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1.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 22(1): 62-68, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321987

RESUMO

A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different rootstocks on the cadmium (Cd) accumulation characteristics of the post-grafting generations of Cd-hyperaccumulator Galinsoga parviflora plants. Five treatments, ungrafted and G. parviflora seedlings grafted on the rootstocks of Kalimeris indica, Senecio scandens, Conyza canadensis, and Artemisia sieversiana, were utilized. The four rootstock grafts decreased the shoot biomass of the G. parviflora post-grafting generation compared with ungrafted. The K. indica and S. scandens grafts increased the Cd concentration in shoots of the G. parviflora post-grafting generation by 15.06% and 14.40%, respectively, compared with ungrafted, while the C. canadensis and A. sieversiana grafts had no significant effects. K. indica grafts increased the amount of Cd extracted by shoots of the G. parviflora post-grafting generation by 10.59% compared with ungrafted, while the other treatments resulted in decreases. Compared with ungrafted, the different rootstocks had no significant effects on the photosynthetic pigment content of the G. parviflora post-grafting generation, and only C. canadensis grafts increased the superoxide dismutase activity level, while only K. indica grafts increased the peroxidase activity level. Therefore, the K. indica rootstock could increase the phytoremediation capability of G. parviflora post-grafted plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil.

2.
Asian J Androl ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793442

RESUMO

We retrospectively reviewed data for 286 patients with varicocele who underwent microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy from March 2015 to May 2017 in Shanghai General Hospital (Shanghai, China). In this surgical approach, the testis was delivered, and the gubernacular and external cremasteric veins were stripped. In addition, the spermatic cord was delivered downward with continuous double traction away from the external ring. The remaining procedure was similar to the conventional approach. We followed patients for at least 3 months and evaluated postoperative semen parameters, pain symptoms, and complications. We excluded data for 32 men due to inadequate follow-up (<3 months). Of the remaining 254 patients, 73 had oligoasthenospermia, 121 had nonobstructive azoospermia, and 60 had symptomatic varicoceles. Total progressive sperm counts increased in the oligoasthenospermic patients from a median preoperative value of 9.15 × 106 ml-1 to 25.33 × 106 ml-1 (n= 34), and 35.6% (26/73) initially oligoasthenospermic men contributed to unassisted pregnancies. Sperm returned to the ejaculate in 12.4% (15/121) azoospermia patients. In patients with scrotal pain (n = 60), 43 (71.7%) reported complete resolution of pain, 16 (26.7%) reported partial resolution, and 1 (1.7%) reported no change. No patients experienced varicocele recurrence. This double-traction strategy avoids opening the external oblique aponeurosis, and results in less damage and faster recovery. In addition, the stripping strategy eliminates potential damage to the testis caused by the varicose veins. Our results showed that microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy using spermatic cord double traction in conjunction with testicular delivery for vein stripping is a safe and effective approach for varicocele repair.

3.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(12): 1489-1497, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786989

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the outcome of total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) undertaken for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with TEA performed for post-traumatic conditions with regard to implant failure, functional outcome, and perioperative complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We completed a comprehensive literature search on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nine cohort studies investigated the outcome of TEA between RA and post-traumatic conditions. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)) guidelines and Newcastle-Ottawa scale were applied to assess the quality of the included studies. We assessed three major outcome domains: implant failures (including aseptic loosening, septic loosening, bushing wear, axle failure, component disassembly, or component fracture); functional outcomes (including arc of range of movement, Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire), and perioperative complications (including deep infection, intraoperative fracture, postoperative fracture, and ulnar neuropathy). RESULTS: This study included a total of 679 TEAs for RA (n = 482) or post-traumatic conditions (n = 197). After exclusion, all of the TEAs included in this meta-analysis were cemented with linked components. Our analysis demonstrated that the RA group was associated with a higher risk of septic loosening after TEA (odds ratio (OR) 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11 to 14.12), while there was an increased risk of bushing wear, axle failure, component disassembly, or component fracture in the post-traumatic group (OR 4.72, 95% CI 2.37 to 9.35). A higher MEPS (standardized mean difference 0.634, 95% CI 0.379 to 0.890) was found in the RA group. There were no significant differences in arc of range of movement, DASH questionnaire, and risk of aseptic loosening, deep infection, perioperative fracture, or ulnar neuropathy. CONCLUSION: The aetiology of TEA surgery appears to have an impact on the outcome in terms of specific modes of implant failures. RA patients might have a better functional outcome after TEA surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1489-1497.

4.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: We examined the prevalence of probable common mental disorders (CMDs) in commercial low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening consumers relative to the general population and to determine the correlates of probable CMDs among screening participants. METHODS: Commercial LDCT lung cancer screening consumers (N = 1323) were compared with a nationally representative sample from the Taiwan Social Change Survey (TSCS) (N = 2034). Respondents scoring ≥3 on the Chinese Health Questionnaire were classified as having a probable CMD. Logistic regression was used to investigate differences between the two groups and correlates of probable CMDs among LDCT lung cancer screening participants. RESULTS: The prevalence of probable CMDs was higher among LDCT lung cancer screening participants (25.47%) than among TSCS adults (21.56%). Compared with the TSCS sample, the screening participants had a higher probability of CMDs (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.13-1.73), higher education levels (OR = 7.95, 95% CI = 6.00-10.53), and a history of drinking (OR = 11.85, 95% CI = 9.45-14.85) or betel-quid use (OR = 5.43, 95% CI = 3.98-7.42) but were less likely to smoke (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.40-0.68). Among the screening participants, being female (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.02-1.84) and a current smoker (OR = 1.74, 1.19-2.54) and living near ≥2 smoking family members (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.57-3.38) were associated with an increased likelihood of having CMDs. CONCLUSION: Commercial LDCT lung cancer screening users may have a positive association with probable CMDs compared to the general population. Screening programs should consider including criteria and providing psychoeducation to improve the physical and mental outcomes of participants. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) do not require registration.

5.
PLoS Med ; 16(11): e1002941, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With governments' increasing efforts to curb opioid prescription use and limit dose below the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-recommended threshold of 90 morphine milligram equivalents per day, little is known about prescription opioid patterns preceding opioid use disorder (OUD) or overdose. This study aimed to determine prescribed opioid fills and dose trajectories in the year before an incident OUD or overdose diagnosis using a 2005-2016 commercial healthcare database. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This cross-sectional study identified individuals aged 18 to 64 years with incident OUD or overdose in the United States. We measured the prevalence of opioid prescription fills and trajectories of opioid morphine equivalent dose (MED) prescribed during the 12-month period before the diagnosis. Of 227,038 adults with incident OUD or overdose, 33.1% were aged 18 to 30 years, 52.9% were males, and 85.0% were metropolitan residents. Half (50.5%) of the patients had a diagnosis of chronic pain, 32.7% had depression, and 20.3% had anxiety. Overall, 79,747 (35.1%) patients filled no opioid prescription in the 12 months before OUD or overdose diagnosis, with the proportion significantly increasing between 2006 and 2016 (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.86; 95% CI 1.79-1.93; P < 0.001). Patients without (versus with) prescribed opioids tended to be younger males and metropolitan and Northeast US residents. Of 145,609 patients who filled opioid prescriptions, 5 distinct prescribed daily dose trajectories preceding diagnosis emerged: consistent low dose (<3 mg MED, 34.6%), consistent moderate dose (20 mg MED, 27.3%), consistent high dose (150 mg MED, 15.0%), escalating dose (from <3 to 20 mg MED, 13.7%), and de-escalating dose (from 20 to <3mg MED, 9.4%). Overall, over two-thirds of patients with OUD or overdose with prescription opioids were prescribed a mean daily dose below 90 mg MED before diagnosis. Major limitations include the limited generalizability of the study findings and lack of information on out-of-pocket drug spending, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status of participants, which prevents analyses addressing these characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that absence of opioid prescription fills in the year before incident OUD or overdose diagnosis was prevalent, and the majority of the patients received prescription opioid doses below the risk threshold of 90 mg MED. An increasing proportion of high-risk patients could be missed by current programs solely based on opioid prescribing and dispensing information in this new era of limited access to prescription opioids.

6.
J Microsc ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696930

RESUMO

White light interferometry (WLI) is an effective and widely-used technique for structured surface measurement. However, it requires multiframe interferograms with vertical scanning to realise large-scale measurement, which is time consuming and computationally intensive. This paper proposes a rapid surface measurement method to realise surface recovery with a single interferogram by white light interferometry. First, the feasibility to solve the wrapped phase of a single white-light interferogram by Hilbert transform is certified. Then, unwrapped phases against zero optical path difference position (OPD) are achieved by a zero optical path difference detection algorithm applied to unwrapping process, which provides efficient surface recovery. To ensure the accuracy of phase solution in the proposed method, the necessary number and width of the interference fringes in the interferogram are analysed and determined based on Hilbert transform and sampling analysis. Finally, measurement results of a standard step sample and a standard reticle template are presented, which prove the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. LAY DESCRIPTION: As an effective and widely-used technique for structured surface measurement, white light interferometry (WLI) has the major advantage to measure noncontinuous surfaces using the short coherence length of a wide bandwidth source. However, frequently vertical scanning is required to get series of white light interferograms at different axial positions for surface recovery by recovered algorithms. The vertical scanning process is complicated and time consuming. This paper proposes a fast and efficient method to realise rapid surface measurement using only a single-frame interferogram based on WLI. First, the feasibility of using only one single white light interferogram to solve wrapped phases by Hilbert transform (HT) is discussed. Next, unwrapping process and zero optical path difference(OPD) detection algorithms are combined to unwrap phases against zero OPD position, which makes the structured surface recovery much easier. After that, the feasible number and width of interference fringes are determined based on sampling analysis and HT to guarantee the reliability and accuracy of phase solution in the proposed method. Finally, the accuracy and efficiency of this method is verified by measurement experiments of a standard step sample and a standard reticle template.

7.
Biosci Rep ; 39(11)2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694052

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), more than 200 nt in length, are functional molecules found in various species. These lncRNAs play a vital role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and degeneration and are also involved in pathophysiological processes of cancer and neurodegenerative, autoimmune, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In recent years, emerging challenges for intervention studies on ischemic heart diseases have received much attention. LncRNAs have a key function in the alleviation of myocardial infarction (MI) injury and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. During cardiac hypertrophy (CH) and fibrosis, cardiac cells undergo structural changes and become dysfunctional due to the effects of neurohormonal factors. LncRNAs may serve as important therapeutic targets that promote cardiac remodeling and then retard the development of heart failure (HF). In addition, studies on the roles and mechanisms of action of lncRNAs participating in cardiac pathophysiology via other factors have become the focus of research worldwide. Here, we review the current knowledge on various lncRNAs and their functions in cardiac biology, particularly concentrating on ischemic heart disease, CH, and cardiac fibrosis. We next discuss the predictive value of lncRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers of CVDs.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224968, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to examine the effect of feeding patterns on growth and nutritional status of children aged 0~24 months. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study with an initial sample of 927 children. Considering the follow-up losses, 903, 897, 895, 897, 883, 827 and 750 children were followed up at 1, 3, 6, 8, 12, 18 and 24 months, respectively. Children were grouped according to exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration in the first 6 months: (1) never EBF; (2) EBF ≤ 3 months: EBF ≤ 3 months and stopped BF after 3 months or EBF ≤ 3 months and BF = 6 months or EBF ≤ 3 months and BF after 3 months, had formula and/or solids; (3) EBF for 3 ~ 6 months: BF < 3 months and EBF for 3 ~ 6 months or EBF for 3 ~ 6 months and BF < 3 months, had formula and/or solids; (4) EBF = 6 months. We used Z-scores to evaluate the growth and nutritional status of children, used the generalized estimation equation to compare the difference between feeding patterns. RESULTS: The generalized estimation equation results showed that Weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), Length-for-age Z-score (LAZ), and Weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) in different feeding patterns had statistical significance. The WAZ in EBF for 6 months group was higher in the first 8 months, in never EBF group was higher after 12 months old; the LAZ in EBF for 6 month group was lower than other groups; the WLZ in EBF for 6 months group was higher than EBF for 3 ~ 6 months group. The EBF ≤ 3 months group had higher underweight, stunting, and wasting rates. The EBF for 6 months had a higher stunting rate; the never EBF and EBF for 6 months groups had higher overweight and obesity rates. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, different feeding patterns affect growth and nutritional status in children, so proper guidelines should be implemented to improve nutritional status and promote the growth of children.

9.
Cell Prolif ; : e12732, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Temozolomide (TMZ) is one of the most commonly used clinical drugs for glioblastoma (GBM) treatment, but its drug sensitivity needs to be improved. Gamabufotalin (CS-6), the primary component of the traditional Chinese medicine "ChanSu," was shown to have strong anti-cancer activity. However, more efforts should be directed towards reducing its toxicity or effective treatment doses. METHODS: Target fishing experiment, Western blotting, PCR, confocal immunofluorescence and molecular cloning techniques were performed to search for possible downstream signalling pathways. In addition, GBM xenografts were used to further determine the potential molecular mechanisms of the synergistic effects of CS-6 and TMZ in vivo. RESULTS: Mechanistic research revealed a negative feedback loop between ATP1A3 and AQP4 through which CS-6 inhibited GBM growth and mediated the synergistic treatment effect of CS-6 and TMZ. In addition, by mutating potential amino acid residues of ATP1A3, which were predicted by modelling and docking to interact with CS-6, we demonstrated that abrogating hydrogen bonding of the amino acid Thr794 interferes with the activation of ATP1A3 by CS-6 and that the Thr794Ala mutation directly affects the synergistic treatment efficacy of CS-6 and TMZ. CONCLUSIONS: As the main potential target of CS-6, ATP1A3 activation critically depends on the hydrogen bonding of Thr794 with CS-6. The combination of CS-6 and TMZ could significantly reduce the therapeutic doses and promote the anti-cancer efficacy of CS-6/TMZ monotherapy.

10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734360

RESUMO

Herein, positively surface-charged silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) capped with trimethylchitosan nitrate (TMCN) were synthesized using an environmentally friendly method. Nano-sized TMCN-AgNPs (∼80 nm) with high zeta potential (>30 mV) provide sufficient static repulsion to stabilize colloid AgNPs in aqueous solutions without aggregation for more than 3 months. In in vitro cell cycle assays, TMCN-AgNPs showed low cytotoxicity towards L929 cells. A microdilution inhibition assay demonstrated the antifungal potential of TMCN-AgNPs, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.06 mM against Candida tropicalis ATCC 750, and 0.46 mM against both Candida albicans ATCC 76615 and Candida glabrata ATCC 15545. Moreover, the addition of TMCN-AgNPs at 0.23 mM significantly reduced biofilm formation in 96-well plates with C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Importantly, when zebrafish eggs were infected with Candida cells, 0.23 mM TMCN-AgNPs greatly diminished the amount of biofilm on eggs and rescued the survival of embryos by up to 70%.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is not much data on the effects of the timing of gestational weight gain (GWG), pre-pregnancy waist circumference (WC), pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and parity, with postpartum weight retention (PPWR) trajectories. METHODS: This study was based on a longitudinal cohort. Latent growth mixture models were applied to identify the latent trajectories of PPWR and test the effects of the predictors on distinct classes of PPWR trajectories. RESULTS: Three PPWR trajectories were identified. About 2.8% (n = 26) of women were classified into Class 1, with an inverted U-shape trajectory; 6.6% (n = 61) were assigned to Class 2, with a rapid increase trajectory; 90.6% (n = 837) were classified into Class 3, with a significant decrease. Women who had a lower pre-pregnancy BMI (ß = -0.279), higher pre-pregnancy WC (ß = 0.111) and GWG (ß = 0.723) were at a higher risk of retaining more weight at 1 month postpartum. Only GWG, especially GWG during late pregnancy, was associated with the rate of PPWR change. Parity was not associated with the changes in PPWR, while, compared to Class 1 trajectory, multiparous women were protected from having a Class 2 trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: Early targeted interventions should be taken to prevent women who were primiparous, and/or had a lower pre-pregnancy BMI and higher pre-pregnancy WC and GWG, from excessive PPWR.

12.
Langmuir ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721588

RESUMO

As an important subclass of MOFs, ZIF-8, built from 2-methylimidazole and Zn(NO3)2·6H2O, possesses excellent biocompatibility and high stability in aqueous solution. Recently, it has been found that ZIF-8 can efficiently adsorb DNA and quench the adsorbed fluorophores to a large extent. These properties make it possible to prepare DNA-based optical sensors using ZIF-8. Although practical analytical applications are being demonstrated, the basic understanding of the binding between ZIF-8 and DNA in solution has received relatively little attention. In this work, we report that the adsorption of 12-, 18-, 24-, and 36-mer single-stranded DNAs on ZIF-8 are affected by several factors. It is found from the outcomes that shorter DNAs are adsorbed more rapidly to the surface of ZIF-8. On the other hand, desorption of the probe DNA can be achieved using complementary strand DNA to restore the fluorescence value. Furthermore, the salt contributes to adsorption to some extent. These findings are important for further understanding of the interactions between DNA and ZIF-8 and for the optimization of DNA and MOF-based devices and sensors.

14.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 45(11): 1665-1669, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706519

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate semiautomated surgical lens extraction procedures using the optical coherence tomography (OCT)-integrated Intraocular Robotic Interventional Surgical System. SETTING: Stein Eye Institute and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Semiautomated lens extraction was performed on postmortem pig eyes using a robotic platform integrated with an OCT imaging system. Lens extraction was performed using a series of automated steps including robot-to-eye alignment, irrigation/aspiration (I/A) handpiece insertion, anatomic modeling, surgical path planning, and I/A handpiece navigation. Intraoperative surgical supervision and human intervention were enabled by real-time OCT image feedback to the surgeon via a graphical user interface. Manual preparation of the pig-eye models, including the corneal incision and capsulorhexis, was performed by a trained cataract surgeon before the semiautomated lens extraction procedures. A scoring system was used to assess surgical complications in a postoperative evaluation. RESULTS: Complete lens extraction was achieved in 25 of 30 eyes. In the remaining 5 eyes, small lens pieces (≤1.0 mm3) were detected near the lens equator, where transpupillary OCT could not image. No posterior capsule rupture or corneal leakage occurred. The mean surgical duration was 277 seconds ± 42 (SD). Based on a 3-point scale (0 = no damage), damage to the iris was 0.33 ± 0.20, damage to the cornea was 1.47 ± 0.20 (due to tissue dehydration), and stress at the incision was 0.97 ± 0.11. CONCLUSIONS: No posterior capsule rupture was reported. Complete lens removal was achieved in 25 trials without significant surgical complications. Refinements to the procedures are required before fully automated lens extraction can be realized.

15.
Cancer Lett ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765736

RESUMO

Emerging evidences show that dysregulation of circadian genes is closely associated with tumorigenesis. However, whether circadian genes regulate the reprogramming of metabolism in tumor cells is largely unknown. Here, we showed that NPAS2, one of the core circadian molecules, significantly contributed to the reprogramming of glucose metabolism mainly through two mechanisms. On the one hand, NPAS2 upregulated the expression of glycolytic genes GLUT1, HK2, GPI, ALDOA, ENO2, PKM2 and MCT4. On the other hand, NPAS2 downregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α). Mechanistically, HIF-1α was found to be a direct transcriptional target of NPAS2, which mediated both the upregulation of glycolytic genes and downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in HCC cells. In addition, we found that upregulation of NPAS2 expression was mainly due to the downregulation of miR-199b-5p. In vitro and in vivo assays further indicated that HIF-1α-mediated reprogramming of glucose metabolism played a critical role in NPAS2-regulated growth and metastasis of HCC cells. Our findings demonstrate that NPAS2 plays a critical role in glucose metabolism reprogramming, suggesting that NPAS2 may serve as a potential therapeutic target in HCC.

16.
J Chem Phys ; 151(20): 200901, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779327

RESUMO

The quest for capturing molecular movies of functional systems has motivated scientists and engineers for decades. A fundamental understanding of electronic and nuclear motions, two principal components of the molecular Schrödinger equation, has the potential to enable the de novo rational design for targeted functionalities of molecular machines. We discuss the development and application of a relatively new structural dynamics technique, femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy with broadly tunable laser pulses from the UV to near-IR region, in tracking the coupled electronic and vibrational motions of organic chromophores in solution and protein environments. Such light-sensitive moieties hold broad interest and significance in gaining fundamental knowledge about the intramolecular and intermolecular Hamiltonian and developing effective strategies to control macroscopic properties. Inspired by recent experimental and theoretical advances, we focus on the in situ characterization and spectroscopy-guided tuning of photoacidity, excited state proton transfer pathways, emission color, and internal conversion via a conical intersection.

17.
Food Funct ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782452

RESUMO

Triterpenoid saponins from Kuding tea have demonstrated preventive effects on hyperlipidaemia induced by a high-fat diet. Lysoglycerophospholipids (Lyso-GPLs) are known to be associated with proatherogenic conditions such as hyperlipidaemia. In this study, a target profiling strategy based on a multiple reaction monitoring mode was applied for the analysis of Lyso-GPLs. The metabolic changes were evaluated by the qualitative and relative quantitative distribution of six classes of Lyso-GPLs in mouse serum. A total of 153 Lyso-GPL regioisomers, consisting of 85 lysophosphatidylcholines, 15 lysophosphatidic acids, 23 lysophosphatidylethanolamines, 5 lysophosphatidylserines, 19 lysophosphatidylinositols and 6 lysophosphatidylglycerols, were detected and quantified. The results showed decreased trends in the content of total Lyso-GPLs in the serum of hyperlipidemic mice compared with that in normal controls. The content of total Lyso-GPLs significantly increased after treatment with triterpenoid saponins from Kuding tea. Among them, the proportions of most Lyso-GPLs with a higher degree of unsaturation or a longer carbon chain in fatty acyl chains dramatically decreased in hyperlipidemic mice. However, this tendency reversed after the treatment of triterpenoid saponins from Kuding tea. This is the first study regarding a target profiling strategy for the quantitative analysis of six different types of Lyso-GPLs on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic mice intervened by Kuding tea. Those Lyso-GPLs changed significantly may be potential biomarkers for hyperlipidaemia, and involved in the mechanism of the preventive intervention of Kuding tea on Lipid metabolic diseases.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17447, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768013

RESUMO

Scytalidium auriculariicola is the causative pathogen of slippery scar disease in the cultivated cloud ear fungus, Auricularia polytricha. In the present study, the mitogenome of S. auriculariicola was sequenced and assembled by next-generation sequencing technology. The circular mitogenome is 96,857 bp long and contains 56 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 30 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs). The high frequency of A and T used in codons contributed to the high AT content (73.70%) of the S. auriculariicola mitogenome. Comparative analysis indicated that the base composition and the number of introns and protein-coding genes in the S. auriculariicola mitogenome varied from that of other Leotiomycetes mitogenomes, including a uniquely positive AT skew. Five distinct groups were found in the gene arrangements of Leotiomycetes. Phylogenetic analyses based on combined gene datasets (15 protein-coding genes) yielded well-supported (BPP = 1) topologies. A single-gene phylogenetic tree indicated that the nad4 gene may be useful as a molecular marker to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of Leotiomycetes species. This study is the first report on the mitochondrial genome of the genus Scytalidium, and it will contribute to our understanding of the population genetics and evolution of S. auriculariicola and related species.

19.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressant-related acceleration of fibrosis has been documents in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients who receive organ transplantation (Tx), sustained virological response (SVR) rates for these patients by pegylated interferon (IFN)-based therapy are generally poor and associated with unfavorable safety profiles. In addition IFN treatment varies by patient and poses a high risk of post-renal Tx graft rejection. This study was aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of all oral direct acting antivirals (DAAs) for CHC patients following organ Tx. METHODS: 32 organ Tx (liver: 17, kidney: 13, kidney then liver: 1, heart: 1) patients with CHC on an oral DAA (paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir and dasabuvir: 11, daclatasvir and asunaprevir: 4, sofosbuvir-based: 17) were enrolled in the study. DAAs regimen was based by genotype/subtype, patient characteristics, drug interaction profiles, and health insurance coverage. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 61.4±9.5 years, 50.0%, male, and 15.6% with cirrhosis. 14 (43.7%) experienced unsuccessful IFN treatment. Genotype distribution was as follows: 1a: 6, 1b: 17, 2: 7, 3: 1 and 6: 1. Mean time between Tx and DAAs therapy was 77.3±11.0 months. Baseline HCV RNA before DAAs was 6.20±0.19 log10 IU/mL. After DAAs, the distribution of week 2 HCV RNA was as follows: < 15 IU/mL (53.1%), 15 to 50 IU/mL (15.6%), 50 to 100 IU/mL (6.3%), and > 100 IU/mL (25.0%), respectively. The rates of undetectable HCV RNA (< 15 IU/mL) at week 4 and end-of-treatment were 93.8% and 100%. Subjective adverse events during therapy were generally mild, which no treatment terminations. After post-treatment follow-up, all 32 patients (100%) achieved SVR12. CONCLUSION: Highly responsive treatment and favorable tolerability were achieved by all oral DAAs in this difficult-to-treat patient population.

20.
J Virol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748385

RESUMO

The African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the deadly pathogen of African swine fever (ASF) that induces high mortality, approaching 100% in domestic pigs, causes enormous losses to the global pig industry and threatens food security. Currently, there is no effective treatment or preventive countermeasure. dUTPases (deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate pyrophosphatases) are ubiquitous enzymes that are essential for the hydrolysis of dUTP and prevent the misincorporation of dUTP into newly synthesized DNA. Here, we present the crystal structures of the ASFV dUTPase in complex with the product dUMP and cofactor Mg2+ at a resolution of 2.2 angstroms. We observed that a unique "turning point" at G125 plays an unexpected critical role in the swapping region of the C-terminal segment, which is further stabilized by the interactions of the last C-terminal ß strand with the ß1 and ß2 strands, thereby positioning the catalytic motif 5 into the active site of its own subunit instead of into a third subunit. Therefore, the ASFV dUTPase employs a novel two-subunit active site that is different than the classic trimeric dUTPase active site, which is composed of all three subunits. Meanwhile, further results confirmed that the configuration of motifs 1 to 5 has high structural homology with and a catalytic mechanism similar to that of the known trimeric dUTPases. In general, our study expands the information not only on the structural diversity of the conserved dUTPase family but also on the details needed to utilize this dUTPase as a novel target in the treatment of ASF.IMPORTANCE African swine fever virus, a large enveloped double-stranded DNA virus, causes a deadly infection in domestic pigs. In addition to Africa, Europe and South America, countries in Asia, such as China, Vietnam, and Mongolia, have suffered the hazards posed by ASFV outbreaks in recent years. Until now, there has been no vaccine for protection from ASFV infection or effective treatments to cure ASF. Here, we solved the crystal structure of the ASFV dUTPase-dUMP-Mg2+ complex. The ASFV dUTPase displays a noncanonical folding pattern that differs from that of the classic homotrimeric dUTPase, in which the active site is composed of two subunits. In addition, several non-conserved residues within the 3-fold axis channel play a vital role in ASFV dUTPase homotrimer stability. Our finding on these unique structural features of the ASFV dUTPase could be explored for the design of potential specific inhibitors that target this unique enzyme.

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