR. CONCLUSION: Increased plasma homocysteine and GSH levels appeared to be independent indicators of decreased graft functions in patients with renal transplants.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478325

RESUMO

Plating battery electrodes typically deliver higher specific capacity values than insertion or conversion electrodes because the ion charge carriers represent the sole electrode active mass, and a host electrode is unnecessary. However, unlike metals, reversible plating electrodes are rare for electronically insulating nonmetals. Here, we present a highly reversible iodine plating cathode that operates on the redox couples of I 2 /[ZnI x (OH 2 ) 4-x ] 2-x in a "water-in-salt" electrolyte. The iodine plating cathode with the theoretical capacity of 211 mAh·g -1 plates on carbon fiber paper as the current collector, delivering a large areal capacity of 4 mAh·cm -2 . Tunable femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy coupled with density functional theory calculations elucidate a series of [ZnI x (OH 2 ) 4-x ] 2-x superhalide ions serving as iodide vehicles in the electrolyte, which eliminates most free iodide ions, thus preventing the consequent dissolution of the cathode-plated iodine as triiodides.

4.
Ultrasound Q ; 35(3): 301-307, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479072

RESUMO

Some localized or multisystem diseases as well as congenital anomalies occasionally involve thyroid and unusual findings will be identified during thyroid ultrasonography. Recognition of these entities will minimize unnecessary complementary examination and lead to appropriate management for patients. Therefore, we aim to review sonographic features of these extrathyroidal diseases that affect thyroid in adults. Our review derives from cases diagnosed in our hospital and published literature, with pictures accessible using as illustration. These disorders included intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma, intrathyroidal cystic findings of nonthyroid origin, metastases to the thyroid, esophageal diverticulum, paratracheal air cysts, and ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament.

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 112019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479417

RESUMO

Backgroud: Bladder cancer (BLCA) is one of the most fatal types of cancer worldwide. However, there are limited methods for us to provide a prognostic prediction of BLCA patients. Therefore, we aimed at developing a lncRNA signature to improve the prognosis prediction of BLCA. RESULTS: An eight-lncRNA signature was significantly associated with recurrence free survival in BLCA patients from both discovery and validation groups. Furthermore, genes involved in the signature were enriched in extracellular matrix organization pathway. Finally, functional experiments demonstrated that six out of the eight lncRNAs significantly regulated the invasion of BLCA cells. METHOD: A total of 343 BLCA patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were employed and randomly divided into training (n=172) and validating (n=171) groups. The lncRNA expression profiles of BLCA patients were screened and a risk-score formula were created and validated according to the Cox regression analysis. Next, WGCNA method was employed to cluster genes that highly correlated with the risk scores based on the profiling data of TCGA dataset and transwell assay was also performed to further investigate the role of these lncRNAs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that the eight-lncRNA signature was a candidate prognostic biomarker for predicting tumor recurrence of patients with BLCA.

6.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 146(2): EL111, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472552

RESUMO

This letter presents a model for mapping sea surface observations to the spectra of underwater ambient noise through the self-organizing map method (SOM). The data used to train and test the proposed model include observations of wind speed, atmospheric pressure, and significant wave height from public databases, as well as observations of ambient noise from two deep-water experiments. SOM extracts nonlinear relations from the data and is more suitable for the study of nonlinear dynamics in the ocean than conventional methods. Results indicate the proposed model is reliable with coefficients of determination above 0.9 and root-mean-square errors below 1 dB.

7.
Plant Physiol ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488573

RESUMO

Chloroplast size varies considerably in nature, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. By exploiting a near-isogenic line population derived from a cross between the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions Cape Verde Islands (Cvi-1), which has larger chloroplasts, and Landsberg erecta (Ler-0) with smaller chloroplasts, we determined that the large-chloroplast phenotype in Cvi-1 is associated with allelic variation in the gene encoding the chloroplast-division protein FtsZ2-2, a tubulin-related cytoskeletal component of the contractile FtsZ ring inside chloroplasts. Sequencing revealed that the Cvi-1 FtsZ2-2 allele encodes a C-terminally truncated protein lacking a region required for FtsZ2-2 interaction with inner envelope proteins, and functional complementation experiments in a Columbia-0 ftsZ2-2 null mutant confirmed this allele as causal for the increased chloroplast size in Cvi-1. Comparison of FtsZ2-2 coding sequences in the 1001 Genomes database showed that the Cvi-1 allele is rare and identified additional rare loss-of-function alleles, including a natural null allele, in three other accessions, all of which had enlarged-chloroplast phenotypes. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions was higher among the FtsZ2-2 genes than among the two other FtsZ family members in Arabidopsis, FtsZ2-1, a close paralog of FtsZ2-2, and the functionally distinct FtsZ1-1, indicating more relaxed constraint on the FtsZ2-2 than FtsZ2-1 or FtsZ1-1 coding sequences. Our results establish that allelic variation in FtsZ2-2 contributes to natural variation in chloroplast size in Arabidopsis and also demonstrate that natural variation in Arabidopsis can be used to decipher the genetic basis of differences in fundamental cell biological traits, such as organelle size.

8.
Endocrine ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489590

RESUMO

PURPOSES: Parathyroid cancer (PC) is rare, but fatal condition. Preoperative prediction of PC remains challenging but meaningful. The aim of this study was to determine an effective model to predict PC in patients with parathyroid lesions >1.5 cm. METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, we enrolled 30 patients with PC matched to 60 patients with parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia by admission year. All patients were diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and had parathyroid lesions >1.5 cm. Ultrasonic features of the two patient groups, as well as demographic, clinical, and biochemical characteristics were retrospectively compared. Best subset selection and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify the independent risk factors of PC. ROC curve and decision curve analysis were developed to evaluate the applicability of the new model. RESULTS: The best subset selection method and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ultrasonic features of DR (two diameters' ratio of the lesion) and tumor infiltration in conjunction with intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level (collective model) were independent predictors of malignancy. Meanwhile, DR, shape, and tumor infiltration (ultrasound model) were found to be risk factors when only ultrasonic features were included in the multivariate analysis. The decision curve analysis showed that collective model outperforms ultrasound model with a better net benefit and a wider range of threshold probabilities. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonic features in combination with iPTH level may be an applicable model for predicting PC and has a better potential to facilitate decision-making preoperatively.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505929

RESUMO

Jasmonates (JAs) play an important role in plant developmental processes and regulate the biosynthesis of various specialized metabolites and transcription factors are crucial in mediating jasmonate signaling to regulate these processes. Capsaicinoids (Caps) are intriguing specialized metabolites produced uniquely by Capsicum species that give their fruits a pungent flavor to defend against herbivory and pathogens. In this study, we identify a R2R3-MYB transcription factor CaMYB108 and demonstrate its roles in regulating the biosynthesis of Caps and stamen development. Transcriptional analysis indicated that CaMYB108 was preferentially expressed in the flower and fruit, while the subcellular localization of CaMYB108 was shown to be the nucleus. Virus-inducing gene silencing (VIGS) of CaMYB108 led to the expression of capsaicinoid-biosynthetic genes (CBGs) and the contents of Caps dramatically reduce. Moreover, the CaMYB108-silenced plants showed delayed anther dehiscence and reduced pollen viability. Transient overexpression of CaMYB108 caused the expression of CBGs to be upregulated, and the Caps content significantly increased. The results of dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that CaMYB108 targeted CBG promoters. In addition, the expression of CaMYB108 and CBGs was inducible by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and was consistent with the increased content of Caps. Overall, our results indicate CaMYB108 is involved in the regulation of Caps biosynthesis and stamen development. Moreover, the results provide a new perspective on the function of CaMYB108 and the convergent and divergent functional evolution of MYB108 among different species.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507037

RESUMO

Waterproof metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) may take up the challenges of demands for practical applications in industry fields. In this work, we demonstrate an unprecedented synthetic mechanism to tune hydrophilic UiO-67 MOF into hydrophobic UiO-67-Rs (Rs = ethyl, n-butyl, n-hexyl or n-octyl) by introducing alkyl-chains into organic-linkers, which are firstly discovered not only to protect hydrophilic Zr6O8-clusters to endow MOF interspace with superoleophilicity, but also to modulate the crystal morphology with rough-surface beneficial to superhydrophobicity. The resulting UiO-67-Rs display high acid, base and water stability, and offer better hydrophobicity by longer alkyl-chains. The good hydrophobicity/oleophilicity are also achievable from the mixed-ligand MOFs, UiO-67-Oct-L¹-X% and UiO-67-Oct-L²-X% (L¹ = 1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, L² = 2,3'-bipyridine-5,6'-dicarboxylic acid, X% = L¹ or L² percentage), by partially introducing octyl-substituted ligands. Therefore, (super)hydrophobic MOF catalyst UiO-67-Oct-L²-X%-Pd(II) could be prepared by loading Pd-centers, which are able to catalyse Sonogashira reaction in water-medium at ambient temperature, giving excellent catalytic efficiency and reusability. The original hydrophobic effect of coordination interspace and outer-surface of superhydrophobic MOFs has been studied, and further evaluate by removal of toluene from water and oil/water separation. These results hint for a simple de novo synthetic strategy for coordination supramolecular engineering of superhydrophobic MOFs simultaneously combining surface-roughness and low-surface-energy factors, providing promising application prospect for eco-friendly catalysis in mild conditions and water pollutants purification.

11.
Appl Opt ; 58(20): 5366-5374, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504004

RESUMO

Two or more focal planes are required in augmented reality head-up displays (AR HUDs) to respectively present basic and interactive driving information to car drivers; whereas, solutions using two separated picture generation units (PGUs) with two sets of optics incur increased cost, reduced reliability, and expanded volume. To develop an AR HUD using a single PGU and a single curved mirror, we propose to set two logically separated regions on a single PGU and optically relay one of them to a new position to create two focal planes. A single freeform mirror acquired through careful optical and mechanical design optimization produces high image quality in an eyebox of 120 mm by 60 mm, simultaneously for a far image (9 m, 10° by 3°) and a near image (2.5 m, 6° by 2°). Finally, an AR HUD product with a compact volume of 8.5 L is fabricated to experimentally verify the design.

12.
Opt Express ; 27(16): 22737-22752, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510560

RESUMO

Characterization of the displacement response is critical for accurate chromatic confocal measurement. Current characterization methods usually provide a linear or polynomial relationship between the extracted peak wavelengths of the spectral signal and displacement. However, these methods are susceptible to errors in the peak extraction algorithms and errors in the selected model. In this paper, we propose a hybrid radial basis function network method to characterise the displacement response. With this method, the peak wavelength of the spectral signal is firstly extracted with a state-of-art peak extraction algorithm, following which, a higher-accuracy chromatic dispersion model is applied to determine the displacement-wavelength relationship. Lastly, a radial basis function network is optimized to provide a mapping between the spectral signals and the residual fitting errors of the chromatic dispersion model. Using experimental tests, we show that the hybrid radial basis function network method significantly improves the measurement accuracy, when compared to the existing characterizing methods.

13.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 1539-1548, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371939

RESUMO

Background: This study aims to compare the effects of single inhaler triple therapy comprised of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), long-acting ß2-agonists (LABAs), and long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) with dual therapies comprised of either LABA/LAMA, ICS/LABA or separate ICS/LABA plus LAMA triple therapy. Methods: The Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched up to October 31st 2018. Only randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. The primary outcome was the rate of moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. Results: Seven studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the meta-analysis. Single inhaler triple therapy was associated with a significantly lower risk of COPD exacerbation compared with LABA/LAMA (rate ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55 to 0.87, I2 =85%), and ICS/LABA (rate ratio, 0.81; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.89, I2 =29%) dual therapy. Single inhaler triple therapy led to a more significant improvement in lung function and quality of life compared with LABA/LAMA and ICS/LABA dual therapy. Single inhaler triple therapy was associated with a higher risk of pneumonia compared with LABA/LAMA (risk ratio, 1.38, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.67, I2 =0) dual therapy. Conclusions: The use of single inhaler triple therapy for COPD patients can result in lower rates of moderate or severe exacerbations of COPD as well as improved lung function and quality of life compared with dual therapy with LABA/LAMA or ICS/LABA.

14.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(8): 1303-1309, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366866

RESUMO

Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the articular cartilage is a major risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). To determine the mechanistic basis of AGE action in OA, we treated human articular chondrocytes with AGEs, and found that they not only up-regulated the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but also inhibited AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and decreased sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1) levels in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist restored the inhibited AMPK and SIRT-1 by AGEs. Pre-treatment of the cells with the agonists or antagonists of AMPK and SIRT-1 respectively abolished and augmented the inflammatory state induced by AGEs. Furthermore, AMPK agonist also restored the levels of SIRT-1 in the AGE-stimulated chondrocytes. Our findings indicate AGEs induce an inflammatory response in human articular chondrocytes via the PPARγ/AMPK/SIRT-1 pathway, which is therefore a potential target in OA therapy.

15.
Endocrine ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368083

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although well-documented from pathological aspect, the clinical features and outcomes of acromegaly with mammosomatotroph (MSA) and mixed somatotroph-lactotroph adenoma (MSLA) are seldom reported. Thus, in this study, we analyzed and reported the clinical data about MSAs and MSLAs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with acromegaly in our institution during 2008-2017. Growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas were categorized into pure somatotroph adenoma (PSA), MSA and MSLA based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Clinical information and treatment outcomes during follow-up were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. RESULTS: Among 94 patients within this cohort, PSAs, MSAs, and MSLAs accounted for 53, 28 and 13 cases, respectively. MSAs often had smaller size, lower frequency of cavernous sinus invasion and higher gross total resection (GTR) rate. MSLAs were characterized by bigger tumor size, higher frequency of preoperative hyperprolactinemia, and lower GTR rate. Thus, MSLAs had worse long-term biological remission rate than MSAs and PSAs (15.4% vs. 50.0% and 26.4%, p = 0.0371). Gender (male, OR = 0.784, p = 0.011) and tumor volume (OR = 0.784, p = 0.020) were independent predictors for long-term biological remission in binary logistic regression. Subgroup analyses indicated that postoperative nadir GH level (GH-7, HR = 1.242, p = 0.001) was the only risk factor for tumor recurrence for patients with GTR. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide valuable insights into clinicopathological features of acromegaly. MSAs were relatively smaller lesions with better prognosis. MSLAs were more aggressive with massive size, invasiveness and preoperative hyperprolactinemia. Tumor size and GH-7 were significantly associated with biological remission and tumor relapse after GTR, respectively.

16.
Breastfeed Med ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368783

RESUMO

Background: With births generated with assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) increasingly, the effect of ARTs on infant feeding behaviors is an essential topic to explore. However, limited literature focused on this topic. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of ARTs on infant feeding behaviors. Materials and Methods: Participants, including 41 mothers who conceived with ARTs and 935 conceived spontaneously, were drawn from a prospective birth cohort between January 2015 and December 2015. The participants were followed up at 1, 3, 6, 8, and 12 months postpartum at their residences through a face-to-face interview. Feeding behaviors, including breastfeeding initiation, partial/exclusive breastfeeding duration and formula introduction were assessed using World Health Organization-recommended definitions. Cox and logistic regression models were applied to examine the association of assisted conception with feeding behaviors. Results: Breastfeeding initiation rates were comparable between women who conceived with and without ARTs (70.7% versus 76.0%). Breastfeeding duration and formula introduction were significantly shorter and earlier in assisted conceptions in univariate analyses at 6 months postpartum [crude hazard ratios (HRs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 2.02 (1.03-3.84), and 1.63 (1.09-2.44)]. However, after controlling for covariates, assisted conception was only associated with shorter breastfeeding duration at 6 months postpartum [adjusted HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.05-3.80], no significant differences were found in infant feeding outcomes at 12 months postpartum among women with ART conception versus general conception. Mothers who conceived through ARTs with cesarean deliveries were at the highest risks of shorter breastfeeding duration and earlier formula introduction than mothers who conceived spontaneously with vaginal deliveries. Conclusions: Mothers who conceive through ARTs are associated with shorter breastfeeding durations for the first 6 months, compare to mothers who conceive spontaneously. Furthermore, cesarean delivery has a joint effect with the treatment of ARTs on promoting the development of poor feeding behaviors.

17.
Mikrochim Acta ; 186(9): 626, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418087

RESUMO

The published version of this article, unfortunately, contains error. The author found out that the given name interchanged with the family name. The second author's family name should be "Yu" and the first name should be "Tao". Given in this article is the correct author name.

18.
Sci Adv ; 5(8): eaav9771, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448327

RESUMO

A phase transition between topologically distinct insulating phases involves closing and reopening the bandgap. Near the topological phase transition, the bulk energy spectrum is characterized by a massive Dirac dispersion, where the bandgap plays the role of mass. We report measurements of strain dependence of electrical transport properties of ZrTe5, which is known to host massive Dirac fermions in the bulk due to its proximity to a topological phase transition. We observe that the resistivity exhibits a pronounced minimum at a critical strain. We further find that the positive longitudinal magnetoconductance becomes maximal at the critical strain. This nonmonotonic strain dependence is consistent with the switching of sign of the Dirac mass and, hence, a strain-tuned topological phase transition in ZrTe5.

19.
Am J Sports Med ; : 363546519869241, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapies have emerged as a promising strategy for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. In particular, infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP)-derived MSCs have become a good option to treat knee OA. PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of the local microenvironment of the knee joint, especially OA cartilage, on the bioactivities of injected/implanted IPFP MSCs. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Conditioned medium (CM) derived from OA cartilage fragments was collected and characterized. Donor-matched IPFP MSCs were treated with control medium (Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM)/F-12 or chondrogenic medium), control medium + CM, or CM alone; and a series of behaviors including the viability, migration, chondrogenic and hypertrophic differentiation, and catabolic activity of IPFP MSCs were evaluated among groups. RESULTS: There were 14 cytokines detected in CM. CM treatment improved the viability of IPFP MSCs. CM hindered the migration of IPFP MSCs. In chondrogenic differentiation, the presence of CM increased the expression of chondrogenic markers but also enhanced the state of hypertrophy and catabolism. CONCLUSION: OA cartilage-secreted factors could induce chondrogenic differentiation but also resulted in negative effects including the weakened migration, increased hypertrophy, and catabolism of IPFP MSCs in vitro. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These findings provide an insight on the fate of IPFP MSCs after intra-articular injections.

20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(16): 6273-6285, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In our previous study, kindlin-2 promoted skin wound healing and decreased the permeability of neovascularization during angiogenesis. Herein, we explored the biological function and underlying mechanism of kindlin-2 in cutaneous melanoma. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through a series of in vitro assays, we found that high levels of kindlin-2 promoted migration and invasion of melanoma cells without influencing cell proliferation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analyses showed that upregulated kindlin-2 promoted the cellular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Importantly, we found that melanoma cells overexpressing kindlin-2 promoted angiogenesis and VEGFA secretion in vitro and facilitated tumour growth and lung metastasis in vivo. To unveil the underlying mechanism, we conducted Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and differential expression analyses. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were primarily enriched in the TGF-ß, mTOR and VEGF signalling pathways. Then, we confirmed that the mTOR/VEGFA pathway was activated during the process of kindlin-2-induced melanoma progression and angiogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrated that kindlin-2 was significantly overexpressed in clinical melanoma samples and that a high level of kindlin-2 predicted a poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings showed that kindlin-2 promotes angiogenesis and tumour progression via the mTOR/VEGFA pathway.

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